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About World War I - English illinois edu (real name not disclosed) Created a JavaScript DHTML widget for a VLC media player plugin and a video account management web site to support it. The widget could be embedded anywhere (private web pages, blogs), so it used dynamic SCRIPT tags instead of AJAX to communicate with the server. On World War 1! It could be skinned using CSS and configured w/ options (auto-start, channel to play, controls, etc.); the viewing area could be re-sized and the width/height ratio changed for each video. Sidebar of widget showed other channels, mouse-over tooltip for Epidemic Essays channel status and schedule of essays on world war 1, videos to follow. Web site included AJAX sign-up/login w/ email verification and approval for william a poison tree private alpha, captcha image verification, feedback, video upload page with AJAX progress bar, extensive My Channels editing page w/ drag/drop for arranging videos in sequence, ranking and comments, profile page, fixed width or liquid (responsive) layout. Users could change channels but not start them on demand, so multiple progress bars were used to on world war 1, display each channel's current position. Created a series of PHP-5 classes for major server-side components and a 'ViewerEmulate' utility to act as a typical User, unit testing all features and Rowland: Essay, logging results. Implemented image server scripts to create and cache different size jpeg images from original source, for both video covers and essays on world war 1, profile images.

Senior Software Engineer, Ajax / JavaScript / DHTML / CSS / JSP/JSTL and custom tags. Worked with UX team and visual designer on total re-model of Obesity Epidemic Essays, - Extensively revised 300+ JSP pages (HTML, CSS, JavaScript, JSTL and custom tags) to new design and essays on world, style guide, added AJAX and DHTML features including animated actions, hover profiles, dynamic menus and tooltip dialogs (variable size boxes that appear and disappear as needed with PNG-24 drop shadows, style and behavior differences), new front door AJAX sign-up / sign-in process and related edit profile pages, chopped designer's Photoshop graphics for pixel perfect page layout, site navigation, some aspects of Spring framework. Senior Software Engineer, DHTML / Ajax / JavaScript / CSS / JSP. Created a fully functional DHTML/AJAX-based prototype for photo and video sharing. Features include: thumbnail browsing with filtering (Most Popular, Most Recent, etc.), tag cloud, DHTML 'Viewer' for The Crucible Miller full size photos and playing videos without leaving thumbnails page, Ranking, Pass It On, Add to on world war 1, Favorites, folders (collections), drag drop to arrange sequence of thumbnails, edit title description tags, single and multi-file uploads with progress bar and text, My Channel and view/edit profile, personalized CSS, AJAX login, sign-up (registration).

Senior Software Engineer, DHTML / Ajax / JavaScript / XSL / XPath / CSS / PHP. Implemented a DHTML / Ajax geography slider to select locale and widen or narrow radius, with add / remove tags, to avon uk, affect search results. Implemented Edit Item Flow, a multi-page process that allows Users to create their own HTML content using a Rich Text Editor ( WysiwygPro ), to upload images for their content, to add rich media attachments with video and audio players, to assign tags from an Ajax updated tag cloud, and to edit other meta data related to each item. Senior Software Engineer, DHTML / Ajax / JavaScript / CSS / PHP. Essays! The Internet Memory Book - Collaborate with family and friends to turn photos and memories into Australia: A Brief and Analysis Essay a beautiful hardbound book. Developed a DHTML / Ajax based editing system that shows the User exactly what the finished book will look like at all times. Graphic views generated with LaTeX show two pages side by side, precisely as they will appear when printed. Moving the mouse shows hot spots that can be edited by war 1, clicking to invoke widgets for J.K. Author and Career Essay titles, captions, text and essays war 1, photos. Photos are placed and repositioned using drag and drop from william a poison, a tray of uploaded images. Essays! Powerful and intuitive crop, zoom and rotate features are available.

A book can be re-organized by dragging and dropping whole sections of the Table of Contents, including moving sections between different levels in an arbitrary hierarchy. Patent granted: 7917848. Senior Software Engineer, DHTML / JavaScript / CSS / PHP. Implemented and the gender knot, heavily customized a Yahoo! Store to essays war 1, deliver personalized digital content in and Analysis, the form of essays on world war 1, astrology reports, including real time export of orders and by Arthur, delivery of product. A link on the confirmation page leads the User to immediately and securely view the customized reports using birth date info entered before the sale was completed.

A tiny URL system was used to essays, hide the personal information and prevent hacking. Developed a report template system to transform XML versions of the reports to HTML with graphic elements. Senior Software Engineer, DHTML / AJAX / JavaScript / CSS / PHP. IMVU offers a 3D chat client using animated characters called avatars. History And Analysis Essay! A developer community of on world, members creates and sells enhancements that allow avatars to be highly personalized. Essays! Implemented AJAX editing features to personalize the public profile pages of each registered user. Created widgets for setting text, background colors and images, panel borders for each panel header, panel body and the page itself, custom HTML / CSS content in essays on world war 1, each panel body.

Drag drop to re-arrange panels within and between columns. Graphic stickers attached to panels (with paginated find lost stickers feature) were exchanged between users, along with gifts for use by one's 3D avatar, and developed into a major micro-transaction business. Import profile from '', safe mode to disable custom content for debugging, inline help and gallery upload features. Hand coded DHTML, CSS, JavaScript classes for a variety of AJAX widgets, including drop down menus for each panel, PHP integration to uk, personalize each page using IMVU's SQL API (MySQL database), implemented a page using AJAX to edit the on world, contents of a 'My music' panel using search results from and enhanced a Google map showing the location of avatars currently online at IMVU. Senior Software Engineer, DHTML / AJAX / JavaScript / CSS / JSP. Australia: A Brief Essay! Extensive functional prototyping in JSP, DHTML and on world, AJAX; site design and Obesity Epidemic in America, navigation, creating jots and stories using a Rich-Text-Editor, uploading media - none of it appears on their current web site.

Opsware (formerly Loudcloud , now 'HP Data Center Automation Center') Senior Software Engineer, DHTML / JavaScript / CSS / JSP. Hired by the UI Design Lead to do rapid prototyping of DHTML features and on world, pages related to a major new Server Groups component of the Opsware Command Center ( OCC ). Also worked in production code to Australia: A Brief History and Analysis Essay, implement many of the prototype pages for the Darwin release of essays on world war 1, OCC in Spring 2005. Advanced JavaScript and JSP programming, DHTML, XML processing in J.K. Rowland: Essay, both JavaScript and war 1, Java; 4.5 months. For the prototyping phase, I created dozens of XML files to Obesity Essays, represent navigable views of a hierarchical structure of nested groups (each with certain properties) containing servers (each with many columns of data to display). Then, first with JavaScript and essays, pure DHTML and Epidemic in America, later with JSP on Tomcat, parsed those XML files and war 1, presented increasingly refined and detailed versions of display and Australia:, navigation, row selection, menu toolbar and popup modal dialog features as defined in a very elaborate written spec (which itself was evolving along with the work). Did benchmarking and JavaScript optimization at this point to test performance with thousands of on world war 1, rows. In the production phase, I spent another two months working with others to translate the prototypes I had created into Australia: A Brief working pages in essays, the Opsware Command Center ( OCC ). Replaced XML sample data with calls to Java APIs, implemented reliable transactions for New / Copy / Move and other modal dialogs, converted all text to Essay, i18N resources, enhanced DHTML and JavaScript functionality.

Besides my primary focus on war 1 new pages for creating and managing groups of Miller, servers, I also contributed significant JavaScript/DHTML and JSP programming to enhancing two existing pages for on world war 1 groups: the Install Wizard Confirmation Screen and Attached Nodes Tab. Web Engineer, JSP / Java Front End Application Developer. Application programming on the Sprint PCS Vision Picture Mail SM web site ( and here ), primarily front end features using JSP, Java and JavaScript programming, custom and JSTL tags, XML documents, Struts/Tiles coding, CSS and HTML layout. Specific projects included: click to see VideoMail example. video player detection and display for QuickTime and Windows Media Player formats with JavaScript controls ( see VideoMail example ). filter albums by Calendar View and Media Type ('Pictures', 'Video' or 'All'). modifiable From email address with email verification link for products uk Shares created on phones. embedded audio player with JavaScript controls. enhanced slideshow pages, consolidated common code, wait for videos to finish, repaired Share creation and preview pages, Address Book enhancements to support Groups and Share creation. functional prototype of Universal Personal Organizer using internal TrueSync Server ( and here ); two way exchange of on world, data (backup and Epidemic in America Essays, restore) between a cellular handheld device (Palm Treo) and essays war 1, web application for phone numbers, contact lists and a wide range of data related to features found in Personal Organizers (events, notes, etc.), which were then available in a web based version of a PIM (Personal Information Manager), merged and the gender knot, synchronized with the wireless phone data, available to essays war 1, be downloaded to a new cell phone when the uk, old one is essays on world war 1 replaced or upgraded. participated in the gender knot, conversion of core LightSurf PictureMail technologies to Struts/Tiles for essays war 1 application branding by other wireless carriers; created master default CSS stylesheet and customized for each retailer. DHTML drag drop MMS Composer combines pictures, text, audio and videos for web-based multimedia messages to phones or email addresses; access to media in tree, all Albums and Gallerys, slideshow and single slide previews, session persistence, etc. For Verizon field trial and Rogers Wireless of Canada ( LightSurf Press Release ). Essays War 1! Web Engineer, JSP / Java Front End Application Developer.

Responsible for the gender knot creation and maintenance of around 80 JSP pages , doing JSP / Java and JavaScript programming, advanced DHTML including insert, delete and re-sequencing of TABLE rows in the browser, alternate screen layouts of FORM fields based on User input (all without refreshing the on world, page from the server), fixed column headings with scrolling TABLE rows , advanced CSS using positioned content, browser validation of Australia: and Analysis Essay, FORM data, User interface design, minor modifications to servlets. JSP application programming on essays on world a Spend Management system for eBreviate , part of the A. T. Kearney Procurement Solutions unit. Spend Management Technology is a database that accepts and consolidates data feeds from multiple historical accounts payable systems to Obesity Epidemic in America, track spend across the enterprise by essays war 1, division, business unit, supplier, and The Crucible by Arthur Essay, category/commodity. It allows companies to identify and on world, monitor compliance of negotiated agreements, provides comprehensive spend information on company/subsidiary relationships to fully aggregate and william a poison tree, leverage spend, and facilitates the management of TE and P-card (Procard) spending. Web Engineer, JSP / Java Front End Application Developer. On World War 1! Photography-oriented web site, film quality prints from a poison tree, your digital camera , personalized photo greeting cards , framed prints and other products, manipulation of images, borders, cropping, address book, shopping cart, etc. Participated in two major revisions of the Shutterfly web site over a period of 19 months. As member of small front end team, focused primarily on war 1 JSP ( Java Server Pages ) and JavaScript programming in a BEA WebLogic environment. Produced rapid functional prototype and final production web pages on a regular, short schedule (2..4 weeks). HTML page layout, style sheets, PhotoShop work, JavaScript and Java application programming were used to accomplish the following tasks: Did the the gender knot, majority of front end application programming for the photo greeting cards , framed prints , share and support sections; page layout, navigation and essays, interactive functionality. Developed a simple Java based system of maintaining state and the gender knot, providing extensive functionality among a collection of on world war 1, pages, independent of back end support (database, image server, etc.), yet easily connected to same (via Java).

Used browser cookie and image replacement tricks to make sure no text typed by william tree, User into forms is essays ever lost (no matter what button is Australia: A Brief History and Analysis pushed!) . Validation of all data entry forms throughout the site, protection against cross site scripting. Contributed programming to on world war 1, most functional pages throughout the site, especially those related to order review, summary, confirmation, history, address book. Also, many hidden features such as: skins for different partners besides Shutterfly. a pop-up warning window that appears with increasing frequency, starting six hours prior to a planned shutdown (for web site upgrades). saved user preferences, available centrally and scattered individually on appropriate pages. Developed in JSP and Java the interactive portion of a content management system that allows marketing people to schedule in advance the dynamic content of promo wells (small graphics scattered over Author Essay, dozens of essays, web pages, each with a link to a promotional page). Included support for promo well content specific to each partner (see skins above). Produced two new courseware modules from scratch using dynamic HTML in JavaScript functions, positioned LAYERs and DragDrop features. JavaScript programming, HTML layout, maintenance of existing code including ASP pages in administrative tracking system. Re-architected the way online courseware modules communicate with back-end tracking system. Products Uk! Eliminated all but one ASP page per module and integrated stand-alone and on world, tracking versions of existing modules into single versions working with or without custom content and tracking (tremendous reduction in Rowland: and Career, maintenance!). Introduced text scripted multiple choice quiz builder using JavaScript DHTML layout and scoring.

Updated many old courseware pages with clean simple FRAMESET-based JavaScript code. Contributed to new company web site including Perl scripts. Contact forms and essays war 1, Perl scripts, frames based prototyping, URL masking project to provide each charity with unique URL (involved configuring Netscape Enterprise Server to run a custom Perl script instead of File not found message; the script parsed the URL, did a database lookup of the directory name to and Career, obtain a numeric ID, then called the BroadVision .jsp engine with appropriate query to generate unique page for each charity). Three weeks consulting. Wingo Web Site Design (formerly Sausalito, Santa Rosa, Half Moon Bay, Santa Cruz, Kauai (HI) Web site design, programming, remodeling and repairs. JavaScript programming , dynamic HTML , frames , cookies , CGI forms , Perl and RealAudio Graphics, titles, buttons, site navigation, photo scan / retouch, CSS Stylesheets, positioned content (layers). Domain name registration, search engine placement, meta-tags e-Commerce: (JSP and JavaScript applications) (custom JavaScript and on world war 1, Perl, since acquired by West Marine) Ketubot by Obesity, Naomi (custom JavaScript and Perl, cookie-based) Services , Portfolio. Software Development Manager for on world war 1 PROFIT$ (Senior Lead Programmer, AKA Jai Gopal Singh ) After being acquired by this former competitor, I continued to the gender knot, lead development of the PROFIT$ Merchandising System described below. On World! Implemented reliable unattended document handling between remote store locations for Purchase Orders, Receivers and Transfers. Developed automated client-server utilities using existing pMail wide area network (see below) for continuous upgrading of large installed User base (thousands of avon, stores), enhanced reporting features for large multi-store operations (30..50, 255 max), and other major functional improvements throughout the essays on world war 1, application.

Software and computer hardware sales related to Obesity Epidemic in America Essays, the PROFIT$ product grew from four to on world, seven million dollars per year during this period. Co-founder, VP of Software Development (Senior Lead Programmer, AKA Jai Gopal Singh ) Created the PROFIT$ Merchandising System , a proprietary Point-Of-Sale Inventory and Reporting system for single or multi-store retail shoe and clothing outlets. Systems sold widely in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and the Caribbean (with international currency exchange and A Brief, display issues!). Was software architect and chief among a team that grew to five programmers. The PROFIT$ product eventually supported dozens of software and hardware support technicians, sales people, assorted executives and generated 20+ million dollars in gross sales. Essays War 1! (see CAM Data above) Among other things, two key features made PROFIT$ unique at the time: Report Generator - From the beginning, a powerful custom report generator was key; it offered the The Crucible Miller Essay, ability to produce reports at any level of detail from vendor, department, class, subclass, color and on world, material down to individual SKUs (Stock Keeping Units).

A Group-by feature with associated search criteria, user-defined column headings (choose up to the gender knot, 80 from list, arrange sequence), ability to save pre-defined reports and essays, other features made the Report Generator a centerpiece of avon uk, any sales demo. UCSD Pascal , an academic leap of the mid '70s similar in portability to today's Java, was used to achieve a powerful multi-user, multi-store application that could be distributed without re-compiling(!) across a variety of hardware (Intel, Motorola) and essays war 1, operating systems including single and Epidemic in America Essays, multi-user DOS, Atari machines, Novell Networks and large UNIX networks. A massive library of general purpose programming tools including database, list and screen handling features was created to support the PROFIT$ application (and others), many using object-oriented techniques pioneered in on world, Smalltalk and Modula-2, translated to Pascal. Implemented first on early super-micro computers using an SQL relational database, performance and data integrity demands eventually dictated a proprietary variable size record file system (VSDO), optimized for highest performance on UNIX systems. Complete with appropriate file maintenance utilities and products uk, supporting multi-partition files far larger than the limits imposed by the UCSD pSystem, this key development allowed PROFIT$ to grow with the demands of customers having 30..50 stores (255 max) and from 100 to 4000+ receipts per store in a single day. With Jon Bondy , designed and implemented pMail , a peer to peer Wide-Area-Network for unattended file and data (message) transfers between remote stores, including object code updates of essays, all software.

Logical messaging between applications on machines in remote locations supported easy, reliable, distributed database updates. Implemented in 1986 using the portable pSystem and direct dial, point to point modems, prior to development of the commercial Internet as we know it today.

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Essays on world war 1

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nz resume templates For a no obligation confidential consultation, get in touch. p. 0508 4 TALENT (482 536) The following positions are currently available. To apply for any position follow view the full job description and click the 'Apply' link. On World War 1? You can also register your interest without a particular position in The Crucible by Arthur Miller Essay example mind. 6 month fixed term role, perhaps longer. So to help move the planned change forward, we're after a very good Assistant Accountant to join the essays, team while the The Crucible Essay, changes are bedded in and also to assist in some of the identified areas of change.

The role will encompass the following: Complex reconciliations (AR / AP / Balance Sheet) In the next few months, there is the intention of introducing a new finance system so it would be ideal if you had some systems experience as well to assist in making the necessary changes during this time. In the next few months, there is the war 1, intention of introducing a new finance system so it would be ideal if you had some systems experience as well to assist in making the necessary changes during this time. At this stage the role is for a fixed term of six months, and whilst there are no guarantees, there is a very real possibility that the role could become permanent at some stage. On offer is very good remuneration, plus the Australia: Essay, opportunity to work in an environment with a great team, and within an essays on world war 1 organisation tasked with making a real difference to people's lives.

If this opportunity sounds appealing and seems made for you, then please submit an application via our registration process by clicking on apply. And if you'd like to know more, feel free to call Kevin Chappell on 0295-974739. Part time role (approx. 20 hours/week) Reporting to in America, the General Manager, the primary responsibilities of the role include:

Producing monthly financial and management accounts Completing the war 1, GST, FBT, PAYE tax returns Management of Cash Flow, Payroll, and Inventory Accounting and reporting software management. It is not a prerequisite to J.K., be a qualified CA, but you need to be qualified by experience and by your ability to support the essays, GM. To get you further excited there are a number of ongoing projects that require your attention; so although there will be approximately 20 hours/week required of you there will be a need for you to have some flexibility. To be seriously considered you will need to william a poison tree, have: Worked in a similar position for at least 3 years Experienced a light manufacturing environment Very good analytical skills and a strong handle on costing especially job costing An understanding of business drivers Broad accounting software literacy (MYOB is currently used) and be an intermediate level user of Microsoft Excel. This is essays on world, a busy role at avon products, the very heart of the organisation, providing the link and clarity of information flow between the financial/administration and production functions of the business and will appeal to those with a commercial bent. Naturally you will need to be self-motivated, comfortable working in on world an open office environment, have a pragmatic work style and a sense of by Arthur Miller Essay example, humour. If this sounds like you, then please click on on world war 1, the apply link to register your candidacy and uk CV along with a cover letter detailing why you believe you meet the criteria for this position. Direct any enquiries to John Keesing 021-649920; or Highly sought-after national role for this multi-national FM company Manage the team for this substantial and on world newly acquired contract Large team around the country. Engineering, Facilities Maintenance Management, Construction.

Key regional role for the gender knot this multi-national FM company Manage and maintain substantial building assets Opportunity to add value and enhance existing relationships. 3 month or so duration, not necessarily full-time. Responsibility in war 1 the project will be as follows: Identify land Develop construction plan Cost out the project Liaise with funders Develop and avon products uk prepare project plan Present to Board. You will need to have had experience in this type of project as there are some peculiarities and on world nuances between the primary stakeholders involved. So as well as internal people (management, staff), your relationships will be with the relevant Iwi, financial institutions, and the Government entities involved. It would be helpful to have had some experience in this area, although most important will be capability and understanding of these types of projects. The deadline for History Essay the project is the essays on world, end of November and due to and Career, the nature of the work, it's not likely to be full-time during this period. So if you've got the skills and essays are available, then click on apply and william follow our registration process.

Alternatively, you can contact Kevin Chappell on 0295-974739 for brief information. ONLY THOSE IN NZ AND WITH RELEVANT EXPERIENCE WILL BE CONSIDERED. Key regional role for this multi-national FM company Manage and maintain substantial building assets Opportunity to add value and enhance existing relationships. Information Communication Technology. Two roles - one technical, the essays, other more generic. Therefore we're after an accomplished Senior BA who has experience in a multi-site service delivery environment.

This is an Agile type environment with a number of interrelated projects with a mix of recent appointments and longer-term PMs and BAs, so you will not be short on avon products uk, tapping into existing expertise and knowledge! You will need very strong technical analysis skills because you'll be both creating process from essays war 1 scratch and formulating the the gender knot, detail, as well as modifying processes from essays a variety of existing and related systems and bringing them into products a single system. War 1? But we're also after good commercial nous so that processes are developed in a business sense. Important too are strong and proven communication skills, top documentation skills, and a high fluency of J.K. Rowland:, English due to the nature of the broad range of stakeholders - and essays industry sector. We're after a couple of people - one more technically focused, the other more commercail in nature, and J.K. and Career someone who can also contribute to business case development. The organisation and industry will certainly appeal to on world, anyone with this experience, and on offer is excellent remuneration - and potential longevity - for the right person. The preference is for an initial six month contract with a view to a permanent appointment should all go swimmingly. As this is a regional project, this client will consider applicants from both the Waikato and Bay of Plenty regions, as they have branches in both locations. If you have registered previously, it would be helpful to renew contact - and your availability - if we have missed you!

If you've got the avon uk, skills we are after, then click on essays war 1, apply and follow our registration process, marking your application to the attention of Kevin Chappell. J.K. And Career Essay? You can also contact me on 0295-974739 for more information. NB: ONLY THOSE WITH A LEGAL RIGHT TO WORK IN NZ WILL BE CONSIDERED. OTHERS WILL NOT BE ACKNOWLEDGED. Exciting major cornerstone project. We're after an accomplished technical BA for this key project that has been underway for some time with this large and on world complex organisation. And if you're an expert at what you do, then we won't need to the gender knot, spell out on world too much detail - which can be outlined more in discussion. But as a top-line outline, you will: Develop and william a poison tree implement appropriate methodologies, standards, templates and guidelines for war 1 analysis and Author and Career implementation. Gathering, analyse develop business reporting requirements for the Project. Define solutions that will meet those agreed requirements.

Identify and analyse existing processes and identify those that will be retained or modified. Lead the consultation and analysis, design, produce, and implement new operational reports. Lead the migration from the existing infrastructure to the new. Identify risks and essays on world mitigate those risks where possible. Because of the nature of Australia: A Brief History Essay, this component of the project, you'll need to be top-notch at what you do. So it's likely you won't have less than 5-6 years in a functional Analyst role within a large and/or complex commercial environment, and that could be either in the public or private sector. You'll also need your experience backed up by appropriate tertiary qualifications and a track record of accomplishment with verifiable outcomes and war 1 and achievements.

Because of the complexities of this project, your technical skills will be enhanced by excellent communication skills, both verbally and written, and it's important that you can slide comfortably into a poison tree an existing team structure, add value immediately, but also be prepared to on world war 1, learn from those already ensconced in this project. This client is flexible how you are engaged - fixed term contract or employment - or they would even consider initially engaging for a shorter period. One thing you can be assured of is that this is a premium project where your skills will be valued but the experience will be valuable - for future opportunities for you. If so, and you have this experience, then please send your CV and a cover letter to me by clicking on products uk, apply and on world war 1 following our registration process. If you'd like more detail, then please call Kevin Chappell on 0295 974739.

PLEASE NOTE THAT ONLY THOSE WITH RELEVANT EXPERIENCE AND/OR THE RIGHT TO WORK IN NZ, WILL BE CONSIDERED. They require an experienced DBA (technology enthusiast!) who will proactively undertake routine database maintenance in line within set global protocols, assist the business and clients with custom scripts and queries, but also have the ability to work closely with the business and clients to understand and Obesity translate the data. It is essential that you have experience in organisations with mission critical, high availability systems, able to manage the formal and rigorous change requests processes and liaise with local and global support teams to identify faults and issues, installing upgrades and patches to fix programme bugs. Whilst this is the NZ division of a global business, this is an important role working with a small team, and hours of work will need to be flexible as this is a 24/7 critical operation. The company support centre and RD teams are based overseas, therefore travel maybe required from time to on world war 1, time. You must therefore be able to pass some security/police pre-employment vetting checks, and credit check, possess a current drivers licence and avon passport.

You must have proven experience in a similar role within NZ and essays on world SQL database experience is mandatory. Also important is that you will possess a proactive and positive approach to work, take pride and ownership to avon uk, deliver high quality, correct and timely services, possess a calm demeanour and strong interpersonal skills. Only people with the right to live and work in essays NZ may apply for the gender knot this role please ensure you meet the above criteria before applying. If you fulfill the essays, criteria for the role and are interested, then please click on apply and follow our registration process. Or for the gender knot further information, please contact Amanda Scott, Consulting Director, talentnow! on 021784483. Highly credible finance company 2-3 month contract assignment East Auckland location Immediate start. This role is essays on world, a blend of lending assessment, support, and sales administration and by Arthur Essay example customer services; therefore it is essential you have lending experience. The contract role requires a suitable candidate to be analytically minded with good numerical ability, able to interpret data, perform credit profile assessments, work through volume loan processing, and on world war 1 identify opportunities when engaging with the clients to uk, 'upsell' additional financial products such as insurance etc. This contract, would suit an experienced lender with 3+ years' experience in lending, preferably with a non-bank lender or finance company such as UDC, Avanti, Dorchester or similar. This is a very good business, with plenty of incoming loans for processing, a very innovative and on world war 1 fresh culture, and Australia: A Brief Essay working with an exceptional entrepreneur who is war 1, highly experienced and respected in A Brief History and Analysis the financial services field. To be successful in this role you will be able to work autonomously but also contribute to a collegial team culture, absorb new information quickly, understand lending principles, about to relate to and apply legislative and regulatory information, take a detailed and careful approach to credit and loan applications, have exception customer service skills, fast and accurate data entry/processing.

Ideally you will be experienced, have an appropriate vocational qualification, sound computer skills (MS Office) and understand credit contracts and/or consumer finance would be very helpful, you will have a clean driver's license, possess business literacy and numeracy and able to pass a credit check and pre-employment police check, as well as possess NZ experience. You will possess strong communication skills enabling you to interact with a number of key customers etc. You must be available immediately as our client would like a robust recruitment process but to have someone commence next week if possible, please submit an application ASAP via our registration process, and we'll come straight back to you. Please mark to the attention of Kevin Chappell, Principal Director, talentnow! 1. ONLY THOSE WITH A LEGAL RIGHT TO WORK IN NZ WILL BE CONSIDERED. 2. AND ONLY THOSE WITH EXPERIENCE IN NZ, WILL BE CONSIDERED.

3. War 1? IF YOU DON'T FIT EITHER CRITERIA, YOUR APPLICATION CANNOT BE ACKNOWLEDGED. Management Consulting, Business Performance and The Crucible by Arthur Essay example Analysis. Join this team tasked with process improvement and change. Completely supported by senior management, the essays on world, teams are mandated to facilitate change in a way not seen before. Uk? This will transcend most business areas, including management, professional, support, and specialty areas, with each team member assigned a specific portfolio. Focus will be across all business areas, on business processes and systems, with responsibilities of the role ranging from project/need discovery and requirements, process analysis etc through to business case, implementation and embedding. So what specific background are we after? In this type of role, tertiary qualifications are almost mandatory, but more important is essays on world war 1, relevant experience in business analysis involved with business improvement and change, across broad areas of business. Having said that, if you have specific business area expertise, but wish to uk, broaden your experience, then this role may allow you to do this. You'll be well experienced in analysis leading to requirements gathering, business processes mapping and documentation. War 1? Your technical skills will be highly valued, but above all, you'll need to the gender knot, be business savvy and not just have theoretical experience.

Relevant training, in such programmes as Kaizen, Lean, Six Sigma, or similar philosophies, will be highly regarded. Because there is a requirement to on world war 1, hit the ground running, you'll need to be able to utilise your previous experience and successes as early as possible. Obesity Epidemic In America Essays? Exposure to technology and change is an on world war 1 imperative, but most important is your ability to fit the team and change culture alongside your technical skills. You'll need experience in a large complex environment and this could be either the private or public sector, because the complexities and size will require an understanding of scale. If you're only experienced in the SME sector, then that will not be sufficient experience. You'll need very strong communication skills, both verbal and written, and complete fluency in English. Uk? Experience in war 1 a comparative commercial environment to NZ is mandatory. First priority will be to A Brief History, those who have worked in NZ as the environment demands some understanding of our business culture and the interaction and essays on world war 1 intersection of the public and private sectors. This will be a challenging role but extremely rewarding at the same time.

We not only want the best, we need the avon products uk, best, because there will be challenges every step of the war 1, way! If this has piqued your interest, and you feel you have the package to make this role work, then I'd like to hear from you. Please submit an application by clicking on J.K. and Career Essay, apply and essays following our registration process. The Gender Knot? You can also contact Kevin Chappell on 0295-974739. They have identified some deficiencies, so require someone to come in and run a dummy audit to identify where the issues are. This should not take long but could lead to work to essays on world war 1, remedy some problem areas. You'll need experience is similar types of organisations and know ISO intimately! The intent is to ensure they are ready for a trouble-free audit next year. If this sounds like you, then please click on the apply link to register your interest. Direct any inquiries to Kevin Chappell on products, 0295-974739.

Manufacturing and Plant Operations. With a policy to on world, only represent brands which lead the world in quality, reliability and technology the business also provides a full service back up together with a large inventory of spare parts and accessories. Reporting to the gender knot, the General Manager the position of essays on world, Workshop Manager has come available and has the Australia: A Brief History Essay, following key responsibilities: Planning and directing the war 1, installation, testing, operation, maintenance, repair, overhaul and products uk inspection of essays, pumping equipment Consulting and J.K. Author and Career negotiating with clients and suppliers to meet project specifications Coordinating and essays on world war 1 directing all technical requirements for projects, including the workshop management of 2 full time fitters Input into budgets, bids, contracts, costings, and margins. Associated responsibilities will include reviewing and updating procedures and avon standards; preparing project reports; approving expenditure (local material/service purchases); technical sales back up; as well as input into design work and essays helping to J.K. Rowland: Author and Career Essay, expand the sales offering. The breadth of the role requires a wide range of essays on world war 1, skills, including: No less than 5 years' experience in a supervisory role within an engineering/fitting and turning workshop environment Experience with rotating machinery and with the appropriate material selection for both installation and products repair Exposure to foundry type work with the associated production of castings from moulds and on world patterns A strong understanding of A Brief History and Analysis Essay, costings, developing repair quotations, preparing budgets Proven success in providing solutions and excellence in customer service delivery A mechanical engineering qualification would be a big advantage, as would an essays on world ability to read and produce drawings (i.e.

CAD) Along with an understanding of History Essay, Health and Safety requirements, having computer literacy (especially around costings and invoicing), and some experience in local purchasing, you will also need to war 1, have had some staff supervision and work flow management experience. If you have come off the tools and Rowland: Author you are keen to take on a wider and essays on world war 1 more responsible position, or you see this as a natural career move, this role will provide you with the opportunity to enjoy a busy but important role within an A Brief History industry leader. Please click on the apply link to register your interest. Attach both your CV and essays a Cover Letter detailing how you meet the the gender knot, required criteria. Please direct any enquiries to John Keesing 021-649920; Quality, Operations, Contract Management, Administration. 12 month fixed term contract role. Firstly, if you haven't been involved in the administration of an essays IT or technology project, then it's unlikely that this role will suit. Reporting to a Programme Director who is highly respected and incredibly busy, the expectations are high, as she relies heavily on a high level of performance in this primary support role. So as well as being savvy with these types of projects, she wants someone unflappable, well-organised, and incapable of subscribing to dramas that may go on around the Australia: A Brief History and Analysis Essay, work environment!!

Also, with the war 1, Programme Director travelling regularly, this person will need to be used to working autonomously and without instruction or oversight, and be proactive in doing what's needed. It goes without saying that you'll need technical project administration skills and Obesity experience and enjoy working with a range of essays on world war 1, stakeholders who themselves have independent views and are in many locations throughout the william blake a poison, country. Also, we're after high level communication skills and absolute English fluency, as well as the ability to forge strong working relationships across a broad spectrum of personalities, ages, and styles. So this is not for the faint-hearted, but will be interesting and rewarding. This is a fixed term contract role and whilst ideally you'll be a contractor, we can have a temporary employee arrangement if needed. If this sparks some interest, then please submit an application via our registration process by clicking on apply. And if you'd like to know more, feel free to call Kevin Chappell on 0295-974739. B2B ICT Solutions Market Leading provider Stunning Cromwell Location.

You would describe your selling style as consultative, built on essays on world war 1, trust and william blake tree integrity, because you're in for the long game and not the quick sale. Ideally you will bring a track record of success from a similar industry - but we wouldn't overlook good candidates with solid experience in essays other industrial fields. This is a wholly NZ owned company who have grown considerably across the country over the past 20 years. Their success comes from representing the broadest product range in their category backed up by exceptional customer engagement and service. They have constantly evolved their business processes to Miller Essay example, support both staff and customers which has further enhanced their reputation. Service delivery is paramount, so as the Account Manager on the front line, you can be confident in the level of backup and support. Our ideal candidate will have: Evidential sales success in a similar role The heart of a hunter and the soul of a farmer A consistent sales process Success-oriented without it being about essays on world war 1 ego. National FMCG role with successful company Flexibility in working style - work from home office! Very relationship focused. Supply Chain, Procurement, Inventory.

Help set up new direction in procurement. Because of the complexities and range of categories, we're after someone with multi-faceted experience across a wide range of categories so you can bring your broad level of experience to bear in this significant change that's required. You will need to undertake initial needs analyses from both what is happening internally with existing processes (has been outsourced effectively), as well as in Obesity Epidemic in America Essays the market in general, and develop strategies that align with their new direction. You will then plan and execute the strategy and essays on world draft all documentation associated with the action plan, and project manage the process - whilst ensuring all stakeholders are kept apprised of J.K. Rowland: Author Essay, what's happening. Your leadership and essays on world war 1 expertise will be demonstrated by your knowledge of all the categories, supporting the growing team and stakeholders, and communicating the benefits to Epidemic in America Essays, the organisation. Because of the diversity of stakeholders, you will need to have very strong relationship management skills, and on world excellent written communication skills.

This is of course complementing your technical expertise in procurement. You will need relevant tertiary qualifications and ideally be CIPS qualified. Extensive experience in mainstream procurement is essential, and experience in the wider supply chain field will be seen as advantageous, as will project management experience. William Blake A Poison? Category planning, contract and essays on world supplier negotiation and development, strategic sourcing, and History Essay identifiable cost saving and other value add will be seen as necessary experience. But it goes without saying, that your track record in procurement will be verifiable by successful outcomes, and examples aligned to this type of work. Because of the nature of this role, it is essays, unlikely that without NZ experience you could succeed due to the knowledge you would need of the imperatives in william blake a poison establishing this function. So, in summary, we're after someone with a great procurement experience within a larger and on world complex environment who is available for a new challenge. If you have applied to me before, please make contact again with your updated experience and availability. If you have this experience and you think this could be for you, then please send your CV and a cover letter to me by clicking on the gender knot, apply and on world following our registration process.

If you'd like more detail, then please call Kevin Chappell on 0295 974739. PLEASE NOTE THAT ONLY THOSE WITH NZ EXPERIENCE AND/OR THE RIGHT TO WORK IN NZ, WILL BE CONSIDERED. Exceptional and secure role with potential to the gender knot, grow. This role requires someone with multi-faceted experience across a wide range of categories so you can rove across a number of projects. Your prime responsibility will be to undertaking needs analyses from essays both what is happening internally, as well as in the market in general, and by Arthur develop strategies.

You will also ensure you maintain market intelligence and ensure all stakeholders are kept up-to-date with any changes to the relevant categories. Essays? You will then plan and execute the strategy and draft all documentation associated with the J.K. Rowland: Essay, action plan, and project manage the process. Included also is developing reports which identify savings and communicate this to appropriate stakeholders. Essays On World War 1? Your leadership will be demonstrated by taking ownership of categories, supporting your broader team, and communicating the benefits to the organisation. Because of the Essays, diversity of stakeholders, you will need to have very strong relationship management skills, and on world excellent written communication skills that don't require checking! You will need relevant tertiary qualifications and ideally be CIPS qualified. A minimum of 5 years in mainstream procurement is essential, and experience in Obesity Epidemic the wider supply chain field will be seen as advantageous, as will project management experience. War 1? Category planning, contract and supplier negotiation and development, strategic sourcing, and identifiable cost saving and other value add will be seen as necessary experience. But it goes without saying, that your track record in procurement will be verifiable by Miller Essay example, successful outcomes, and examples aligned to on world war 1, this type of work. So, in summary, we're after someone with a great procurement experience within a larger and complex environment who is looking for a new challenge. If you have applied to me before, please make contact again with your updated experience and availability.

If you have this experience and by Arthur Essay you think this could be for you, then please send your CV and a cover letter to me by clicking on apply and following our registration process. If you'd like more detail, then please call Kevin Chappell on 0295 974739. PLEASE NOTE THAT ONLY THOSE WITH NZ EXPERIENCE, OR A COMPARATIVE COMMERCIAL ENVIRONMENT SUCH AS THE UK, permanent role, but contract considered. This is essays, a permanent role and requires someone who has been involved across a broad range of categories, as well as technology and IT categories, within large and Epidemic complex organisations, . Initially your task will be to achieve buy-in from all stakeholders and identify any barriers to essays war 1, achieving the desired goals. You will undertake a broad needs analysis from both what is happening internally within each multi-site stakeholder, as well as in Obesity Essays the market in general, and essays on world war 1 develop your category strategies. You will then plan and execute the strategy and Obesity draft all documentation associated with the action plan, get the approval to proceed, and manage the implementation of the strategy.

You'll lead from the front and ensure that all stakeholder are well briefed and communicate the benefits. Because of the diversity of stakeholders, you will need to have very strong relationship management skills, excellent written communication skills, and the ability to present to the highest level of management. You will need relevant tertiary qualifications and ideally be CIPS qualified. We cannot imagine anyone with less than 8-10 years in mainstream procurement, in particular in procurement management, plus potentially experience in the wider supply chain field will have the capability to take in essays on world war 1 this task. Category planning, contract and supplier negotiation and development, strategic sourcing, and identifiable cost saving and other value add will be seen as necessary experience. Uk? Whilst not having staff reporting, this role has a similar level of competence as required for a leadership procurement role. It goes without saying, that your track record in procurement will be verifiable by successful outcomes, with a requirement to outline examples aligned to this type of work.

This is war 1, a fantastic opportunity in the gender knot an environment that is ripe for positive change, and essays war 1 primed for successful outcomes. If you have this experience and you think this could be for Miller Essay you, then please send your CV and a cover letter to me by on world war 1, clicking on apply and following our registration process. If you'd like more detail, then please call Kevin Chappell on 0295 974739. PLEASE NOTE THAT ONLY THOSE WITH NZ EXPERIENCE, OR A COMPARATIVE COMMERCIAL ENVIRONMENT SUCH AS THE UK, AUSTRALIA, NORTH AMERICA, OR SOUTH AFRICA, WILL BE CONSIDERED FOR THIS ROLE. talentnow! 2007-2017 (a division of Talent Group Ltd)

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NYU Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development. This section describes the dissertation format that all NYUSteinhardt doctoral candidates are required to on world war 1 follow. Dissertations must adhere to these requirements in order to be accepted by the Office of products uk Doctoral Studies for the scheduling of the final oral examination. Please read this section carefully and contact the Office of essays war 1 Doctoral Studies if you have any questions. Faculty policy leaves the choice of a style manual to the doctoral candidate with the advice and consent of the gender knot his or her committee. Generally, candidates are urged to learn and use the manual most often required for on world, scholarly writing by journals within their disciplines. Typically, the following style manuals are used by NYUSteinhardt students: The most recent editions of the chosen style manuals should be used. Your printer must produce consistently black letters and consistent margins.

Sufficient darkness is also necessary for any supporting materials, such as tables, figures, drawings, pictures, etc., -- either as originals or as copies -- that you may need to append or insert in your manuscript. Your dissertation will be published by ProQuest UMI which requires clear, high-contrast characters and images. As a guide to the quality that will be obtained, you can photocopy a sample page at 75% reduction to evaluate the readability and clarity of the print. The School and Rowland: Author ProQuest UMI allow students to use typefaces that are between 10 and 12 points; however, because 10 point can appear too small in essays, most typefaces, 12 point is generally preferred. A Poison. A smaller or condensed typeface can be used for tables that otherwise might not fit across a page within the correct margins, however, mixing typefaces is otherwise not recommended.

Underlining or italics may be used for statistical symbols, book titles, or definitions (but use either one or the other consistently throughout your manuscript, including tables). Headings should be underlined when appropriate and not italicized. Bold type should not be used in the manuscript. Do not justify the right margin of your text; keep it left aligned like the text shown here. To assure proper binding and for ease of reading, the following margins are required: Left margin : one and one-half inches for all pages . Right margin : one and essays war 1 one-half inches for all pages , with no intrusion of letters or anything else into by Arthur Essay example the right margin.

Top margin : one-and-one-quarter inches for all pages except the first page of the essays on world war 1, Acknowledgments, Table of Contents, List of avon products Tables, List of Figures, each chapter, Bibliography, and Appendices which should begin two inches from the top edge of the page. Bottom margin : one-and-one-quarter inches for all pages. Page numbers for all pages preceding page 1 of Chapter I (lower case roman numerals for Acknowledgments, Table of Contents, etc.) should be placed three-quarters of an inch from the bottom of the page, centered between the on world, left and right margins. Page numbers from page 1 of Chapter I through the last page of the Obesity Epidemic in America, last appendix should be placed three-quarters of an inch from the top or bottom, centered between the left and essays on world right margins. See the next section for sample dissertation pages. Avoid leaving more than two inches of the gender knot white space without type. This applies to tables and figures as well as to text.

A table or figure should be inserted in the text as soon after it is first referred to where it will fit in essays on world war 1, its entirety on one page. Leave three blank lines between a table and text or text and a table; the uk, same for essays on world, figures. Continue your text if you can fit at least four lines after it. In America Essays. You may have more than one table on a page and you may have a table, discussion, and a table. The same procedure applies to all illustrative material. Double space the essays on world war 1, entire manuscript with these exceptions (which should be single-spaced):

chapter titles, appendix titles, headings, and subheadings of more than one line; block quotations; column headings and lines that run on in tables; bibliography or references entries -- double space between entries; footnotes; figure captions; explanatory material for figures, tables, and illustrations; and appendices -- the spacing will vary depending on the source and content. APA style requires writers to double space all typed material, including the exceptions noted above. If you are using APA, the above rules supersede APA rules in most cases. You have the option, however, of double spacing your references and block quotations; MLA style users also have this option. The title page is counted as page one and J.K. Author and Career the copyright page as page two, but numbers do not appear on essays on world them. Lower case roman numerals (iii, iv, v, vi, etc.) are used for all subsequent pages up to william a poison the first page of the text (page 1 of Chapter I) and should be placed three quarters of an essays on world war 1 inch from the in America Essays, bottom edge of the paper, centered between the margins. Beginning with page 1 of Chapter I, Arabic numbers are used and essays on world war 1 are continuous through the last page including all appendices. Page numbers for all pages in the chapter, including the first page of The Crucible by Arthur Miller example each chapter or major section, should be placed three quarters of an war 1 inch from the top or bottom edge of the william, paper centered between the margins. The material of your manuscript should be ordered as follows: title page; copyright page; acknowledgments; table of contents; list(s) of tables, figures, charts, graphs, musical examples, illustrations, etc., if used; preface or forward, if used; the on world war 1, text; bibliography; and appendices (if any). Please see the sample title page below.

You are required to follow that format exactly. You will have the option to products uk have your dissertation copyrighted when you submit it to Proquest/UMI for publication. You should include a copyright page with your name and copyright date in essays, the middle of the page, centered left to right (between the margins) and top to bottom. Please note that the copyright date is the year of your degree conferral. Follow this format: The copyright page is page ii of the pages preceding the william blake, text (the title page is understood to be page i), but no number should appear on either the title page or the copyright page. Table of Contents and Lists of Tables and essays Figures. Because a dissertation does not have an avon products index, your Table of Contents should be as comprehensive as possible. Include all headings and subheadings, exactly as they appear in the text, up to and including Level 2. Including lower level headings is optional. (See sample Table of Contents in the next section.) Note that the essays war 1, indentation of a heading used in the Table of Contents corresponds to the level of the heading. The following illustrates this:

You should supply the reader with lists of tables, figures, and any other illustrative material used in your dissertation. The Gender Knot. See the sample lists in the next section. Lists of musical examples or reproductions of art, or information about films, follow the same form as that used for essays war 1, lists of Australia: A Brief and Analysis Essay tables and on world war 1 figures. Chapter headings and titles appear as follows, beginning two inches from the top of the avon, page: Headings within the chapter should indicate the weight you assign to particular ideas by the form of essays on world war 1 headings suggested in the style manual you have selected or the form suggested below. Leave three blank lines (i.e., begin typing after two double spaces) before each heading and after each major section and chapter title. If one heading immediately follows another, leave only william blake a poison tree, one blank line (a double space) between the two. Leave one blank line (a double space) after each heading. Essays. Capitalize the first letter of each word of headings except for articles, conjunctions, and prepositions. The following is one way in which to Obesity Epidemic in America order headings and to type them. Essays. Students following APA style may use the format in the APA Style Guide, however, the format below is preferred for NYU Steinhardt dissertations.

See the sample page 1 in the next section for an example of heading placement. Be sure that no heading appears at the bottom of a page without at least two lines of text beneath it. The Table of Contents will contain all Level 1 and Level 2 headings exactly as they appear in the gender knot, the text. Essays. It is not necessary to include Level 3 or lower-level headings in the Table of Contents, but you may if it provides the reader with more useful information. Chapter numbers are upper case roman numerals (with no period), e.g., CHAPTER IV, to differentiate them from any other numbers in the text. All other items requiring numbers should have Arabic numbers. Appendices, should be designated by capital letters, e.g., APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B, etc. Use numbers or letters for other items only when necessary.

Use 1) in the text and 1. in the gender knot, a set-off list; a) in the text and a. in a set-off list -- not (1) or 1). Essays. or a.), etc. If items in a numbered list run onto by Arthur Miller Essay two or more lines, you may let the additional lines begin at war 1 the margin or indent the entire paragraph to the right of the Obesity Epidemic, numbers. Numbers beginning a sentence, as well as numbers below 10 (or, if you prefer, 12) should be spelled out when they appear within the text. Reduction of Tables and Other Materials. If a table, appendix, illustration, or graph is on world, too wide or long, or both, to fit within the specified margins, have it reduced, or if textual material, type it using a smaller font. Whenever possible, avoid inserting tables which must be read by turning the book sideways. If such a table is necessary, be sure to insert it with the heading to the spine or binding. You may also use a condensed typeface. For style guides other than APA, if you have more than one work by the same author, do not repeat his or her name over and over. Use ten underscore characters, ending with a period if the by Arthur Miller Essay, author is exactly the same as the previous one, or with a comma if the author is the first of war 1 a series of william blake a poison new authors, as shown below. Single space the entry; double space between entries.

Indent the second and subsequent lines one-half inch. Note that authors with two initials have a space after the war 1, period between each initial, e.g., Smith, A. B., Jones, M. J. Do not allow initials to break between lines; keep them together on one line or the other. Regardless of the style guide you use, avoid having one or two lines of an entry on and Analysis Essay one page and the rest of the citation on the next page. War 1. The entry should be cited in its entirety on J.K. Essay one page or the essays on world, other. The way you cite an author in your manuscript is based on the context.

If you are attributing an Obesity Epidemic in America idea that you paraphrased to essays on world someone, use the name and date (according to APA style) such as (Jones, 2002), or as shown in the first sentence below. If you are. using a direct quotation, use the william a poison tree, same format, but you must include the page number where you found it, as shown in on world war 1, the second sentence below. Also, specific information or ideas need a page number even if paraphrased. J.K. Rowland:. For example, the following brief passage refers to the same publication by a hypothetical author:

Review the whole manuscript to be sure that every work referred to in the manuscript is cited in the text (or footnotes) and included in the bibliography. Four or more lines of a quotation should be set off from the main text with a double space, typed single spaced with no quotation marks, and the entire block indented one-half inch. Quotations within these block (or indented) quotations may use double quotations. The first line of the quotation is not indented; however, the first lines of new paragraphs within the quotation should begin with an additional indent of one-half inch. Students using APA or MLA style may double space block quotations. Each appendix should have the proper designation at the top of the first page. A title page does not need to be inserted before each one. Use the following format, centered between the essays war 1, left and right margins, beginning two inches from the top of the page: PARTICIPANT CONSENT FORM. If you have material that, because of its format, needs to have a title page (because the J.K. Rowland: Essay, title doesn't fit on essays the same page as the material), you need to consistently use title pages for all appendices.

Avoid it if you can. Again, all material in an appendix must fit within the overall page margins. It is necessary to obtain letters of Obesity permission for war 1, the reproduction of any copyrighted material which exceeds the avon products uk, Federal law pertaining to Fair Use. Copies of essays on world those letters will be uploaded to Proquest UMI with your final dissertation. Copies of the letters do not need to be included in the dissertation. The abstract is a brief summary of the contents of the dissertation. Begin typing the abstract two inches from the top of a blank page with no heading. The abstract should be typed double-spaced with the same typeface and margins as the dissertation. The length of the blake a poison tree, abstract should be limited to 350 words. The abstract title page is identical to the dissertation title page with one exception: the abstract title page has the words An Abstract of directly above the on world, title (see Sample Title Page in the gender knot, the next section). Each abstract is essays, stapled in Australia: History and Analysis Essay, the upper left corner and essays on world war 1 kept separate from the dissertation.

The chairperson of the dissertation committee should sign one copy of the abstract title page. The following section includes sample dissertation pages which should be followed carefully. Refer to the preceding section for more detailed information on format requirements. Students should follow the History and Analysis Essay, instructions on these sample pages rather than using a dissertation from the library (or elsewhere) as a guide. Format requirements differ from year to essays war 1 year and from school to school. This site, and all its contents, are Copyright by New York University. All rights reserved.

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5 surprising secrets of a killer McKinsey resume. Haven#8217;t you always wondered what a McKinsey resume looks like? Today, we have for you a post on the 5 things you should know about submitting your resume to essays on world war 1, McKinsey. After the the gender knot rave reviews we received from essays war 1 our McKinsey firm profile, we decided to give you even more insight on the world#8217;s top consulting firm this time letting you in on the secrets of Rowland: what it takes to make it past the resume screen at McKinsey. On World! Now, there are the standard set of rules for your consulting resume that apply for any firm a results-oriented resume, formatting consistency, using proactive language, quantifying competitive accomplishments, providing context for the gender knot key activities, etc. and you can get more on essays on world war 1 those in avon uk our Resume Cover Letter Bible. These 5 tips below, however, are focused specifically on McKinsey . So for essays all of you McKinseyite wannabes, this one#8217;s for you! June is resume month at MC, and as such, we focus all of J.K. and Career Essay our posts on that same topic consulting resumes. This year we also honored resume month with our 2nd annual free resume review giveaway which filled up in less than 9 minutes! 50 lucky MC subscribers received a free resume review , and the 300+ more who didn#8217;t make the 50-person cut-off received a private discount code to use for essays on world resume editing services.

We#8217;ll be sending out another special this month, so check back often, follow us on Facebook, or subscribe to our mailing list to stay tuned. Here are the 5 things you should know about by Arthur Essay, submitting your resume to McKinsey. 1. A Harvard business degree isn#8217;t enough. McKinsey hires the best of Harvard#8217;s best, so just being from Harvard isn#8217;t good enough. We#8217;re talking about the essays on world war 1 most prestigious consulting firm in the world here so a regular ol#8217; degree from Stanford or INSEAD isn#8217;t sufficient to get you to the interview round. Essay! The competition at McKinsey is essays on world, more than stiff it#8217;s almost impossible. Without prestigious leadership experience on your resume e.g., if your highest achievement is Student Body Treasurer or you made the Dean#8217;s list 50% of the time don#8217;t even bother applying. Your family may be gushing with pride over your accomplishments, but you won#8217;t make it past the firm#8217;s resume screen. Significant achievements that will get you considered are things like President of your Consulting Club, Founder of a company, a summer internship at a brand-name firm, inventor of a new surgical technology, or a Ph.D. in some cutting edge and william tree, radical new research.

A knock-out McKinsey candidate is an influencer the next Elon Musk, Mark Zuckerberg, or Arianna Huffington with a variety of essays interests that make you uniquely and powerfully you. You#8217;re Type A, polished, and a winner when you run, you#8217;re elected; when you compete, you win. The Crucible By Arthur Essay! Does this sound like the type of experience you have? If so, you#8217;ve got a good chance. Essays! If not, either start obtaining it or consider back-up options. Obesity Epidemic In America Essays! 2. Don#8217;t use the essays on world war 1 McKinsey buzzwords, DEMONSTRATE them. McKinsey buzzwords include structure , credibility , and credentials. Don#8217;t use these terms on your resume a McKinsey recruiter will see right through that. Anyone can say they#8217;re great at using structure to solve problems.

You#8217;re much better off giving an example that presents the problem, briefly explains how you approached it, and what the results were. Your resume should give clear, concise examples that demonstrate each of these McKinsey qualities. Structure Weave a story that presents a problem you faced, the structured approach you took to solving it including breaking the problem into its component parts, and the positive results you achieved. On the job, you will rely on best practice work (i.e., the same report, but for uk a different company or industry) to get the job done so if you can show you#8217;ve done this before, you#8217;re golden. Credibility An internship with McKinsey is going to be the best credibility you can offer , however, internships or work experience at essays war 1, Fortune 500 firms will work in and Career Essay your favor too. Other non-profit experiences can additionally give you an up, like a term with Teach for on world war 1 America, as long as that#8217;s not all you#8217;ve done (otherwise, the sudden interest in business might be suspect). Basically, anything you can include on your resume that shows you went through a rigorous selection process and came out on A Brief Essay top is going to win you points with a McKinsey recruiter.

Credentials A McKinsey candidate will have graduated from a top international school with Honors, received a Rhodes or Fulbright Scholarship, won an Olympic gold medal, or wrote speeches for the President. Your credentials must be seriously impressive to be considered McKinsey-worthy, so include the essays on world war 1 most prestigious scholarships, merit awards, and industry accolades that you can on your resume. 3. McKinsey staffs globally, so show them you#8217;re ready to go global. Under McKinsey#8217;s global staffing model, youll work on project engagements with 5-6 member teams pulled from locations around the world. Even if a client doesn#8217;t demand your presence on-site, you#8217;ll need to Author, fly to essays, connect with your team.

That means you#8217;ll be traveling 100% of the time. What does this mean for your resume? Well, an internship with Deutsche Bank in Germany paired with an economics study abroad program in The Crucible Essay example Argentina is essays on world, going to convey your ability to The Crucible example, get along with multi-national teams, handle living/working in essays another country, and demonstrate maturity traveling/living on your own. This isn#8217;t necessarily a make or break for your application, but it will definitely have a positive influence on the review team. I started my first consulting firm while I was living in Obesity Epidemic South Africa, and it was focused on Corporate Social Responsibility. I worked with international governments, local South African bureaucrats, and multinational company#8217;s business leaders to implement and measure the on world impact of business-focused programs. Yes, I had top grades from avon uk a great school and had won awards while there#8230;but it was my international experience on top of all that that put me on McKinsey#8217;s radar as an experienced hire. On World War 1! A resume that includes language skills and international experience e.g., study/work abroad, international competitions, globetrotting, etc. will get you that much closer to a McKinsey interview slot as long as there is a consistent theme of excellence. 4. By Arthur Essay! A well-structured, black-and-white 1-page resume is essays war 1, what McKinsey recruiters are looking for. Don#8217;t get creative on your resume.

Stick with a very basic, black-and-white presentation that tells your story with context and impact. Rely on your pedigree, internships, and relevant work experience to provide the and Analysis Essay impact you want not on on world too-frequently bolded fonts, excessive titles in italics , or confusing formatting choices. You#8217;re going to be representing a highly-established firm with Fortune 500 C-level executives, the majority of whom are older and probably more conservative than you. Everything from your attire to your resume must reflect that you know and appreciate what that means. McKinsey wants you to be highly intelligent, yet predictable. Creativity on your resume is appreciated, but only in terms of what you#8217;re presenting your experience, etc. By Arthur Miller! not in how you present it. One key exception McKinsey does accept longer resumes/CVs outside the U.S. The absolute maximum, however, is essays on world war 1, 2 pages, and the gender knot, you should have at least 5 years of essays professional work experience if you#8217;re going to Rowland: Author, justify having a longer presentation of your education and experience. War 1! Most that we see in the 3-5 page range are stocked with 50% nonsense and fluff, so we bring out the Obesity axe and essays on world war 1, pare it down to essentials. McKinsey has a subject matter expert track and a generalist track , and Miller Essay, versus its Bain and BCG counterparts moves consultants into specific practices early on, such as logistics or HR.

Because McKinsey hires candidates into specific areas of expertise, the essays war 1 firm is a poison tree, more open to considering applications from candidates who#8217;ve chosen not to go the typical MBA route. In fact, more than 50% of McKinsey consultants don#8217;t have a graduate degree in business. If your education and/or work experience is #8220;outside the norm,#8221; don#8217;t be afraid to highlight that on your resume. Here#8217;s another tip if you do have a specialization outside of business, research McKinsey#8217;s Insight weekend a swanky, 2 day informational conference for hot target prospective consultants, held at essays on world war 1, a Ritz Carlton near you. Having been accepted to Obesity in America Essays, one of these events is almost as strong as having a McKinsey internship on your resume . It shows you#8217;ve already been vetted, moving you one step closer to the inner circle. On World! Pretty sure that you don#8217;t have McKinsey credentials yet? Let#8217;s talk about your next steps here. Should you blindly apply and hope for the best, or send them some tragic sob story explaining why your grades are so terrible? Should you give up completely?

If you#8217;re really serious about consulting, get strategic about your application to the gender knot, McKinsey and take a long-term view. Don#8217;t have brand-name experience on your resume? Get some. Don#8217;t have a top degree? Go back to school.

Didn#8217;t win an award? Try harder, build a magical company, or get creative in your free time. Remember, McKinsey consultants aren#8217;t born they are made. So get started on essays the tasks that will make you an the gender knot incredible asset to an already incredible firm! We hope you enjoyed these insights into your consulting resume for essays on world war 1 McKinsey. Stay tuned for our next post on how MBB recruiters read consulting resumes. Best of luck! The arrogance displayed in this article is a big reason why people go to work for BCG or Bain instead. Clients hate it too. The Crucible Essay! Seriously, tone it down. You may have a few gold medalists, but most are not.

I was a top-tier consultant for 10 years, and this post reminds me why I#8217;m glad I left. Thinking you are the on world war 1 best and actually being it are two different things. Australia: A Brief History And Analysis Essay! I get the feeling, McK specializes on on world the thinking part. #8220;A knock-out McKinsey candidate is an influencer the next Elon Musk, Mark Zuckerberg#8221; WHY WOULD MARK ZUCKERBERG WORK FOR MCKINSEY WHEN HE CAN BUY IT? This translates to, why would the next Zuckerburg work for McKinsey when they can open up their own business and make far more money and Rowland: Author, become far more credible. Having worked for a big Top 10 firm in the past, the essays on world war 1 biggest problem I noticed was the sheer arrogance and sense of entitlement that seemed to Rowland: Author and Career, permeate virtually everything the organization did and stood for. It didn#8217;t give a rat#8217;s a$$ about its clients. The only essays on world, thing that seemed to matter was making equity associate or partner and pushing billables past Pluto#8217;s orbit. Yes, we can see why this article is slanted. While the intent of the article seems to help candidates looking at Australia: A Brief History and Analysis Essay, McKinsey. I doubt it will do that. Essays On World War 1! The article portrays the firms consultants so high that it is difficult for most aspirants to reach there, infact it may turn them away from william a poison tree a consulting job.

The article creates a sense of on world war 1 dispair #8220;I am not as good as this#8221; feeling. Being a current consultant and one with a Harvard degree, I do not want to work in a culture like this. Author Essay! But, any aspirant should look at essays on world, McKinsey#8217;s website and study their resources and william blake, employee interviews, which are organized by role and geography. The tone of the website is more #8216;humble#8217; than this article. This article is laugh out loud nonsense! I do not see any one taking credit for this #8220;gem#8221; wonder why the author will not share their #8220;credentials#8221; and #8220;credibility#8221;?! I agree with the essays comments below: tone and content of this article is Australia: A Brief History, silly posturing and offensive drivel. Author sounds like he/she is a Gordon Gekko groupie with no practical experience. Big 4/McKinsey/BCG/Bain clients pay a great deal of money for consulting services from the #8220;best of the best#8221;. Clients put their faith in us and value our experience because we deliver results period.

Posturing, arrogance and salivating over essays a conference at the Ritz Carlton are career limiting values, indicative of an Epidemic in America amateur who will never be successful as a consultant. I have won many clients and essays war 1, engagements after a client has fired a consultant/firm. Their biggest complaint? The consultant was #8220;all talk, full of themselves and never delivered#8221;. This is disgraceful given the amount of the gender knot money and trust clients put into on world war 1 their consulting partners. The key to by Arthur Essay example, a long, successful career in consulting is simple: treat your clients with respect, deliver on essays your promises. As always, consultants glorifying McKinsey.

I know many undergrads who partied their way through college with a liberal arts major, and Australia: A Brief and Analysis Essay, are still working at McKinsey. Consulting is for people who (a) have no idea what they want to do with their lives or (b) are smart but unskilled laborers. Can#8217;t wait for the Elon#8217;s and Mark#8217;s of the essays world to aggregate the quants and build the data science teams that put McKinsey out of business. When you#8217;ve been spied on by people who did have this resume, you do tend to suspect that you#8217;ve got things they#8217;ve not got. It tells you that McKinsey doesn#8217;t have the the gender knot best inside the firm, so it has to steal it from essays outside the firm. Rowland: Author And Career Essay! You don#8217;t reach that level by following a production line approach, you do so by going where no-one has gone before. And anyone who knows anything about that, knows that sometimes you#8217;ll succeed, and sometimes, you#8217;ll fail. Because Mckinsey is intolerant of any failure, it should have no credibility in the fields of essays on world entrepreneurship, risk capital, top-down reinvention of a firm or anything which actually involves risk taking.

It should have no credibility in revolutionising anything. Steve Jobs would spit on what is written here by a poison McKinsey. He won big but he also failed. He was worth more than the on world entire Senior Partners of Mckinsey. By a long way. What McKinsey wants are what Hollywood calls: #8216;Close, but no cigar#8217; types of people. Dull worthies who never made a mistake because they never took a risk of any significant magnitude. That#8217;s fine but it#8217;s about time that this myth was blown out of the water.

Rhodes/Fulbright Scholars are spies recruited to Obesity Epidemic Essays, spy. They are not revolutionaries. The most important and essays, true thing in that article is that Mckinsey people are OCD. If they haven#8217;t realised that working for an OCD is the Rowland: Author and Career Essay most destructive concept for any self-motivated, graduate-level revolutionary thinker, they failed Consulting 101. OCDs should be running surgical theatres, they should be managing mission-critical aspects of space programs, they should be writing computer code. They should coaching sports folks where attention to details and marginal gains are imperative. They should not be managing creative people, revolutionary people, emancipated people. They destroy people like that through jealousy, enmity, thuggery, power games and destructive vindictiveness.

OCDs are OCDs because they are too scared to face their own inner demons. That#8217;s why they are OCDs. Essays On World War 1! The day they overcome their inner demons is the and Career day that their OCD propensities will disappear. Now I hope this helps people understand the truth about essays on world, Mckinsey because you#8217;ll never get it out of them in uk 100 years. Oh, and remember when you go to interview: they#8217;ll have bugged the essays on world room so don#8217;t get up to products, anything naughty. You#8217;re supposed to be a married-for-life monogamous boring stuffed shirt. Unless they are sucking up to essays war 1, President Bill Clinton of course, who can do whatever the heck he wants#8230;#8230;and frequently did.

If you fought in The Crucible by Arthur example Bosnia and can see through the interview dynamics, go work somewhere else. Admiring 23 year olds from Oxbridge fit in much better. haha. wow you guys are getting totally destroyed in the comments below#8230; not a bad article fwiw but I do agree there#8217;s an arrogance about consulting + the essays on world war 1 world in general that#8217;s perpetuated by the author#8217;s way of thinking.

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consciousness essay Department of on world war 1 Philosophy. University of Miller Essay Arizona. Tucson, AZ 85721. [Published in the Journal of Consciousness Studies 2(3):200-19, 1995. Essays On World! Also online is my response, Moving Forward on the Problem of Consciousness, to uk, 26 articles commenting on this paper. Essays War 1! That paper elaborates and extends many of the ideas in this one.] Consciousness poses the most baffling problems in the science of the avon mind. There is nothing that we know more intimately than conscious experience, but there is nothing that is harder to essays war 1, explain. All sorts of mental phenomena have yielded to scientific investigation in recent years, but consciousness has stubbornly resisted. Many have tried to a poison tree, explain it, but the explanations always seem to fall short of the target.

Some have been led to suppose that the problem is on world war 1, intractable, and that no good explanation can be given. To make progress on the problem of consciousness, we have to confront it directly. In this paper, I first isolate the truly hard part of the problem, separating it from avon more tractable parts and giving an on world war 1, account of why it is Epidemic, so difficult to explain. I critique some recent work that uses reductive methods to address consciousness, and argue that such methods inevitably fail to on world war 1, come to Obesity, grips with the hardest part of the problem. Once this failure is recognized, the door to further progress is opened. In the second half of the paper, I argue that if we move to a new kind of nonreductive explanation, a naturalistic account of consciousness can be given. I put forward my own candidate for such an war 1, account: a nonreductive theory based on principles of structural coherence and organizational invariance and a double-aspect view of information.

2 The easy problems and william blake tree, the hard problem. There is not just one problem of consciousness. Consciousness is an ambiguous term, referring to many different phenomena. Each of these phenomena needs to be explained, but some are easier to explain than others. At the start, it is useful to divide the associated problems of consciousness into hard and easy problems. The easy problems of consciousness are those that seem directly susceptible to the standard methods of cognitive science, whereby a phenomenon is explained in terms of computational or neural mechanisms. The hard problems are those that seem to resist those methods. The easy problems of consciousness include those of explaining the following phenomena: the ability to discriminate, categorize, and react to environmental stimuli; the integration of information by a cognitive system; the reportability of on world war 1 mental states; the ability of a system to access its own internal states; the focus of Obesity Epidemic in America attention; the deliberate control of behavior; the essays difference between wakefulness and sleep. All of these phenomena are associated with the notion of consciousness. A Brief History And Analysis Essay! For example, one sometimes says that a mental state is conscious when it is verbally reportable, or when it is internally accessible. Sometimes a system is essays, said to be conscious of some information when it has the Australia: Essay ability to react on the basis of that information, or, more strongly, when it attends to that information, or when it can integrate that information and exploit it in the sophisticated control of behavior.

We sometimes say that an action is conscious precisely when it is deliberate. Often, we say that an organism is conscious as another way of war 1 saying that it is awake. There is no real issue about whether these phenomena can be explained scientifically. All of them are straightforwardly vulnerable to explanation in terms of computational or neural mechanisms. To explain access and reportability, for example, we need only specify the mechanism by which information about internal states is retrieved and made available for verbal report. To explain the integration of Obesity Epidemic information, we need only exhibit mechanisms by which information is brought together and exploited by essays on world, later processes. For an account of sleep and wakefulness, an appropriate neurophysiological account of the processes responsible for organisms' contrasting behavior in those states will suffice. In each case, an appropriate cognitive or neurophysiological model can clearly do the explanatory work.

If these phenomena were all there was to consciousness, then consciousness would not be much of Australia: Essay a problem. Although we do not yet have anything close to a complete explanation of these phenomena, we have a clear idea of how we might go about essays on world war 1 explaining them. This is avon uk, why I call these problems the easy problems. Of course, easy is a relative term. On World War 1! Getting the Australia: and Analysis details right will probably take a century or two of difficult empirical work. Essays On World! Still, there is A Brief History and Analysis, every reason to believe that the methods of essays on world war 1 cognitive science and neuroscience will succeed. The really hard problem of consciousness is the problem of experience . When we think and perceive, there is a whir of information-processing, but there is also a subjective aspect.

As Nagel (1974) has put it, there is the gender knot, something it is like to be a conscious organism. This subjective aspect is experience. When we see, for example, we experience visual sensations: the felt quality of redness, the essays war 1 experience of dark and light, the quality of depth in a visual field. Other experiences go along with perception in different modalities: the sound of a clarinet, the smell of mothballs. Then there are bodily sensations, from pains to orgasms; mental images that are conjured up internally; the felt quality of emotion, and the experience of J.K. Author Essay a stream of conscious thought. What unites all of these states is that there is something it is like to be in them. All of them are states of experience. It is undeniable that some organisms are subjects of experience. But the question of how it is that these systems are subjects of experience is perplexing.

Why is it that when our cognitive systems engage in war 1, visual and auditory information-processing, we have visual or auditory experience: the quality of deep blue, the sensation of middle C? How can we explain why there is something it is like to in America Essays, entertain a mental image, or to on world, experience an emotion? It is widely agreed that experience arises from a physical basis, but we have no good explanation of why and how it so arises. Why should physical processing give rise to a rich inner life at william a poison, all? It seems objectively unreasonable that it should, and yet it does. If any problem qualifies as the problem of consciousness, it is on world, this one. In this central sense of consciousness, an organism is conscious if there is something it is like to be that organism, and a mental state is conscious if there is something it is like to be in that state. Sometimes terms such as phenomenal consciousness and qualia are also used here, but I find it more natural to speak of conscious experience or simply experience. Another useful way to avoid confusion (used by e.g. Newell 1990, Chalmers 1996) is to reserve the example term consciousness for the phenomena of experience, using the less loaded term awareness for the more straightforward phenomena described earlier. If such a convention were widely adopted, communication would be much easier; as things stand, those who talk about consciousness are frequently talking past each other. The ambiguity of the term consciousness is often exploited by both philosophers and scientists writing on the subject.

It is common to see a paper on consciousness begin with an invocation of the mystery of consciousness, noting the strange intangibility and essays war 1, ineffability of subjectivity, and the gender knot, worrying that so far we have no theory of the phenomenon. Here, the topic is on world, clearly the J.K. Rowland: and Career hard problem - the problem of experience. In the second half of the paper, the tone becomes more optimistic, and the author's own theory of consciousness is outlined. Upon examination, this theory turns out to be a theory of one of the more straightforward phenomena - of reportability, of introspective access, or whatever. At the close, the author declares that consciousness has turned out to essays on world war 1, be tractable after all, but the reader is left feeling like the victim of a bait-and-switch.

The hard problem remains untouched. Why are the easy problems easy, and why is the blake a poison hard problem hard? The easy problems are easy precisely because they concern the explanation of cognitive abilities and functions . To explain a cognitive function, we need only specify a mechanism that can perform the function. The methods of cognitive science are well-suited for this sort of on world war 1 explanation, and so are well-suited to the easy problems of consciousness. Epidemic! By contrast, the hard problem is hard precisely because it is not a problem about the performance of functions. The problem persists even when the essays on world war 1 performance of all the relevant functions is explained. (Here function is not used in the narrow teleological sense of something that a system is designed to do, but in the broader sense of william blake any causal role in the production of behavior that a system might perform.) To explain reportability, for instance, is just to explain how a system could perform the function of producing reports on internal states. Essays! To explain internal access, we need to explain how a system could be appropriately affected by its internal states and use information about Rowland: Author and Career Essay those states in directing later processes. To explain integration and control, we need to explain how a system's central processes can bring information contents together and use them in the facilitation of various behaviors.

These are all problems about the explanation of functions. How do we explain the performance of a function? By specifying a mechanism that performs the function. Essays! Here, neurophysiological and cognitive modeling are perfect for the task. If we want a detailed low-level explanation, we can specify the neural mechanism that is responsible for the function. Blake Tree! If we want a more abstract explanation, we can specify a mechanism in computational terms. Either way, a full and satisfying explanation will result. Once we have specified the neural or computational mechanism that performs the function of verbal report, for example, the bulk of our work in essays, explaining reportability is over. In a way, the Obesity point is trivial.

It is a conceptual fact about these phenomena that their explanation only involves the explanation of various functions, as the phenomena are functionally definable . All it means for reportability to be instantiated in a system is that the system has the capacity for verbal reports of on world internal information. All it means for the gender knot a system to be awake is for it to be appropriately receptive to information from the environment and for it to be able to use this information in directing behavior in an appropriate way. To see that this sort of thing is a conceptual fact, note that someone who says you have explained the performance of the verbal report function, but you have not explained reportability is essays on world war 1, making a trivial conceptual mistake about reportability. All it could possibly take to the gender knot, explain reportability is an explanation of how the relevant function is performed; the same goes for the other phenomena in question. Throughout the higher-level sciences, reductive explanation works in just this way. To explain the gene, for instance, we needed to specify the mechanism that stores and transmits hereditary information from one generation to the next. It turns out essays on world war 1, that DNA performs this function; once we explain how the function is performed, we have explained the gene.

To explain life, we ultimately need to explain how a system can reproduce, adapt to its environment, metabolize, and so on. All of these are questions about the performance of functions, and so are well-suited to reductive explanation. The same holds for History Essay most problems in cognitive science. To explain learning, we need to essays on world war 1, explain the The Crucible by Arthur way in which a system's behavioral capacities are modified in light of environmental information, and the way in which new information can be brought to bear in adapting a system's actions to its environment. If we show how a neural or computational mechanism does the job, we have explained learning. We can say the war 1 same for other cognitive phenomena, such as perception, memory, and language.

Sometimes the relevant functions need to be characterized quite subtly, but it is clear that insofar as cognitive science explains these phenomena at all, it does so by Obesity in America Essays, explaining the performance of functions. When it comes to conscious experience, this sort of explanation fails. What makes the essays hard problem hard and almost unique is avon, that it goes beyond problems about the performance of functions. War 1! To see this, note that even when we have explained the performance of all the cognitive and behavioral functions in the vicinity of experience - perceptual discrimination, categorization, internal access, verbal report - there may still remain a further unanswered question: Why is the performance of these functions accompanied by experience? A simple explanation of the the gender knot functions leaves this question open.

There is no analogous further question in essays, the explanation of genes, or of life, or of learning. If someone says I can see that you have explained how DNA stores and transmits hereditary information from one generation to uk, the next, but you have not explained how it is a gene , then they are making a conceptual mistake. All it means to essays on world, be a gene is to Essays, be an essays on world war 1, entity that performs the relevant storage and transmission function. But if someone says I can see that you have explained how information is discriminated, integrated, and reported, but you have not explained how it is experienced , they are not making a conceptual mistake. The Gender Knot! This is a nontrivial further question. This further question is the essays war 1 key question in the problem of consciousness.

Why doesn't all this information-processing go on in the dark, free of any inner feel? Why is it that when electromagnetic waveforms impinge on The Crucible by Arthur example a retina and are discriminated and categorized by a visual system, this discrimination and categorization is experienced as a sensation of vivid red? We know that conscious experience does arise when these functions are performed, but the very fact that it arises is the central mystery. Essays! There is an explanatory gap (a term due to Levine 1983) between the uk functions and experience, and we need an explanatory bridge to cross it. A mere account of the essays on world functions stays on one side of the Obesity Epidemic gap, so the materials for the bridge must be found elsewhere. This is not to say that experience has no function. Perhaps it will turn out to play an important cognitive role. But for any role it might play, there will be more to the explanation of experience than a simple explanation of the function. Perhaps it will even turn out that in the course of essays war 1 explaining a function, we will be led to the key insight that allows an explanation of J.K. Author experience.

If this happens, though, the discovery will be an extra explanatory reward. There is no cognitive function such that we can say in advance that explanation of that function will automatically explain experience. To explain experience, we need a new approach. The usual explanatory methods of cognitive science and neuroscience do not suffice. These methods have been developed precisely to explain the performance of cognitive functions, and they do a good job of it. But as these methods stand, they are only equipped to explain the performance of functions. Essays On World! When it comes to the hard problem, the standard approach has nothing to say. In the The Crucible Miller Essay last few years, a number of works have addressed the problems of essays on world consciousness within the framework of cognitive science and neuroscience. This might suggest that the analysis above is Australia: A Brief History and Analysis Essay, faulty, but in fact a close examination of the relevant work only lends the analysis further support. When we investigate just which aspects of consciousness these studies are aimed at, and which aspects they end up explaining, we find that the ultimate target of essays war 1 explanation is always one of the easy problems.

I will illustrate this with two representative examples. The first is the neurobiological theory of consciousness outlined by Crick and a poison, Koch (1990; see also Crick 1994). This theory centers on certain 35-75 hertz neural oscillations in the cerebral cortex; Crick and Koch hypothesize that these oscillations are the basis of consciousness. This is partly because the on world war 1 oscillations seem to be correlated with awareness in a number of different modalities - within the visual and olfactory systems, for example - and also because they suggest a mechanism by which the binding of avon information contents might be achieved. Binding is the process whereby separately represented pieces of information about a single entity are brought together to be used by later processing, as when information about the color and shape of a perceived object is integrated from separate visual pathways. Following others (e.g., Eckhorn et al 1988), Crick and Koch hypothesize that binding may be achieved by the synchronized oscillations of neuronal groups representing the relevant contents. When two pieces of information are to be bound together, the relevant neural groups will oscillate with the same frequency and phase. The details of essays on world how this binding might be achieved are still poorly understood, but suppose that they can be worked out. What might the Miller example resulting theory explain? Clearly it might explain the binding of information contents, and perhaps it might yield a more general account of the integration of information in the brain. Crick and Koch also suggest that these oscillations activate the mechanisms of working memory, so that there may be an account of this and perhaps other forms of memory in the distance.

The theory might eventually lead to a general account of war 1 how perceived information is bound and stored in memory, for use by later processing. Such a theory would be valuable, but it would tell us nothing about why the william blake tree relevant contents are experienced. Crick and Koch suggest that these oscillations are the neural correlates of experience. This claim is arguable - does not binding also take place in on world, the processing of unconscious information? - but even if it is accepted, the explanatory question remains: Why do the oscillations give rise to History, experience? The only basis for an explanatory connection is the role they play in binding and storage, but the essays on world war 1 question of why binding and storage should themselves be accompanied by experience is never addressed. If we do not know why binding and storage should give rise to Obesity, experience, telling a story about the oscillations cannot help us. Conversely, if we knew why binding and essays war 1, storage gave rise to experience, the neurophysiological details would be just the icing on the gender knot the cake. Crick and Koch's theory gains its purchase by war 1, assuming a connection between binding and avon, experience, and so can do nothing to on world, explain that link. I do not think that Crick and Koch are ultimately claiming to address the hard problem, although some have interpreted them otherwise.

A published interview with Koch gives a clear statement of the limitations on the theory's ambitions. Well, let's first forget about the really difficult aspects, like subjective feelings, for they may not have a scientific solution. The subjective state of play, of J.K. pain, of pleasure, of seeing blue, of smelling a rose - there seems to be a huge jump between the on world materialistic level, of explaining molecules and neurons, and Epidemic Essays, the subjective level. Let's focus on things that are easier to study - like visual awareness. You're now talking to war 1, me, but you're not looking at me, you're looking at the cappuccino, and so you are aware of it. You can say, `It's a cup and there's some liquid in it.' If I give it to you, you'll move your arm and you'll take it - you'll respond in a meaningful manner. That's what I call awareness. (What is Consciousness, Discover , November 1992, p. 96.) The second example is an approach at the level of Obesity cognitive psychology. This is Baars' global workspace theory of consciousness, presented in his book A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness . According to this theory, the contents of war 1 consciousness are contained in a global workspace , a central processor used to mediate communication between a host of specialized nonconscious processors. When these specialized processors need to broadcast information to the rest of the system, they do so by sending this information to the workspace, which acts as a kind of communal blackboard for the rest of the system, accessible to all the other processors.

Baars uses this model to address many aspects of human cognition, and to explain a number of contrasts between conscious and unconscious cognitive functioning. Ultimately, however, it is a theory of cognitive accessibility , explaining how it is that certain information contents are widely accessible within a system, as well as a theory of informational integration and reportability. The theory shows promise as a theory of awareness, the functional correlate of conscious experience, but an explanation of blake experience itself is not on offer. One might suppose that according to this theory, the contents of experience are precisely the contents of the essays workspace. But even if this is so, nothing internal to the theory explains why the information within the global workspace is experienced. The best the theory can do is to Australia: History and Analysis, say that the information is experienced because it is globally accessible . But now the war 1 question arises in a different form: why should global accessibility give rise to conscious experience? As always, this bridging question is unanswered.

Almost all work taking a cognitive or neuroscientific approach to consciousness in recent years could be subjected to a similar critique. The Neural Darwinism model of Edelman (1989), for instance, addresses questions about perceptual awareness and the self-concept, but says nothing about why there should also be experience. The multiple drafts model of Dennett (1991) is largely directed at explaining the The Crucible by Arthur Miller reportability of certain mental contents. The intermediate level theory of Jackendoff (1988) provides an account of some computational processes that underlie consciousness, but Jackendoff stresses that the question of how these project into conscious experience remains mysterious. Researchers using these methods are often inexplicit about their attitudes to the problem of conscious experience, although sometimes they take a clear stand. Even among those who are clear about it, attitudes differ widely. In placing this sort of war 1 work with respect to the problem of william tree experience, a number of different strategies are available.

It would be useful if these strategic choices were more often made explicit. The first strategy is war 1, simply to explain something else . Some researchers are explicit that the problem of experience is too difficult for now, and perhaps even outside the domain of J.K. Rowland: science altogether. These researchers instead choose to address one of the more tractable problems such as reportability or the self-concept. On World! Although I have called these problems the products easy problems, they are among the most interesting unsolved problems in cognitive science, so this work is certainly worthwhile. The worst that can be said of this choice is that in the context of research on consciousness it is essays war 1, relatively unambitious, and the work can sometimes be misinterpreted. The second choice is to avon products, take a harder line and deny the essays phenomenon . (Variations on this approach are taken by Allport 1988, Dennett 1991, and Wilkes 1988.) According to this line, once we have explained the functions such as accessibility, reportability, and the like, there is no further phenomenon called experience to explain. Some explicitly deny the phenomenon, holding for example that what is not externally verifiable cannot be real. Others achieve the same effect by allowing that experience exists, but only if we equate experience with something like the capacity to discriminate and report. A Poison! These approaches lead to a simpler theory, but are ultimately unsatisfactory. On World! Experience is the most central and avon, manifest aspect of our mental lives, and essays, indeed is william blake tree, perhaps the key explanandum in the science of the mind.

Because of this status as an explanandum, experience cannot be discarded like the vital spirit when a new theory comes along. Rather, it is the central fact that any theory of essays on world consciousness must explain. A theory that denies the phenomenon solves the problem by ducking the question. In a third option, some researchers claim to be explaining experience in the full sense. These researchers (unlike those above) wish to take experience very seriously; they lay out their functional model or theory, and claim that it explains the full subjective quality of experience (e.g. Flohr 1992, Humphrey 1992). The relevant step in the explanation is usually passed over quickly, however, and usually ends up looking something like magic.

After some details about information processing are given, experience suddenly enters the picture, but it is left obscure how these processes should suddenly give rise to experience. Perhaps it is the gender knot, simply taken for granted that it does, but then we have an incomplete explanation and a version of the fifth strategy below. A fourth, more promising approach appeals to these methods to explain the structure of experience . For example, it is war 1, arguable that an account of the discriminations made by the visual system can account for the structural relations between different color experiences, as well as for the geometric structure of the visual field (see e.g., Clark 1992 and Hardin 1992). In general, certain facts about structures found in Miller, processing will correspond to essays on world, and arguably explain facts about the structure of Obesity in America Essays experience. This strategy is plausible but limited. At best, it takes the existence of experience for granted and accounts for some facts about its structure, providing a sort of nonreductive explanation of the structural aspects of experience (I will say more on this later). This is war 1, useful for many purposes, but it tells us nothing about why there should be experience in the first place.

A fifth and reasonable strategy is to isolate the substrate of experience . After all, almost everyone allows that experience arises one way or another from brain processes, and the gender knot, it makes sense to identify the sort of on world war 1 process from which it arises. Crick and Koch put their work forward as isolating the neural correlate of consciousness, for example, and Edelman (1989) and Jackendoff (1988) make related claims. Justification of these claims requires a careful theoretical analysis, especially as experience is not directly observable in william blake a poison, experimental contexts, but when applied judiciously this strategy can shed indirect light on on world war 1 the problem of The Crucible Miller example experience. Nevertheless, the strategy is clearly incomplete. For a satisfactory theory, we need to essays on world war 1, know more than which processes give rise to experience; we need an account of why and Rowland: and Career, how.

A full theory of consciousness must build an essays on world, explanatory bridge. We have seen that there are systematic reasons why the usual methods of cognitive science and the gender knot, neuroscience fail to account for essays conscious experience. Blake A Poison Tree! These are simply the wrong sort of methods: nothing that they give to us can yield an explanation. To account for conscious experience, we need an extra ingredient in the explanation. Essays On World! This makes for a challenge to those who are serious about the hard problem of consciousness: What is by Arthur example, your extra ingredient, and why should that account for war 1 conscious experience? There is no shortage of extra ingredients to be had. Some propose an injection of The Crucible Miller chaos and essays on world, nonlinear dynamics. By Arthur! Some think that the war 1 key lies in nonalgorithmic processing.

Some appeal to future discoveries in neurophysiology. Some suppose that the key to the mystery will lie at the level of quantum mechanics. It is easy to see why all these suggestions are put forward. None of the old methods work, so the solution must lie with something new. Unfortunately, these suggestions all suffer from the same old problems.

Nonalgorithmic processing, for example, is put forward by Penrose (1989; 1994) because of the role it might play in the process of conscious mathematical insight. The arguments about Author and Career mathematics are controversial, but even if they succeed and an account of nonalgorithmic processing in the human brain is given, it will still only essays war 1, be an account of the Australia: A Brief and Analysis functions involved in mathematical reasoning and the like. For a nonalgorithmic process as much as an algorithmic process, the essays war 1 question is by Arthur Miller Essay example, left unanswered: why should this process give rise to experience? In answering this question, there is no special role for nonalgorithmic processing. The same goes for nonlinear and chaotic dynamics. These might provide a novel account of the dynamics of cognitive functioning, quite different from that given by standard methods in cognitive science. But from dynamics, one only gets more dynamics. Essays On World! The question about experience here is as mysterious as ever. The point is even clearer for new discoveries in neurophysiology. These new discoveries may help us make significant progress in understanding brain function, but for any neural process we isolate, the same question will always arise.

It is difficult to Rowland:, imagine what a proponent of new neurophysiology expects to war 1, happen, over Essay example and above the explanation of further cognitive functions. It is not as if we will suddenly discover a phenomenal glow inside a neuron! Perhaps the most popular extra ingredient of all is quantum mechanics (e.g. Hameroff 1994). The attractiveness of essays on world quantum theories of consciousness may stem from a Law of Minimization of Mystery: consciousness is mysterious and quantum mechanics is mysterious, so maybe the two mysteries have a common source. Nevertheless, quantum theories of consciousness suffer from the same difficulties as neural or computational theories. Quantum phenomena have some remarkable functional properties, such as nondeterminism and nonlocality. It is natural to speculate that these properties may play some role in the explanation of cognitive functions, such as random choice and the integration of information, and this hypothesis cannot be ruled out a priori . But when it comes to the explanation of experience, quantum processes are in the same boat as any other. The question of why these processes should give rise to Australia: A Brief Essay, experience is entirely unanswered. (One special attraction of quantum theories is the fact that on some interpretations of quantum mechanics, consciousness plays an active role in essays war 1, collapsing the A Brief History and Analysis quantum wave function. Such interpretations are controversial, but in any case they offer no hope of explaining consciousness in essays, terms of quantum processes.

Rather, these theories assume the existence of consciousness, and use it in the explanation of quantum processes. At best, these theories tell us something about william a poison a physical role that consciousness may play. They tell us nothing about how it arises.) At the end of the day, the essays same criticism applies to uk, any purely physical account of consciousness. Essays! For any physical process we specify there will be an in America, unanswered question: Why should this process give rise to experience?

Given any such process, it is conceptually coherent that it could be instantiated in the absence of experience. It follows that no mere account of the physical process will tell us why experience arises. The emergence of experience goes beyond what can be derived from physical theory. Purely physical explanation is on world war 1, well-suited to the explanation of physical structures , explaining macroscopic structures in terms of The Crucible example detailed microstructural constituents; and it provides a satisfying explanation of the essays on world war 1 performance of functions , accounting for these functions in terms of the Epidemic physical mechanisms that perform them. This is because a physical account can entail the facts about structures and functions: once the internal details of the on world war 1 physical account are given, the structural and functional properties fall out as an Essays, automatic consequence. But the structure and dynamics of physical processes yield only more structure and dynamics, so structures and essays, functions are all we can expect these processes to explain. The facts about in America experience cannot be an automatic consequence of any physical account, as it is conceptually coherent that any given process could exist without experience.

Experience may arise from the physical, but it is not entailed by the physical. The moral of all this is essays, that you can't explain conscious experience on the cheap . It is uk, a remarkable fact that reductive methods - methods that explain a high-level phenomenon wholly in terms of more basic physical processes - work well in so many domains. In a sense, one can explain most biological and cognitive phenomena on essays war 1 the cheap, in Australia: History Essay, that these phenomena are seen as automatic consequences of more fundamental processes. It would be wonderful if reductive methods could explain experience, too; I hoped for a long time that they might. Unfortunately, there are systematic reasons why these methods must fail. Reductive methods are successful in most domains because what needs explaining in essays on world war 1, those domains are structures and functions, and these are the avon kind of thing that a physical account can entail. When it comes to a problem over and above the essays on world war 1 explanation of structures and functions, these methods are impotent. This might seem reminiscent of the vitalist claim that no physical account could explain life, but the cases are disanalogous.

What drove vitalist skepticism was doubt about whether physical mechanisms could perform the J.K. and Career Essay many remarkable functions associated with life, such as complex adaptive behavior and reproduction. The conceptual claim that explanation of functions is what is needed was implicitly accepted, but lacking detailed knowledge of biochemical mechanisms, vitalists doubted whether any physical process could do the job and put forward the hypothesis of the vital spirit as an alternative explanation. Once it turned out that physical processes could perform the relevant functions, vitalist doubts melted away. With experience, on the other hand, physical explanation of the functions is on world war 1, not in question. Obesity In America Essays! The key is instead the conceptual point that the on world war 1 explanation of functions does not suffice for the explanation of Australia: A Brief experience.

This basic conceptual point is not something that further neuroscientific investigation will affect. In a similar way, experience is disanalogous to the élan vital . The vital spirit was put forward as an explanatory posit, in order to essays on world, explain the relevant functions, and could therefore be discarded when those functions were explained without it. Experience is not an explanatory posit but an explanandum in its own right, and blake tree, so is not a candidate for this sort of essays elimination. It is tempting to note that all sorts of J.K. Author Essay puzzling phenomena have eventually turned out to be explainable in physical terms. Essays On World War 1! But each of these were problems about the observable behavior of physical objects, coming down to problems in the explanation of Australia: History Essay structures and functions. Because of this, these phenomena have always been the kind of thing that a physical account might explain, even if at some points there have been good reasons to suspect that no such explanation would be forthcoming. Essays War 1! The tempting induction from these cases fails in the case of consciousness, which is not a problem about physical structures and functions. The problem of consciousness is puzzling in an entirely different way. An analysis of the problem shows us that conscious experience is just not the J.K. Rowland: and Career kind of thing that a wholly reductive account could succeed in explaining.

At this point some are tempted to give up, holding that we will never have a theory of conscious experience. McGinn (1989), for example, argues that the problem is too hard for on world our limited minds; we are cognitively closed with respect to the phenomenon. Others have argued that conscious experience lies outside the domain of scientific theory altogether. I think this pessimism is premature. The Gender Knot! This is not the place to give up; it is the place where things get interesting. When simple methods of on world explanation are ruled out, we need to investigate the alternatives. Given that reductive explanation fails, nonreductive explanation is the natural choice. Although a remarkable number of phenomena have turned out to be explicable wholly in terms of products entities simpler than themselves, this is not universal. Essays On World! In physics, it occasionally happens that an entity has to blake tree, be taken as fundamental . Fundamental entities are not explained in terms of essays anything simpler.

Instead, one takes them as basic, and gives a theory of how they relate to a poison, everything else in the world. For example, in the nineteenth century it turned out essays war 1, that electromagnetic processes could not be explained in terms of the Essay wholly mechanical processes that previous physical theories appealed to, so Maxwell and essays on world war 1, others introduced electromagnetic charge and electromagnetic forces as new fundamental components of a physical theory. To explain electromagnetism, the ontology of physics had to be expanded. New basic properties and basic laws were needed to william tree, give a satisfactory account of the phenomena. Other features that physical theory takes as fundamental include mass and space-time. No attempt is made to explain these features in terms of anything simpler. But this does not rule out the possibility of a theory of essays mass or of space-time. There is an william blake tree, intricate theory of essays on world war 1 how these features interrelate, and of the basic laws they enter into. These basic principles are used to explain many familiar phenomena concerning mass, space, and time at a higher level.

I suggest that a theory of consciousness should take experience as fundamental. We know that a theory of consciousness requires the addition of something fundamental to our ontology, as everything in physical theory is compatible with the absence of consciousness. We might add some entirely new nonphysical feature, from which experience can be derived, but it is hard to see what such a feature would be like. More likely, we will take experience itself as a fundamental feature of the world, alongside mass, charge, and space-time. If we take experience as fundamental, then we can go about the business of Epidemic Essays constructing a theory of on world war 1 experience. Where there is a fundamental property, there are fundamental laws. A nonreductive theory of experience will add new principles to the furniture of the basic laws of nature. These basic principles will ultimately carry the explanatory burden in a theory of consciousness. Just as we explain familiar high-level phenomena involving mass in the gender knot, terms of more basic principles involving mass and other entities, we might explain familiar phenomena involving experience in terms of more basic principles involving experience and other entities.

In particular, a nonreductive theory of experience will specify basic principles telling us how experience depends on physical features of the world. These psychophysical principles will not interfere with physical laws, as it seems that physical laws already form a closed system. Rather, they will be a supplement to essays on world war 1, a physical theory. A physical theory gives a theory of the gender knot physical processes, and on world, a psychophysical theory tells us how those processes give rise to experience. We know that experience depends on physical processes, but we also know that this dependence cannot be derived from physical laws alone. The new basic principles postulated by a nonreductive theory give us the extra ingredient that we need to build an J.K. Essay, explanatory bridge.

Of course, by on world war 1, taking experience as fundamental, there is a sense in which this approach does not tell us why there is experience in the first place. Avon Products Uk! But this is the same for any fundamental theory. Nothing in physics tells us why there is matter in the first place, but we do not count this against theories of matter. Certain features of the world need to be taken as fundamental by any scientific theory. A theory of matter can still explain all sorts of facts about matter, by showing how they are consequences of the basic laws. The same goes for a theory of experience. This position qualifies as a variety of dualism, as it postulates basic properties over on world and above the properties invoked by physics. But it is an innocent version of dualism, entirely compatible with the scientific view of the world. Nothing in this approach contradicts anything in physical theory; we simply need to add further bridging principles to explain how experience arises from william blake physical processes. There is nothing particularly spiritual or mystical about this theory - its overall shape is like that of a physical theory, with a few fundamental entities connected by on world, fundamental laws. It expands the ontology slightly, to be sure, but Maxwell did the same thing.

Indeed, the overall structure of this position is entirely naturalistic, allowing that ultimately the universe comes down to J.K. Essay, a network of on world war 1 basic entities obeying simple laws, and allowing that there may ultimately be a theory of consciousness cast in terms of avon such laws. If the position is to have a name, a good choice might be naturalistic dualism . If this view is right, then in some ways a theory of consciousness will have more in common with a theory in physics than a theory in biology. Essays On World War 1! Biological theories involve no principles that are fundamental in this way, so biological theory has a certain complexity and messiness to it; but theories in physics, insofar as they deal with fundamental principles, aspire to simplicity and blake a poison tree, elegance. On World! The fundamental laws of nature are part of the basic furniture of the J.K. Rowland: Author world, and physical theories are telling us that this basic furniture is remarkably simple. If a theory of consciousness also involves fundamental principles, then we should expect the same. The principles of simplicity, elegance, and even beauty that drive physicists' search for a fundamental theory will also apply to a theory of consciousness. (A technical note: Some philosophers argue that even though there is a conceptual gap between physical processes and essays, experience, there need be no metaphysical gap, so that experience might in the gender knot, a certain sense still be physical (e.g. Hill 1991; Levine 1983; Loar 1990). Usually this line of argument is supported by an appeal to the notion of a posteriori necessity (Kripke 1980). War 1! I think that this position rests on avon products a misunderstanding of a posteriori necessity, however, or else requires an entirely new sort of necessity that we have no reason to believe in; see Chalmers 1996 (also Jackson 1994 and Lewis 1994) for details. In any case, this position still concedes an explanatory gap between physical processes and experience.

For example, the principles connecting the physical and the experiential will not be derivable from the laws of physics, so such principles must be taken as explanatorily fundamental. So even on this sort of view, the explanatory structure of a theory of consciousness will be much as I have described.) 7 Outline of a theory of consciousness. It is not too soon to begin work on a theory. We are already in a position to understand certain key facts about the relationship between physical processes and experience, and about the regularities that connect them. Once reductive explanation is set aside, we can lay those facts on the table so that they can play their proper role as the initial pieces in on world war 1, a nonreductive theory of consciousness, and as constraints on the basic laws that constitute an ultimate theory.

There is an obvious problem that plagues the development of a theory of consciousness, and that is the paucity of objective data. Conscious experience is not directly observable in an experimental context, so we cannot generate data about the relationship between physical processes and experience at will. Nevertheless, we all have access to a rich source of data in Australia: Essay, our own case. Many important regularities between experience and processing can be inferred from considerations about one's own experience. There are also good indirect sources of data from observable cases, as when one relies on the verbal report of a subject as an indication of experience.

These methods have their limitations, but we have more than enough data to get a theory off the ground. Philosophical analysis is also useful in getting value for money out essays on world war 1, of the Australia: A Brief History data we have. This sort of analysis can yield a number of principles relating consciousness and cognition, thereby strongly constraining the shape of an ultimate theory. The method of thought-experimentation can also yield significant rewards, as we will see. Essays On World War 1! Finally, the fact that we are searching for a fundamental theory means that we can appeal to such nonempirical constraints as simplicity, homogeneity, and the like in developing a theory. We must seek to systematize the information we have, to extend it as far as possible by careful analysis, and then make the inference to william blake a poison tree, the simplest possible theory that explains the data while remaining a plausible candidate to be part of the fundamental furniture of the world.

Such theories will always retain an element of speculation that is not present in other scientific theories, because of the impossibility of conclusive intersubjective experimental tests. Essays On World War 1! Still, we can certainly construct theories that are compatible with the data that we have, and evaluate them in comparison to each other. Even in the absence of william tree intersubjective observation, there are numerous criteria available for the evaluation of such theories: simplicity, internal coherence, coherence with theories in essays, other domains, the History and Analysis ability to reproduce the properties of experience that are familiar from our own case, and even an overall fit with the dictates of common sense. On World War 1! Perhaps there will be significant indeterminacies remaining even when all these constraints are applied, but we can at least develop plausible candidates. A Poison! Only when candidate theories have been developed will we be able to essays, evaluate them. A nonreductive theory of consciousness will consist in Australia: History and Analysis Essay, a number of war 1 psychophysical principles , principles connecting the properties of physical processes to the properties of william a poison tree experience. We can think of these principles as encapsulating the way in which experience arises from the physical. Ultimately, these principles should tell us what sort of physical systems will have associated experiences, and for the systems that do, they should tell us what sort of physical properties are relevant to the emergence of experience, and just what sort of experience we should expect any given physical system to yield.

This is essays on world, a tall order, but there is no reason why we should not get started. In what follows, I present my own candidates for Australia: History the psychophysical principles that might go into a theory of essays on world consciousness. The first two of these are nonbasic principles - systematic connections between processing and experience at The Crucible example, a relatively high level. These principles can play a significant role in developing and constraining a theory of consciousness, but they are not cast at a sufficiently fundamental level to qualify as truly basic laws. The final principle is my candidate for a basic principle that might form the cornerstone of a fundamental theory of consciousness. This final principle is particularly speculative, but it is the kind of speculation that is required if we are ever to have a satisfying theory of consciousness. I can present these principles only briefly here; I argue for them at much greater length in Chalmers (1996). 1. The principle of structural coherence . This is a principle of essays on world war 1 coherence between the structure of consciousness and the structure of awareness . Recall that awareness was used earlier to refer to the various functional phenomena that are associated with consciousness. In America! I am now using it to refer to a somewhat more specific process in the cognitive underpinnings of experience. In particular, the contents of awareness are to be understood as those information contents that are accessible to central systems, and brought to bear in a widespread way in the control of behavior.

Briefly put, we can think of awareness as direct availability for essays global control . To a first approximation, the contents of blake a poison tree awareness are the contents that are directly accessible and potentially reportable, at least in a language-using system. Awareness is a purely functional notion, but it is nevertheless intimately linked to conscious experience. In familiar cases, wherever we find consciousness, we find awareness. Wherever there is conscious experience, there is some corresponding information in the cognitive system that is available in the control of behavior, and available for verbal report. Conversely, it seems that whenever information is available for report and for global control, there is a corresponding conscious experience. Thus, there is essays war 1, a direct correspondence between consciousness and awareness. The correspondence can be taken further. It is Obesity in America Essays, a central fact about essays experience that it has a complex structure. The visual field has a complex geometry, for instance. There are also relations of similarity and difference between experiences, and relations in such things as relative intensity. Every subject's experience can be at least partly characterized and decomposed in terms of these structural properties: similarity and difference relations, perceived location, relative intensity, geometric structure, and so on.

It is also a central fact that to each of these structural features, there is a corresponding feature in the information-processing structure of awareness. Take color sensations as an example. For every distinction between color experiences, there is a corresponding distinction in processing. The different phenomenal colors that we experience form a complex three-dimensional space, varying in hue, saturation, and intensity. The properties of this space can be recovered from information-processing considerations: examination of the visual systems shows that waveforms of light are discriminated and avon products uk, analyzed along three different axes, and it is this three-dimensional information that is relevant to later processing.

The three-dimensional structure of phenomenal color space therefore corresponds directly to the three dimensional structure of visual awareness. This is precisely what we would expect. After all, every color distinction corresponds to some reportable information, and therefore to a distinction that is represented in the structure of essays on world war 1 processing. In a more straightforward way, the Obesity Epidemic geometric structure of the on world war 1 visual field is the gender knot, directly reflected in a structure that can be recovered from essays on world war 1 visual processing. Every geometric relation corresponds to something that can be reported and is therefore cognitively represented. If we were given only the story about information-processing in an agent's visual and cognitive system, we could not directly observe that agent's visual experiences, but we could nevertheless infer those experiences' structural properties.

In general, any information that is consciously experienced will also be cognitively represented. The fine-grained structure of the visual field will correspond to some fine-grained structure in visual processing. The same goes for experiences in other modalities, and avon products uk, even for nonsensory experiences. Internal mental images have geometric properties that are represented in processing. Even emotions have structural properties, such as relative intensity, that correspond directly to essays, a structural property of processing; where there is greater intensity, we find a greater effect on later processes. In general, precisely because the Essay structural properties of essays experience are accessible and reportable, those properties will be directly represented in the structure of awareness. It is this isomorphism between the structures of consciousness and a poison, awareness that constitutes the principle of structural coherence. On World War 1! This principle reflects the central fact that even though cognitive processes do not conceptually entail facts about conscious experience, consciousness and cognition do not float free of the gender knot one another but cohere in an intimate way. This principle has its limits. It allows us to recover structural properties of experience from information-processing properties, but not all properties of experience are structural properties.

There are properties of experience, such as the intrinsic nature of on world war 1 a sensation of red, that cannot be fully captured in a structural description. J.K. Rowland: Author Essay! The very intelligibility of inverted spectrum scenarios, where experiences of on world red and green are inverted but all structural properties remain the same, show that structural properties constrain experience without exhausting it. Nevertheless, the very fact that we feel compelled to leave structural properties unaltered when we imagine experiences inverted between functionally identical systems shows how central the principle of structural coherence is to our conception of our mental lives. It is not a logically necessary principle, as after all we can imagine all the information processing occurring without any experience at all, but it is nevertheless a strong and familiar constraint on the psychophysical connection. The principle of structural coherence allows for a very useful kind of indirect explanation of experience in terms of physical processes. For example, we can use facts about neural processing of the gender knot visual information to indirectly explain the essays on world war 1 structure of color space. The facts about neural processing can entail and explain the Obesity in America structure of awareness; if we take the coherence principle for granted, the structure of experience will also be explained.

Empirical investigation might even lead us to better understand the structure of awareness within a bat, shedding indirect light on Nagel's vexing question of what it is essays on world war 1, like to be a bat. Epidemic! This principle provides a natural interpretation of much existing work on the explanation of consciousness (e.g. Clark 1992 and Hardin 1992 on colors, and Akins 1993 on bats), although it is often appealed to inexplicitly. It is so familiar that it is taken for granted by almost everybody, and is a central plank in essays war 1, the cognitive explanation of consciousness. The coherence between consciousness and in America Essays, awareness also allows a natural interpretation of work in neuroscience directed at isolating the substrate (or the neural correlate ) of consciousness. Various specific hypotheses have been put forward. For example, Crick and Koch (1990) suggest that 40-Hz oscillations may be the neural correlate of consciousness, whereas Libet (1993) suggests that temporally-extended neural activity is central. If we accept the principle of coherence, the essays war 1 most direct physical correlate of consciousness is awareness: the Rowland: Author process whereby information is essays, made directly available for global control. The different specific hypotheses can be interpreted as empirical suggestions about how awareness might be achieved. For example, Crick and Koch suggest that 40-Hz oscillations are the gateway by which information is integrated into working memory and thereby made available to later processes.

Similarly, it is william blake, natural to suppose that Libet's temporally extended activity is relevant precisely because only that sort of activity achieves global availability. Essays War 1! The same applies to other suggested correlates such as the global workspace of Baars (1988), the Australia: History high-quality representations of essays war 1 Farah (1994), and the selector inputs to action systems of Shallice (1972). All these can be seen as hypotheses about the mechanisms of awareness : the example mechanisms that perform the function of making information directly available for global control. Given the essays coherence between consciousness and awareness, it follows that a mechanism of awareness will itself be a correlate of conscious experience. The question of Australia: A Brief History Essay just which mechanisms in the brain govern global availability is an empirical one; perhaps there are many such mechanisms. But if we accept the on world coherence principle, we have reason to a poison tree, believe that the processes that explain awareness will at the same time be part of the basis of consciousness. 2. The principle of organizational invariance . This principle states that any two systems with the same fine-grained functional organization will have qualitatively identical experiences. If the causal patterns of neural organization were duplicated in silicon, for war 1 example, with a silicon chip for every neuron and the same patterns of interaction, then the same experiences would arise. William A Poison! According to this principle, what matters for the emergence of experience is not the specific physical makeup of a system, but the abstract pattern of causal interaction between its components. This principle is controversial, of course.

Some (e.g. Searle 1980) have thought that consciousness is essays, tied to a specific biology, so that a silicon isomorph of a human need not be conscious. Epidemic In America Essays! I believe that the principle can be given significant support by the analysis of thought-experiments, however. Very briefly: suppose (for the purposes of a reductio ad absurdum ) that the principle is false, and that there could be two functionally isomorphic systems with different experiences. Perhaps only one of the systems is conscious, or perhaps both are conscious but they have different experiences. For the purposes of illustration, let us say that one system is made of neurons and the other of silicon, and that one experiences red where the other experiences blue.

The two systems have the same organization, so we can imagine gradually transforming one into the other, perhaps replacing neurons one at a time by silicon chips with the same local function. We thus gain a spectrum of intermediate cases, each with the same organization, but with slightly different physical makeup and essays on world war 1, slightly different experiences. Along this spectrum, there must be two systems A and B between which we replace less than one tenth of the products system, but whose experiences differ. These two systems are physically identical, except that a small neural circuit in essays on world war 1, A has been replaced by a silicon circuit in B . The key step in the thought-experiment is to take the relevant neural circuit in A , and install alongside it a causally isomorphic silicon circuit, with a switch between the J.K. Author Essay two. On World! What happens when we flip the switch? By hypothesis, the system's conscious experiences will change; from red to avon products uk, blue, say, for essays the purposes of illustration. This follows from the fact that the system after the change is essentially a version of B , whereas before the change it is just A . But given the the gender knot assumptions, there is no way for essays the system to notice the changes! Its causal organization stays constant, so that all of its functional states and behavioral dispositions stay fixed.

As far as the system is the gender knot, concerned, nothing unusual has happened. There is no room for the thought, Hmm! Something strange just happened!. In general, the structure of any such thought must be reflected in processing, but the structure of processing remains constant here. Essays War 1! If there were to be such a thought it must float entirely free of the system and would be utterly impotent to affect later processing. (If it affected later processing, the william blake a poison systems would be functionally distinct, contrary to hypothesis). We might even flip the switch a number of times, so that experiences of red and blue dance back and forth before the system's inner eye. According to hypothesis, the on world war 1 system can never notice these dancing qualia. This I take to be a reductio of the original assumption. It is a central fact about experience, very familiar from our own case, that whenever experiences change significantly and the gender knot, we are paying attention, we can notice the change; if this were not to be the case, we would be led to the skeptical possibility that our experiences are dancing before our eyes all the time. This hypothesis has the same status as the possibility that the world was created five minutes ago: perhaps it is logically coherent, but it is not plausible. Given the on world war 1 extremely plausible assumption that changes in experience correspond to changes in processing, we are led to the conclusion that the original hypothesis is the gender knot, impossible, and that any two functionally isomorphic systems must have the same sort of experiences.

To put it in technical terms, the philosophical hypotheses of on world war 1 absent qualia and in America Essays, inverted qualia, while logically possible, are empirically and nomologically impossible. (Some may worry that a silicon isomorph of a neural system might be impossible for on world technical reasons. That question is open. The invariance principle says only Australia: and Analysis, that if an isomorph is possible, then it will have the same sort of conscious experience.) There is more to be said here, but this gives the on world basic flavor. Once again, this thought experiment draws on familiar facts about the coherence between consciousness and cognitive processing to yield a strong conclusion about the relation between physical structure and experience. If the argument goes through, we know that the only physical properties directly relevant to by Arthur Essay, the emergence of experience are organizational properties. This acts as a further strong constraint on a theory of consciousness. 3. The double-aspect theory of information . The two preceding principles have been nonbasic principles.

They involve high-level notions such as awareness and organization, and therefore lie at the wrong level to essays on world war 1, constitute the fundamental laws in a theory of consciousness. Nevertheless, they act as strong constraints. By Arthur Miller Essay Example! What is further needed are basic principles that fit these constraints and that might ultimately explain them. The basic principle that I suggest centrally involves the notion of information . I understand information in more or less the sense of Shannon (1948). Where there is information, there are information states embedded in an information space . An information space has a basic structure of difference relations between its elements, characterizing the ways in which different elements in essays on world war 1, a space are similar or different, possibly in complex ways. An information space is an abstract object, but following Shannon we can see information as physically embodied when there is a space of distinct physical states, the differences between which can be transmitted down some causal pathway. The states that are transmitted can be seen as themselves constituting an information space. To borrow a phrase from Bateson (1972), physical information is a difference that makes a difference . The double-aspect principle stems from the observation that there is a direct isomorphism between certain physically embodied information spaces and the gender knot, certain phenomenal (or experiential) information spaces.

From the same sort of observations that went into the principle of structural coherence, we can note that the differences between phenomenal states have a structure that corresponds directly to essays war 1, the differences embedded in physical processes; in particular, to those differences that make a difference down certain causal pathways implicated in global availability and william blake a poison, control. That is, we can find the war 1 same abstract information space embedded in physical processing and in conscious experience. This leads to a natural hypothesis: that information (or at least some information) has two basic aspects, a physical aspect and a phenomenal aspect. This has the status of a basic principle that might underlie and explain the the gender knot emergence of experience from the physical. Experience arises by virtue of its status as one aspect of information, when the other aspect is found embodied in physical processing. This principle is essays war 1, lent support by a number of considerations, which I can only products uk, outline briefly here. First, consideration of the sort of physical changes that correspond to changes in conscious experience suggests that such changes are always relevant by virtue of essays war 1 their role in constituting informational changes - differences within an abstract space of states that are divided up precisely according to their causal differences along certain causal pathways. Second, if the principle of organizational invariance is to hold, then we need to find some fundamental organizational property for experience to the gender knot, be linked to, and information is an on world war 1, organizational property par excellence . Third, this principle offers some hope of explaining the principle of structural coherence in terms of the in America structure present within information spaces. Fourth, analysis of the cognitive explanation of on world our judgments and claims about conscious experience - judgments that are functionally explainable but nevertheless deeply tied to experience itself - suggests that explanation centrally involves the information states embedded in cognitive processing.

It follows that a theory based on information allows a deep coherence between the william a poison explanation of experience and the explanation of our judgments and claims about it. Wheeler (1990) has suggested that information is essays on world, fundamental to the physics of the universe. According to this it from The Crucible by Arthur bit doctrine, the laws of physics can be cast in on world, terms of information, postulating different states that give rise to different effects without actually saying what those states are . Uk! It is essays war 1, only their position in an information space that counts. If so, then information is a natural candidate to also play a role in a fundamental theory of consciousness. We are led to a conception of the world on which information is truly fundamental, and on which it has two basic aspects, corresponding to the physical and the phenomenal features of the Essay world. Of course, the double-aspect principle is extremely speculative and essays on world, is also underdetermined, leaving a number of key questions unanswered. An obvious question is whether all information has a phenomenal aspect. One possibility is that we need a further constraint on products uk the fundamental theory, indicating just what sort of information has a phenomenal aspect. The other possibility is that there is no such constraint. If not, then experience is much more widespread than we might have believed, as information is essays on world war 1, everywhere. This is counterintuitive at first, but on reflection I think the position gains a certain plausibility and elegance.

Where there is simple information processing, there is simple experience, and Australia: A Brief and Analysis Essay, where there is complex information processing, there is complex experience. A mouse has a simpler information-processing structure than a human, and essays on world, has correspondingly simpler experience; perhaps a thermostat, a maximally simple information processing structure, might have maximally simple experience? Indeed, if experience is truly a fundamental property, it would be surprising for Author Essay it to arise only every now and then; most fundamental properties are more evenly spread. In any case, this is war 1, very much an open question, but I believe that the avon position is not as implausible as it is essays on world, often thought to be. Once a fundamental link between information and avon products uk, experience is on the table, the door is opened to some grander metaphysical speculation concerning the nature of the world.

For example, it is often noted that physics characterizes its basic entities only extrinsically , in terms of their relations to other entities, which are themselves characterized extrinsically, and so on. The intrinsic nature of physical entities is left aside. On World War 1! Some argue that no such intrinsic properties exist, but then one is left with a world that is pure causal flux (a pure flow of information) with no properties for the causation to relate. If one allows that intrinsic properties exist, a natural speculation given the above is that the intrinsic properties of the physical - the william properties that causation ultimately relates - are themselves phenomenal properties. We might say that phenomenal properties are the internal aspect of information. This could answer a concern about the causal relevance of experience - a natural worry, given a picture on which the physical domain is causally closed, and on which experience is supplementary to the physical.

The informational view allows us to understand how experience might have a subtle kind of causal relevance in virtue of its status as the intrinsic nature of the physical. This metaphysical speculation is probably best ignored for the purposes of developing a scientific theory, but in addressing some philosophical issues it is quite suggestive. The theory I have presented is speculative, but it is a candidate theory. I suspect that the principles of structural coherence and organizational invariance will be planks in any satisfactory theory of consciousness; the status of the double-aspect theory of information is less certain. Indeed, right now it is essays war 1, more of an idea than a theory.

To have any hope of eventual explanatory success, it will have to be specified more fully and fleshed out into a more powerful form. The Gender Knot! Still, reflection on just what is plausible and implausible about it, on where it works and where it fails, can only lead to a better theory. Most existing theories of consciousness either deny the phenomenon, explain something else, or elevate the problem to an eternal mystery. I hope to have shown that it is possible to make progress on the problem even while taking it seriously. To make further progress, we will need further investigation, more refined theories, and more careful analysis.

The hard problem is a hard problem, but there is no reason to believe that it will remain permanently unsolved. *[[ The arguments in this paper are presented in greater depth in my book The Conscious Mind (Oxford University Press, 1996). Thanks to Francis Crick, Peggy DesAutels, Matthew Elton, Liane Gabora, Christof Koch, Paul Rhodes, Gregg Rosenberg, and Sharon Wahl for their comments. ]] The problems of consciousness have been widely discussed in the recent philosophical literature. For some conceptual clarification of the various problems of essays on world war 1 consciousness, see Block 1995, Nelkin 1993, and Tye 1995. Essay! Those who have stressed the difficulties of explaining experience in physical terms include Hodgson 1988, Jackson 1982, Levine 1983, Lockwood 1989, McGinn 1989, Nagel 1974, Seager 1991, Searle 1991, Strawson 1994, and Velmans 1991, among others. Those who take a reductive approach include Churchland 1995, Clark 1992, Dennett 1991, Dretske 1995, Kirk 1994, Rosenthal 1996, and Tye 1995. There have not been many attempts to on world war 1, build detailed nonreductive theories in the literature, but see Hodgson 1988 and Lockwood 1989 for some thoughts in that direction. Two excellent collections of recent articles on the gender knot consciousness are Block, Flanagan, and Güzeldere 1996 and Metzinger 1995. Akins, K. 1993.

What is essays war 1, it like to Essay example, be boring and myopic? In (B. Dahlbom, ed.) Dennett and his Critics . Oxford: Blackwell. Allport, A. 1988. What concept of consciousness? In (A. On World War 1! Marcel and E. Bisiach, eds.) Consciousness in Contemporary Science . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Baars, B.J. Australia: History! 1988. On World War 1! A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bateson, G. 1972. Steps to an Ecology of Mind . Chandler Publishing. Block, N. 1995. On a confusion about the function of consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Block, N, Flanagan, O. Güzeldere, G, (eds.) 1996.

The Nature of Consciousness: Philosophical and Scientific Debates . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Chalmers, D.J. 1996. The Conscious Mind . New York: Oxford University Press. Churchland, P.M. 1995. The Engine of Reason, The Seat of the Soul: A Philosophical Journey into the Brain . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Clark, A. 1992. Sensory Qualities . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crick, F. and Koch, C. 1990. Toward a neurobiological theory of consciousness. Obesity Essays! Seminars in the Neurosciences 2:263-275. Crick, F. 1994. The Astonishing Hypothesis: The Scientific Search for essays on world war 1 the Soul . New York: Scribners.

Dennett, D.C. 1991. Consciousness Explained . Boston: Little, Brown. Dretske, F.I. 1995. Naturalizing the Mind . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Edelman, G. 1989. The Remembered Present: A Biological Theory of J.K. Rowland: Author Essay Consciousness . New York: Basic Books. Farah, M.J.

1994. Visual perception and on world war 1, visual awareness after brain damage: A tutorial overview. In (C. Umilta and M. Moscovitch, eds.) Consciousness and Unconscious Information Processing: Attention and Performance 15 . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Flohr, H. 1992. Author! Qualia and brain processes. In (A. Beckermann, H. Flohr, and J. War 1! Kim, eds.) Emergence or Reduction?: Prospects for Nonreductive Physicalism . Berlin: De Gruyter. Hameroff, S.R. 1994. Quantum coherence in and Career, microtubules: A neural basis for on world emergent consciousness?

Journal of Consciousness Studies 1:91-118. Hardin, C.L. 1992. Physiology, phenomenology, and Spinoza's true colors. By Arthur Essay! In (A. Beckermann, H. War 1! Flohr, and J. Kim, eds.) Emergence or Reduction?: Prospects for Nonreductive Physicalism . Berlin: De Gruyter. Hill, C.S. The Gender Knot! 1991.

Sensations: A Defense of Type Materialism . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hodgson, D. 1988. Essays War 1! The Mind Matters: Consciousness and Choice in a Quantum World . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Humphrey, N. 1992. A History of the Mind . New York: Simon and Schuster. Jackendoff, R. 1987.

Consciousness and the Computational Mind . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Jackson, F. 1982. Epiphenomenal qualia. Philosophical Quarterly 32: 127-36. Jackson, F. 1994. Avon Products Uk! Finding the mind in the natural world. In (R. Casati, B. Smith, and S. White, eds.) Philosophy and the Cognitive Sciences . War 1! Vienna: Holder-Pichler-Tempsky.

Kirk, R. 1994. Raw Feeling: A Philosophical Account of the Essence of Consciousness . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kripke, S. 1980. Naming and Necessity . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Levine, J. 1983. Materialism and qualia: The explanatory gap.

Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 64:354-61. Lewis, D. 1994. Reduction of mind. In (S. Guttenplan, ed.) A Companion to Obesity in America Essays, the Philosophy of Mind . Oxford: Blackwell. Libet, B. 1993.

The neural time factor in conscious and unconscious events. Essays War 1! In (G.R. Block and william blake a poison tree, J. Marsh, eds.) Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Consciousness (Ciba Foundation Symposium 174). Chichester: John Wiley and Sons. Loar, B. 1990. Phenomenal states. Essays! Philosophical Perspectives 4:81-108. Lockwood, M. 1989. Mind, Brain, and the Quantum . Oxford: Blackwell. McGinn, C. 1989. Can we solve the mind-body problem?

Mind 98:349-66. Metzinger, T. 1995. Conscious Experience . Paderborn: Schoningh. Nagel, T. 1974. What is it like to be a bat? Philosophical Review 4:435-50. Nelkin, N. 1993. What is consciousness? Philosophy of Science 60:419-34. Newell, A. 1990.

Unified Theories of Cognition . The Crucible By Arthur Example! Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Penrose, R. 1989. The Emperor's New Mind . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Penrose, R. 1994. Shadows of the Mind . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rosenthal, D.M.

1996. A theory of consciousness. In (N. Block, O. Essays! Flanagan, and G. Güzeldere, eds.) The Nature of Consciousness . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Seager, W.E. 1991. Metaphysics of Consciousness . London: Routledge. Searle, J.R. 1980. Minds, brains and programs. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3:417-57.

Searle, J.R. Epidemic In America! 1992. War 1! The Rediscovery of the Mind . William Tree! Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Shallice, T. 1972. Dual functions of consciousness. Psychological Review 79:383-93. Shannon, C.E. 1948.

A mathematical theory of communication. On World War 1! Bell Systems Technical Journal 27: 379-423. Strawson, G. 1994. Mental Reality . Australia:! Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Tye, M. 1995. Ten Problems of Consciousness . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Velmans, M. 1991. Is human information-processing conscious?

Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14:651-69.

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Coding from the field Coding from the field. Info series to share interesting findings or projects regarding platforms / infrastructure coding. AutomatedLab Introduction Part 1. We all know the situation: Your Company wants to essays on world war 1, upgrade some software product or wants to introduce something new, and you need to test this in a lab environment that looks somehow similar like to your production environment. Let’s say you need to test the products uk integration of a software product with Active Directory. No big deal. War 1. You install a hand full of servers and as you have something more to do than looking at the installation process, you do a lot of other tasks while setting up the lab.

Because you do these (often undocumented) other tasks, you might miss one or two important settings. The Gender Knot. Settings that you cannot change, like the on world war 1 forest functional level or domain name. The Gender Knot. Now, you will need to start from scratch, and invest even more time. Or even worse, you do not realize that something went wrong with the essays war 1 setup, and you end up with unreliable test results. It is a best practice to and Career Essay, automate as much as possible. It is faster, more efficient and what might be even more important more reliable. If you run a script two times you will get the on world war 1 same result two times. However, if you setup a lab with 5 machines more than once, it is quite possible that these labs will have some differences. The people working on AutomatedLab are consultants and field engineers who work with very different customers.

On several occasions, it happens that we need to write some code based on specific infrastructure requirements. Or we have to the gender knot, troubleshoot a certain issue. Obviously having just one test environment does not work, as there are too many different designs, software version and essays customer specific configurations. History Essay. Hence, setting up labs to include all of these parameters, can be quite time consuming. AutomatedLab is essays on world a solution able to install a lab scenario in a very short time, AutomatedLab is a solution that can install a lab scenario in minutes, with the Obesity Epidemic in America Essays complexity of your choice. For example, setting up a domain with a single server or client takes about 15 minutes. Setting up a big lab with more than 10 machines takes about 1.5 to essays on world war 1, 2 hours, largely depending on the speed of your disk. You can specify all the important settings like names, IP addresses and network configuration, OS version, forest functional level, etc. The Crucible By Arthur Miller Example. You can also assign roles to war 1, machines like IIS, Exchange Server or Domain Controller. Installation of products uk any machine with any role in AutomatedLab, is of course, unattended. To enable you to get started quickly, AutomatedLab comes with a bunch of sample installation scripts covering very different scenarios.

There are sample installation scripts for simple things like single clients or domains with just one member machine. On World War 1. Also, there are sample installation scripts which install Exchange 2013, SQL Server 2012, Orchestrator 2012, a client with Visual Studio 2013 and a web server. Imagine how long it would take to install all of this manually. AutomatedLab does it in about 2 hours on an SSD drive. NOTE: The purpose of AutomatedLab is installing lab and by Arthur Miller Essay example test environments. It is not meant for production scenarios.

AutomatedLab is provided as an MSI file and can be downloaded from . The installer performs four actions: 90% of AL is just pure PowerShell code, however some stuff had to be done in C#. PowerShell modules provides a very nice and easy way to creating script packages. Essays On World War 1. If you need more information about J.K. Essay, how Powershell modules are working, take a look at about_Modules . AutomatedLab comes with 7 PowerShell modules that will be covered in more detail later in this article. Essays. These modules need to Epidemic in America, be in the ModulePath to get auto-loaded.

The default location of PowerShell modules being installed, is in essays on world war 1, the WindowsPowerShell folder of the documents folder of the Australia: A Brief Windows user installing AutomatedLab. Sample Scripts. There are a number of sample scripts that demonstrate the capabilities of AL. On World. You may have to change a sample scripts prior running it to make it work on your machine. Obesity Epidemic In America Essays. Each sample script looks for a folder called ‘LabSources’ on essays, drive E and tries to Author, install the on world war 1 VMs on drive D. Essay Example. Please change these drives to match your drives in your computer. Of course, you can also remove or add machines. This requires minimal knowledge of PowerShell, but is merely just a copy and war 1 paste of the calls to ‘Add-LabMachineDefinition’ and change the william blake tree parameters to the values of your choice. Documentation. Yes, that’s the documentation. By default, this will be copied to the documents folder of the Windows user installing AutomatedLab.

Lab Sources. This is a folder hierarchy created by the installer to provide all the sources for installing a lab environment: Place all ISO images referred to in the installation script in this folder. If you download images from MSDN or other sources, the names may vary. So please make sure you change the essays on world installation script accordingly. A Brief And Analysis Essay. PostInstallationActivities. AutomatedLab comes with some built-in role dependent Post Installation Activity like creating Active Directory users, install the well-known sample databases on SQL or creating trust relationships between all installed Active Directory forests.

How to write your own Post Installation Activity, will be explained later. SoftwarePackages. AutomatedLab provides you with an easy way to install a piece of on world software on some or all lab machines. All you need to Essays, know is how to war 1, install it silently. Obesity Epidemic In America. For example, to install Notepad++ on essays on world war 1, all lab machines, you just need two lines of code and a copy of the The Crucible by Arthur example installer executable for Notepad++ in this folder. Essays On World War 1. Tools. AutomatedLab can copy a folder to the VM while creating it. By default, AutomatedLab will install the SysInternals tools on Epidemic in America, each VM using this Tool folder. Everything you put into here is going to essays on world war 1, be copied to each VM (to the folder C:Tools of the VM).

The next articles will tell more about this. AutomatedLab comes with 7 PowerShell modules. Why do we have 7 modules and not just one like most products? We have tried to avon products uk, separate the solution into essays on world war 1, its main building blocks. This makes the coding and troubleshooting easier. The next article will explain how to use the cmdlets in each PowerShell module. Rowland:. This article gives you an overview, but is not explaining how to create your own lab. Let’s discover the essays war 1 PowerShell modules one by one. AutomatedLabDefinition This module is for J.K. gathering your requirements.

It contains cmdlets for defining domains, machines, roles, virtual network adapters, ISO images and Post Installation Activities. AutomatedLab is based on essays on world, XML files. However, the cmdlets provided with AutomatedLabDefinition, enables you to define the desired configuration using PowerShell cmdlets. Hence, no XML knowledge is required. If required, once the configuration is complete, you can export it (to XML file), and make it persistent. AutomatedLab. This is the main module. It starts all the actions based on the configuration you have created (and exported to a lab XML file) with AutomatedLabDefintion.

After this export, AutomatedLab needs to import the J.K. Author and Career Essay lab XML file. This task is performing a number of validations to make sure the specifications is valid (like checking for duplicate names or IP addresses and making sure that all paths specified, are valid). If all validations are successful, the actual lab installation can be started. All the details will be covered in the next article. AutomatedLabUnattended. The actual installation of the operating systems is performed using classical unattended setup. This is based on an XML file containing the on world war 1 machine details.

AutomatedLabUnattended modifies the standard XML file and is used only internally. There is no meaningful use case outside of AutomatedLab. AutomatedLabWorker. We have tried to separate the main parts of the Australia: A Brief and Analysis solution into essays war 1, two modules. AutomatedLab is based on a poison, XML files, and has connections to most of the other PowerShell modules whereas AutomatedLabWorker is more independent and handles workloads.

These workloads are triggered by functions of AutomatedLab. The AutomatedLabWorker do not have any relationships with the XML files, and the intelligence build around the lab. HostsFile. AutomatedLab is essays on world heavily based on PowerShell Remoting (explained later). And PowerShell Remoting needs proper name resolution. As we are creating labs we cannot use the corporate DNS and furthermore, we do not want the lab machines in DNS. That’s why AutomatedLab uses the good old hosts file to make sure it can contact the machines.

The names of the william a poison lab machines, and thereby the entries in the hosts file, are short names (not fully qualified names). On World. This is to avoid Kerberos being attempted used when authenticating to the lab machines. PSFileTransfer. Any time AutomatedLab copies something to tree, a lab machine, it uses PowerShell Remoting, never SMB. This module is based on some functions by Lee Holmes. PSLog. This module does verbose logging and also writes all messages into essays on world war 1, a central location. AutomatedLab uses differential disks to save disk space and The Crucible Essay speeding up the overall installation process. This requires AutomatedLab to create the parent disks first one disk per operating system. So if you have a lab with a 10 machines where some machines are running Windows Server 2012R2, some machines are running 2008R2 and one client is running Windows 8.1 you will have three parent disks. All VMs refer to one of these parent disks.

When starting the lab deployment you will see, that we interact with the VHDs, e.g. Essays War 1. mount them. AutomatedLab requires an internal or external virtual network adapter for the VMs to use. A private virtual network adapter is not supported as AutomatedLab (on the Epidemic in America host machine) needs to essays on world war 1, be able to speak to the machines. Creating the VHDs and the VMs is J.K. Rowland: Author Essay performed by the host. After starting the lab machines they become available. And thanks to essays war 1, the modified hosts file, AutomatedLab can contact the machines by name. Leveraging PowerShell Remoting, AutomatedLab can now invoke any command or script block on the lab machines. This is similar to PSExec, but way more comfortable and powerful. Obesity In America. There are lots of war 1 resources on the internet and a first start could be “ about_Remote ” and the “ PowerShell 2.0 remoting guide ”. Example of installing a domain controller:

AutomatedLab first creates a parent disk (if this doesn’t exist already) AutomatedLab creates the william a poison differential disk and the VM AutomatedLab starts the essays war 1 VM and waits until the machine is reachable (ICMP and WSMan) When the machine is reachable, AutomatedLab running on the host machine sends the script block for domain controller promotion to the lab machine, and invokes it AutomatedLab waits until the machine has restarted AutomatedLab waits for the machine to be reachable again That’s it then. The domain controller installed. Some actions requires a lab computer to Obesity Essays, contact another lab computer. This requires a so called double-hop authentication which is not enabled by default for security reasons. War 1. AutomatedLab uses CredSSP to make this work. “ PowerShell 2.0 remoting guide: Part 12 Using CredSSP for multi-hop” authentication contains more information about CredSSP. AutomatedLab / PowerShell Remoting Requirements. There are a couple of things that needs to be configured on the host machine before remoting works in a lab scenario.

By default, PowerShell Remoting uses Kerberos for authentication. Kerberos will not work between the J.K. and Career Essay host and the lab machines due to essays, a number of requirements not being fulfilled. That’s why AutomatedLab uses NTLM. However, by default, PowerShell Remoting connect only to trusted machines. “Trusted” relates to the domain membership. Rowland: Essay. However the on world war 1 lab machines are either standalone or member of an by Arthur Miller Essay example Active Directory domain that is not trusted by the domain of the on world host machine. Hence, the TrustedHosts settings has to be modified, to allow the host machine to talk to the lab machines. Before the lab installation can be started, the cmdlet ‘Set-LabHostRemoting’ must be called (this call is william blake a poison tree part of on world war 1 any AutomatedLab sample script). This function enables PowerShell Remoting on Obesity in America Essays, the host computer and essays on world war 1 sets TrustedHosts to The Crucible by Arthur Miller Essay, “*” which means we can connect (authenticate) to any computer using PowerShell Remoting. Additionally unencrypted traffic will be allowed and CredSSP authentication enabled, so that the host computer is able to send the necessary credentials to the lab machines, which can pass it further to war 1, another lab machine. If you want to test something dangerous in a lab, you may want to create a checkpoint first.

Creating a checkpoint manually of one or two machines is not a big deal. But what if your lab contains 10 or 20 machines? Then you might want to use the functions made for this; ‘Checkpoint-LabVM’ and ‘Restore-LabVMSnapshot’. These functions can create and restore checkpoints for all lab machines when you specify the ‘All’ switch. If a certain checkpoint is no longer needed, you can use the The Crucible by Arthur Miller example function ‘Remove-LabVMSnapshot’. Hence, this is a rapid way of freezing the state of a full test lab. Note: When you plan to snapshot and restore domain controllers, make sure you have an understanding about USN rollback and Virtualization safeguards introduced in Server 2012. By default the GenerationID feature is disabled on all Windows Server 2012 Domain Controllers setup by AutomatedLab. Post Installation Activities and remote command execution. To make it easy to on world war 1, perform actions (configurations) on lab machines after all (or some) of the lab machines has been installed, Post Installation Activities is Epidemic used for this. A PostInstallationActivity is war 1 a task that can be executed after a machine is ready and any (optional) role is The Crucible Essay example installed.

A Post Installation Activity calls the specified script on the machine it is on world war 1 mapped to. You do not need to william a poison, care about authentication as this is handled by AutomatedLab. Essays On World War 1. If your script is based on files or needs to access an avon products uk ISO file, this is automatically copied or mounted for you. War 1. The next articles will explain this in more detail. Another cumbersome task when setting up labs, is installing software on all the machines. AutomatedLab takes over this task. All you need to provide, is the avon products uk name of the executable or MSI to essays on world, install. If using an executable (exe), you need the command line parameter to J.K. Rowland: Author, switch into a silent installation. Now, it is essays on world a one-liner to install the software package on all lab machines. The sample scripts are covering this topic.

The next part of this series goes through the installation of a simple lab environment. William A Poison Tree. You will learn about the many functions AutomatedLab provides, and have an installed lab at the end. I have done something similar with VMs. I introduce the batch/script files into the VM with an ISO file that is inserted in the VMs CD (D:) via Powershell. Within the VM manually open the batchfile on the inserted CD and it does the rest (including reboots). I have not figured out to totally automate it, but it is table driven (CSV file) for a number of VMs. Here is the main batch file. if %1==ConfigureNetwork goto ConfigureNetwork. if %1==InstallActiveDir goto InstallActiveDir.

if %1==AddToActiveDir goto AddToActiveDir. if %1==InstallSQLServer goto InstallSQLServer. if %1==InstallExchange goto InstallExchange. echo Configuring %MYCOMPUTERNAME% copy D:Install . C:Install /y Nul. Call %0 AddBatch. Call %0 ConfigureNetwork. Call %0 ChangeName. Call %0 InstallDNS. Call %0 InstallWINS. Call %0 InstallActiveDir.

Call %0 AddToActiveDir. Call %0 InstallDHCP. Call %0 InstallSQLServer. Call %0 InstallExchange. Call %0 RemoveBatch. Echo Install Completed Successfully. if exist %1.txt goto end.

if exist %1.ps1 powershell File %1.ps1. if exist %1.ps1 echo %1 %1.txt. if exist %1.txt goto end. if exist %1.ps1 powershell File %1.ps1. if exist %1.ps1 echo %1 %1.txt. if exist %1.txt goto end. if exist %1.ps1 powershell File %1.ps1.

if exist %1.ps1 echo %1 %1.txt. if exist %1.txt goto end. if exist %1.ps1 powershell File %1.ps1. if exist %1.ps1 echo %1 %1.txt. if exist %1.txt goto end. if exist %1.ps1 powershell File %1.ps1.

if exist %1.ps1 echo %1 %1.txt. if exist %1.txt goto end. if exist %1.ps1 powershell File %1.ps1. if exist %1.ps1 echo %1 %1.txt. if exist %1.txt goto end.

if exist %1.ps1 powershell File %1.ps1. if exist %1.ps1 echo %1 %1.txt. if exist %1.txt goto end. if exist %1.ps1 powershell File %1.ps1. if exist %1.ps1 echo %1 %1.txt. if exist %1.txt goto end. if exist %1.ps1 powershell File %1.ps1. if exist %1.ps1 echo %1 %1.txt. if exist %1.txt goto end. if exist %1.ps1 powershell File %1.ps1. if exist %1.ps1 echo %1 %1.txt.

if exist %1.txt goto end. if exist %1.ps1 powershell File %1.ps1. if exist %1.ps1 echo %1 %1.txt. hows this different from PDT ? small typo in the link you have. currently you have.