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brulee vive resume Visites : 11 591 (depuis Novembre 2007) Jusqu#039;ou va se nicher l#039;honneur des hommes ? Souad est la survivante d'un monde lointain , sauvage , d'une barbarie inimaginable pour nous Occidentaux petris de feminisme et de Droits de l'Homme .Jugez plutot avec cet extrait : Une femme la-bas , ( en Cisjordanie) n'a pas de vie . A Study Of Iron. Beaucoup de filles sont battues , maltraitees , etranglees , brulees , tuees . Essay On Sexual Abuse. Pour nous , la-bas , c'est tout a fait normal . A Study Of Iron Essay. Ma mere a voulu m'empoisonner pour finir le travail de mon beau-frere , et pour elle c'etait normal .(. The Films Weir Essay. ) La vache et les moutons , comme mon pere disait , sont mieux consideres que les femmes . A Study Of Iron. Si on Letter, Hawthorne ne veut pas mourir , il faut se taire , obeir , ramper , se marier vierge et faire des fils . A Study Essay. Si je n'avais pas rencontre un homme sur mon chemin , c'est la vie que j'aurais eue . On Sexual On Children. Mes enfants seraient devenus comme moi . Of Iron. (..) J'aurais peut-etre tue ma fille . Quotes For Essay. J'aurais pu la laisser bruler . A Study Of Iron. Souad n'a eu que le malheur de tomber amoureuse d'un homme qui lui avait promis le mariage mais qui s'est defile alors qu'il l'avait mise enceinte . Quotes For Essay. Alors c'est le deshonneur , la honte pour toute la famille qui decide de la tuer . A Study Essay. C'est le beau-frere qui est charge de la tache par les parents . Of Peter. Il l'arrose d'essence et y met le feu . A Study Of Iron. Elle est brulee vive , mais , par miracle , elle ne meurt pas . Of Peter Weir. Des voisins l'amenent a l'hopital du coin ou on of Iron Essay la laisse sans soins et ou elle accouche sans s'en rendre compte tant ses souffrances sont atroces . The Films Of Peter Weir. Heureusement Jacqueline une volontaire de Terre des Hommes la rencontre et arrive a la sortir du pays avec son enfant pour la faire soigner decemment en Suisse . Essay. Je n'ai pas lache ce livre car j'ai ete pris de compassion pour cette malheureuse et ai voulu savoir si , enfin , elle arrivait a sortir de tout ce malheur . Quotes For Essay. Pour un temoignage , c'est bien ecrit . Of Iron. Souad etait illettree , elle a beneficie de l'aide d'une journaliste qui a retranscrit ses paroles . The Films Weir. On ne trouve ni jugements , ni imprecations , ni haine , mais des faits , rien que des faits , dans un style depouille , sans fioritures . A Study. Et c'est accablant de monstruosite . Essay Abuse. Tout ce que cette femme a subi , c'est le degre zero de la condition feminine et cela se passe de nos jours en Cisjordanie , mais aussi au Pakistan , au Soudan , au Tchad , en Afghanistan ( meme chez nous ou la mort d'une jeune fille brulee vive a defraye la chronique et a ete a l'origine du mouvement Ni putes ni soumises . Essay. ) Plus de 6000 cas sont repertories chaque annee dans le monde! Il fallait briser le tabou . On Sexual Abuse. Souad l'a fait . Of Iron. Bravo pour son courage . Educational Usually Have Years In. Brulee vive [Texte imprime], [document] Souad avec la collab. A Study Essay. de Marie-Therese Cuny. ISBN : 9782915056099 ; EUR 18,90 ; 17/04/2003 ; 246 p. Essay About On Momentum: Of Momentum. ; Broche. A Study. Brulee vive [Texte imprime] Souad avec la collab. Essay On Sexual Abuse. de Marie-Therese Cuny. A Study Of Iron Essay. Pocket / Presses pocket (Paris) ISBN : 9782266137928 ; EUR 6,20 ; 03/06/2004 ; 219 p. Quotes. ; Broche. Essay. Pas de série ou de livres liés. Essay On Sexual Abuse. Enregistrez-vous pour créer ou modifier une série. Enregistrez-vous pour publier une critique éclair! Critique de Monocle (tournai, Inscrit le 19 fevrier 2010, 57 ans) - 16 janvier 2016.

Khaled Hosseini avait ecrit des pages inoubliables sur la condition de la femme dans des regions musulmanes (Mille soleils splendides). Essay. Ici Souad y rajoute la barbarie. Educational Sport Psychologists Usually Have Of Training In. J'ai beaucoup moins aime la seconde partie du livre (la reconstruction de Souad). A Study Of Iron Essay. J'aurai aussi prefere un style un peu plus harmonieux mais je suppose que la belle litterature n'etait pas vraiment le but recherche. Survivante de la barbarie des hommes. Educational Sport Psychologists Usually Have Years Of Training In. Critique de Monde imaginaire (Bourg La Reine, Inscrite le 6 octobre 2011, 44 ans) - 9 septembre 2015. A Study Of Iron Essay. Critique de Yasem (Strasbourg, Inscrite le 30 juin 2008, 26 ans) - 6 mai 2014. Of Peter Weir. C'est impensable pour nous, femmes occidentales, d'etre soumises a ce point, pire qu'un animal.

Dans ces pays ou la femme est consideree comme une malediction, il vaut mieux naitre mouton, vache ou agneau. Essay. Critique de Sarazohra (, Inscrite le 3 mars 2012, 29 ans) - 14 septembre 2012. For Essay. Critique de Elya (, Inscrite le 22 fevrier 2009, 27 ans) - 20 aout 2012. Essay. J’ai donc telecharge un peu par hasard Brulee vive de Souad, et je ne le regrette absolument pas. Pendleton. Il s’agit d’un temoignage edifiant d’une femme native d’un hameau recule (mais pas tant que ca) de Cisjordanie. Elle nous livre son « enfance », son quotidien sans surprises et sans espoirs, si ce n’est que la torture physique et psychique du jour, octroyee par sa famille, soit moins forte. A Study Essay. Il ne me vient aucun mot pour qualifier la vie de ces femmes, mais aussi de ces hommes, enfermes dans des coutumes plus ou moins ancestrales abjectes, qui les conduisent a commettre des actes inhumains.

La personne qui a permis a Souad d’echapper a la mort temoigne aussi. Did The Pendleton Act Do. Elle nous apprend que ce dont Souad a ete victime, a savoir un « crime d’honneur », existe toujours de nos jours dans de nombreux pays, y compris en Europe. Of Iron Essay. Difficile de relater leurs nombres tant le sujet est tabou a toutes les echelles de la societe : habitants ruraux, medecins chefs des hopitaux ou les victimes sont recueillies, dirigeants, policiers … Critique de Sevimsi (, Inscrite le 13 janvier 2011, 24 ans) - 25 novembre 2011. Abuse. L'ouvrage se base sur des sujets tabous de certaines religions et traditions. Of Iron. Elle se deroule dans un pays ou les droits de la femme sont bafoues. On Children. Un univers ou elles possedent des valeurs inferieures a ceux des animaux. A Study Of Iron Essay. Nous decouvrons aussi dans cette oeuvre jusqu'ou peut aller l’inegalite entre homme et femme. La seule faute de Souad a ete d'etre ?naive et de tomber amoureuse. Essay About The Law Of. Ainsi nous pouvons voir ou peuvent nous entrainer nos mauvais choix et decisions. Of Iron Essay. Voici un recit a vous tenir eveille pendant des heures.

Impossible a relacher sans voir l'achever. Quotes For Essay. Critique de KAROLE (, Inscrite le 9 fevrier 2010, 41 ans) - 25 juillet 2011. Ce temoignage est bouleversant et poignant. Of Iron. Comment peut-on faire des choses pareilles? comment cela peut-il encore exister? Cette jeune fille a certes ete victime de barbares, sa famille, pour avoir commis l'irreparable, et sali l'honneur . Essay The Scarlet Letter, Hawthorne. Souad en a paye le prix fort , une femme tres courageuse. Of Iron Essay. Une grande lecon de courage. Essay The Scarlet Letter, Hawthorne. Critique de Lolo (, Inscrit le 2 juillet 2011, 35 ans) - 2 juillet 2011. A Study Of Iron Essay. Ces crimes « d’honneur » ne sont pas punis, consideres comme normaux. Essay. Combien de femmes vivent encore comme cela aujourd’hui, et combien meurent encore dans des souffrances atroces ?! Je vous le conseille vivement ! Critique de Bernard2 (ARAMITS, Inscrit le 13 mai 2004, 68 ans) - 24 juin 2010. Of Iron. J’ajouterai une chose aux commentaires, nombreux, figurant ici.

Souad dit que si elle etait restee en Cisjordanie, elle aurait probablement fait de meme. Jusqu’a etouffer ses propres filles a la naissance. Essay Abuse On Children. Ce qui montre l’ampleur du mal. Essay. Car une femme n’est rien, moins qu’une vache ou qu’un mouton. Essay Collisions The Law Of Conservation Of Momentum. Elle n’est la que pour faire des fils. Of Iron. Ce livre est courageux.

Mais helas, il ne pourra certainement pas sauver des vies, celles de femmes bafouees, battues, humiliees, tuees. Essay On Children. Sans aucune explication autre que le droit a la barbarie. Of Iron. Critique de Lys2000 (, Inscrite le 6 mars 2010, 33 ans) - 9 mars 2010. Critique de Aquarelle (Paris, Inscrite le 29 mai 2006, 43 ans) - 1 septembre 2009. Did The Act Do. J'ai lu ce livre il y a maintenant plusieurs annees alors je n'ai plus trop le souvenir des details mais ce que je peux dire de ce temoignage, c'est que je l'ai lu tres rapidement tant j'etais captivee et touchee par le destin de Souad.

Comment rester insensible a un telle souffrance gratuite ? En lisant ces pages, j'espere que beaucoup de jeunes filles d'aujourd'hui se rendront compte de la chance qu'elles ont de pouvoir s'epanouir librement, de pouvoir tout simplement EXISTER. Of Iron. Bravo a Souad pour son courage ! Critique de Roswell (, Inscrite le 23 fevrier 2006, 35 ans) - 23 fevrier 2006. Did The Pendleton Act Do. Critique de Sandra12 (Geneve, Inscrite le 5 fevrier 2006, 32 ans) - 5 fevrier 2006. A Study. Critique de TildaMath (, Inscrite le 26 decembre 2005, 25 ans) - 26 decembre 2005. What Pendleton. J'ai lu ce livre l'annee derniere (14 ans dans 1 mois, j'avais donc 13 ans ^^), j'etais consciente que de telles pratiques etaient presentes, mais j'ai enfin pu realiser, avec ce livre.. Essay. tant la situation est vraiment effroyable.

Chose faite, elle non plus n'a pas ete decue. Essay The Scarlet Letter,. On ne realise pas assez le degre d'horreurs present dans ce monde.. A Study. J'encourage vivement ce genre de livres, allant droit au but .. Did The. il n'y a pas assez de temoignage comme ceux-la. A Study Essay. Bref, en deux mots : lisez-le. What Act Do. Critique de Clop (, Inscrite le 15 juillet 2005, 33 ans) - 15 juillet 2005. Of Iron. Il vaut vraiment la peine d'etre lu ! Critique de Mukhlah (, Inscrite le 19 mars 2005, 32 ans) - 19 mars 2005. What Did The Act Do. Critique de Aktiana (, Inscrite le 13 mars 2005, 31 ans) - 13 mars 2005.

Changer les mentalites, les moeurs, un travail enorme reste a faire. Pour Souad, c'etait normal d'etre traitee ainsi, moins que rien, c'etait normal car c'est tout ce qu'elle avait toujours vecu. Of Iron Essay. C'est ce que les femmes vivent dans son village. Did The Act Do. Normal. A Study Of Iron. Quand elle allait en ville et voyait des femmes plus libres, on quotes lui disait que c'etaient des putes. A Study Essay. Et elle le croyait.

Parce qu'elle ne connaissait rien d'autre que ce que ses parents lui disaient. Quotes For Essay. Il faut de l'information, pour ces femmes, ici et ailleurs, victimes de comportements qui ne devraient plus exister de nos jours, pour qu'elles sachent, non, ce n'est pas normal, il faut faire respecter les droits de l'homme, on Essay est plus au moyen-age. Quotes For Essay. Vous avez le droit d'etre considere comme des etres humains. A Study. :( et bravo, bravo a toutes les jacqueline qui luttent avec courage contre ces crimes. Un livre lire pour se rendre compte. Essay About Collisions On Momentum: The Law Of Conservation Of Momentum. Critique de Giallion (, Inscrite le 27 fevrier 2005, 34 ans) - 27 fevrier 2005. A Study Of Iron Essay. Critique de Saint Jean-Baptiste (Ottignies, Inscrit le 23 juillet 2003, 81 ans) - 28 janvier 2005. For Essay. Ce recit nous livre un autre temoignage, celui de Jacqueline, une benevole de l'Association Terre Des Hommes. Essay. Et ce second temoignage est edifiant a vous couper le souffle ! Il nous montre qu'il existe aujourd'hui des etres prets a tout sacrifier et a prendre tous les risques pour venir en aide a leurs semblables.

On est saisi d'admiration devant ce temoignage de tant de grandeur humaine, raconte en toute simplicite, comme si tout ca allait de soi. The Scarlet Letter, By Nathaniel. Apres le premier recit, celui de la brulee vive, on A Study of Iron Essay desespere du genre humain. On Momentum: Law Of Conservation. Et apres le second, on A Study of Iron Essay se dit que tant qu'il y aura des Jacqueline sur la terre le monde sera sauve. The Scarlet Letter, Hawthorne. Je crois que c'est la moindre des choses que de chercher a savoir ce qui se passe dans le monde ; et meme si ces recits sont tres difficiles, nous devons nous efforcer a les lire, a defaut de pouvoir faire mieux. Essay. Critique de Kreen78 (Massy, Inscrite le 11 septembre 2004, 39 ans) - 9 decembre 2004.

Critique de Rosenblum Petit (Marcinelle, Inscrite le 22 novembre 2001, 43 ans) - 20 janvier 2004. En achetant chez nos partenaires, vous aurons une commission ! Mais faire vivre les libraires independants est important aussi.

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A Study of Iron Essay

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Integrative Psychotherapy Articles. Richard G. Erskine, Editor, with Maria Teresa Tosi, Marye O'Reilly-Knapp, Rosemary Napper, Fanita English, and Jo Stuthridge. The European Transactional Analysis Conference (EATA) in A Study of Iron, Prague, Czech Republic, included a roundtable presented on July 9, 2010. The roundtable was preceded by introductory speeches given by Richard G. Erskine (convener), Maria Teresa (Resi) Tosi, Marye O'Reilly-Knapp, and Jo Stuthridge. The roundtable discussion also included comments from Rosemary Napper and Fanita English. What Did The? This article presents edited excerpts from of Iron, three of the for essay introductory speeches and some of the following discussion. (Jo Stuthridge asked that her speech not be included because it duplicates material already in print.) Richard Erskine, Introduction. As transactional analysts we have a profound set of theories that have endured the A Study of Iron Essay test of time. The core theories of transactional analysis include the human need for relationships and strokes, the complexity of ego states, the distinction of on Children transference from ordinary transactions, and the overarching concept of life scripts. Each of these specific concepts, as well as the Essay combination of all the subconcepts, provides a rich repertoire of theory that is Essay Abuse uniquely transactional analysis. For 50 years transitional analysis has developed, survived, and endured clinical tests.

Our theory has been refined through our increasing experience, experimentation, collegial confrontations of each other, and continuous feedback from A Study of Iron, our clients. Hawthorne? As transactional analysts we are grounded in the theories developed by Eric Berne and the members of his seminars, and we are innovative because we listen to the experiences and the needs of our clients. Both our theories and methods evolve because we are willing to learn from our clients while also utilizing what we already know about human dynamics. The concept of life scripts is but one example of A Study of Iron Essay our innovative and evolving theory. The theory of The Films Weir life scripts has fascinated me since I first heard about it in 1967 in a training workshop with Fritz Perls. Of Iron? He had borrowed the idea from Eric Berne, but neither Berne nor Perls wrote about its psychotherapeutic applications. Prior to what did the act do, his untimely death, Berne collected notes and of Iron vignettes about various influences in the formation of Essay about Collisions The of Momentum scripts. Those uncorrelated notes and his ideas about human destiny were published as the book What Do You Say After You Say Hello? (Berne, 1972). Berne did not live long enough to fully develop the concept of of Iron life scripts; he wrote only an outline of the theory and did not address how to treat life script issues in psychotherapy.

He left it to future generations, to you, my colleagues here on the roundtable, to me€”to all of us€”to develop and refine the concepts and methods of quotes working with life scripts. In the book that has just been published by Karnac entitled Life Scripts; A Transactional Analysis of Unconscious Relational Patterns (Erskine, 2010), 14 transactional analysts have written about A Study Essay how they have developed, advanced, and Essay Collisions Law of of Momentum refined Berne's rudimentary ideas. Some of the authors are here in Prague for this European Association of A Study Essay Transactional Analysis psychotherapy and counseling symposium. Those present today are Maria Teresa (Resi) Tosi (Italy), Mary O'Reilly-Knapp (USA), Jo Stuthridge (New Zealand), Rosemary Napper (UK), and Fanita English (citizen of the pendleton world). In this symposium, via the A Study of Iron introductory speeches and the roundtable discussion, you will hear about a combination of traditional concepts, innovative perspectives, and quotes some radical ideas. As a group of authors, we have written about life scripts being composed of subsymbolic and procedural memory, implicit experiential conclusions, and self-regulating patterns. Some of these authors view life scripts as existential positions or dilemmas that need to be valued and embraced whereas others define them as embedded within the body or a result of lethal parental injunctions. As a group, though, we have written about A Study of Iron unconscious relational patterns that have their origin in early childhood needs for educational sport usually have years of training in attachment and in the protocol of A Study primary relationships within the family. I want to begin this symposium by sharing my personal perspective on life scripts.

In carefully reading Berne's writings, it is clear to me that the concept of Essay script refers to that which inhibits spontaneity and limits flexibility in problem solving, health maintenance, and relationships with people. The definition of life scripts on A Study Essay which I base my psychotherapy and teaching is this: Life scripts are a complex set of unconscious relational patterns based on physiological survival reactions, implicit experiential conclusions, explicit decisions and/or self-regulating introjections (Erskine, 2010, p. 1). I personally believe that to achieve effective change in a client's life script, it may be necessary for the psychotherapist to focus the therapeutic work on by Nathaniel Hawthorne four major areas: 1. Being aware of the client's bodily reactions and uncovering the unconscious emotional story embedded within his or her body. 2. Of Iron? Providing an ongoing relational psychotherapy to rectify implicit experiential conclusions and for essay fixated self-regulating accommodations. 3. Engaging in in-depth therapy of the Parent ego states to A Study of Iron Essay, decommission introjections and parental injunctions. 4. Facilitating the client in making redecisions related to explicit experiences. The more areas of this complex set of unconscious relational patterns that we attend to in our psychotherapy, the more we will achieve script cure (Erskine, 1980). Maria Teresa (Resi) Tosi on The Challenges of the Narrative Script When I remember my first psychotherapy session as a client, I can still feel the on Sexual Abuse sense of being deeply understood and respected by of Iron, my psychotherapist while he was mirroring my feelings and thoughts.

Richard Erskine would probably say I felt validated: what I felt and thought could be recognized and valued (Erskine Trautmann, 1996). Now I think that in those days, 30 years ago, I was starting to form my first narrative of what psychotherapy is: an empathic relationship in which a client can give meaning to her own experience and start to form new images of herself, others, and on Sexual Abuse life. How many first experiences and images do each of of Iron Essay us have? The first day in school, the first time we made love, the first pregnancy, the educational have of training first time a loved one died. How many intense and deeply provoking moments of change in relationship to others€”what Stern (2003) called present moments €”have we experienced in A Study of Iron, life? How many traumas do we still need to integrate in our memories? How many plots or life themes have we developed and favored in our life? Which plots or themes are still there, as if they are waiting their turn, or which ones do we still not know?

In his definitions of script, Berne (1972) underscored that the script is an ongoing program, developed in early childhood under parental influence, that directs the individual's behavior in the most important parts of her life and is based on archaic decisions and conclusions. The protocol, the script, and the adaptation are three steps in script formation that go from an archaic, unconscious drama to a preconscious story formed through daily relationships. Very creatively, Berne proposed that some people€”or maybe all of us€”develop a story that limits their identity by forming self-repeating patterns, a story that needs to be redecided in order to reach autonomy. After Berne, a wide consensus has developed around the idea that we need a story, in any case, if we want to about The Law of of Momentum, shape our identity. This concept was anticipated by Bill Cornell (1988) and Fanita English (1988) at the end of the 1980s. Of Iron Essay? Just 30 years ago, a paradigm shift started to influence all psychotherapeutic models. This narrative revolution altered the vision of the self per se and fostered the concept of a narrator self. Basically, the Essay on Momentum: The Law of Conservation of Momentum narrative vision suggests that the person needs a story to define her own identity. Life is constructed and reconstructed through the A Study stories we tell about ourselves and our relationships. Stories help people integrate and Essay about The Conservation of Momentum make sense of their experiences.

Stories provide personal and cultural meanings to relational experiences. When people tell stories they are always doing so with a listener€”internal or external, in actuality or in fantasy€”who influences the development of that story. Narrative approaches can be differentiated into two major streams. In one, some authors studied the content of clients' spontaneous stories and showed that they are of great value in Essay, accessing hidden psychological processes (e.g., see Luborsky Crits-Christoph, 1990). According to a second stream, the so-called post-psychological perspective, the concept of narrative is central because it brings together crucial aspects of the psychotherapeutic process. Educational Sport Psychologists Usually Years Of Training? In this tradition, psychotherapy is conceived of as a social process, and narratives encompass personal, interpersonal, and cultural dimensions. The personal dimension is related to the unique life story created by the story teller. The interpersonal dimension is important because the A Study Essay person who narrates has an audience whose responses give shape to the unfolding of the story. Finally, there is a cultural dimension because stories are conceived according to Weir Essay, patterns and values typical of a certain culture so that language, culture, and society can offer several good or bad stories (Mc Leod, 2004). Berne was one of the A Study of Iron pioneers who interpreted the psychological life as a developmental process based on quotes for essay a theory of social relationships.

He was influenced by Eric Erikson (with whom he did his second psychoanalysis), whose research is one of the most significant expressions of the psychosocial approach in psychoanalysis. Erikson (1950) was also the creator of a developmental theory of A Study of Iron identity with a strong orientation toward the what did the integration and resolution of internal conflicts. More recently, the narrative approaches, modern psychosocial theories, and research have stimulated a discussion about the of Iron idea of a unitary self. Psychologists Have Years Of Training In? In this view, the self is conceived of as a community of A Study of Iron selves, and identity includes different meanings of self (Scilligo, 2009). It seems we have as many relational selves as we have significant relationships with other people.

Also, for each specific relational self that is educational sport usually activated, there is Essay a specific nonrelational self linked to it (Andersen Chen, 2002). The attributes given to the self (e.g., I'm too fat) appear to be related to the procedural experience of being with others (e.g., If I am thin, then I can be admired) (Baldwyn, 1997). Modern psychosocial research hypothesizes that the personality system consists of mediational affective-cognitive unities that are organized in The Films of Peter, specific relational nets (Mischel Shoda, 1995). This means that there is growing consensus among psychosocial researchers that the theory of of Iron traits is inadequate to quotes for essay, diagnose a client (e.g., she is extroverted). On the contrary, it is important to acknowledge both the variability of A Study of Iron one person in The Films, different contexts (context is used in A Study of Iron, a broad sense, such as interpersonal, cognitive-affective, social contexts, etc.) and the range of variability shown by that person as he or she presents a range of specific profiles related to his or her behaviors. So, for example, the quotes for essay same person could be extroverted in one situation and introverted in another, according to A Study, the specific meaning given to certain situations. What Did The Act Do? These theories, which have been integrated by Scilligo (2009) into a model of social-cognitive transactional analysis, further develop the interpersonal theoretical frame of A Study Essay reference that is typical of transactional analysis. I want to recognize the pendleton act do modernity of Berne when he developed social psychiatry and of Iron also the risk inherent in script theory if it is used to Essay by Nathaniel, underline only how invariable a person is. It has been exciting for A Study me to read several qualitative research reports put forward by for essay, authors of A Study narrative approaches to explore if identity is better explained by for essay, unity or multiplicity. When narratives are analyzed phenomenologically, one is inclined to think that different selves are in dialogue within the person and that integration is not the only solution that people are striving toward.

Sometimes we find a complexity of selves that are organized in a dynamic dualistic fashion; sometimes we find a polyphonia of selves that can be organized like a conversation; sometimes people experience an irreconcilable duality that requires a lifelong struggle to A Study of Iron Essay, find an internal third element that would contain that duality; sometimes we realize that people organize themselves around a personal challenge, theme, or aesthetic that orients all of their life in different contexts. So, I have some hypotheses about script theory: The script is lived and narrated. Narratives are an important mirror of educational of training in scripts, both for their content and their form. The script is the sum of the client's experiences and A Study stories, which are always evolving. It is formed at the junction of Essay Letter, Hawthorne three domains: the personal world of meanings created by each person; the interpersonal/relational dimension, which has an impact on each level (symbolic and subsymbolic, explicit and implicit) of A Study of Iron Essay its development; and the culture, which always gives limits and Essay Collisions on Momentum: The Law of of Momentum resources to A Study of Iron, its formation. From my point of what view, the psychotherapist has the task of looking for what is invariable and also what is of Iron variable in the client's story life because the complexity and creativity of each person are in the exceptions present in her life, the errors that open a window on multiple ways of reaching a goal, the background noise in her life that is worthwhile to acknowledge, the challenges she has been facing, the aesthetic she wants to sport psychologists years of training in, pursue, the irreconcilable selves she does not want to A Study Essay, deny. I feel honored to Essay, have had the Essay chance to present my ideas in this context, to talk about this topic, one for which I have had a passion since 1993 (Tosi, 1993, 2010). Marye O'Reilly-Knapp on Script System: The Unformulated Narrative As transactional analysts we have concepts that furnish a strong theoretical foundation.

Concepts such as ego states, strokes, transactions, games, rackets, script , and the script system have provided a rich framework for psychotherapy. Works by English (1972), Steiner (1974), Stuntz (1972), and Woollams (1973) have added to the development of script theory. This morning I want to talk about the script system and emphasize its power as a model that can guide an in-depth psychotherapy andas a construct in working with unconscious and unformulated narratives that remain unthinkable and therefore unspeakable and indescribable. First formulated by what did the act do, Richard Erskine and Marilyn Zalcman (1979) as the racket system, the script system is a representation of beliefs about self and others€”of relationships€”and the conclusions made at many developmental levels. It includes observable behaviors, internal physical sensations, reinforcing experiences (current, as well as past memories), and repressed needs and A Study Essay feelings. It is The Scarlet often difficult for a child, or even some adults, to make sense of the subtle elements of the script system. Most of the script system is implicit, largely due to A Study Essay, the unconscious organization of about on Momentum: The Law of Conservation of Momentum experiences. The script, was described by Berne (1961) as an extensive unconscious life plan [that] determines the identity and destiny of the Essay person (p. 23). The transactional analysis literature has addressed how scripts are transmitted through parental messages and injunctions as well as the conclusions and explicit decisions the person makes. Berne (1966), in an early comment on pendleton the theory of life scripts, wrote,

Nearly all human activity [is] programmed by Essay, an ongoing script dating from early childhood, so that the Essay on Children feeling of autonomy is nearly always an illusion€”an illusion which is the greatest affliction of the human race because it makes awareness, honesty, creativity, and intimacy possible for A Study of Iron only a few fortunate individuals. (p. 310) Berne did not complete the theoretical development of life scripts in his lifetime. It was left to others to carry on the work of about Collisions on Momentum: Law of refining script theory and developing methods of script cure. To further the A Study of Iron Essay discussion of the script system I want to address five important points. The script system is: 1. Usually Years Of Training? A structure to examine how script is active in life today. 2. A process to make meaning of here-and-now thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and sensations. 3. A Study Essay? A way to work with the unconscious and retrieve implicit memories. 4. A method to what act do, form an autobiographical self. 5. A treatment framework for script cure.

How Script Is Active in Life Today. The model of the script system was created to examine unconscious processes of script in current life situations. The script system identifies the decisions, conclusions, reactions, and or introjections [that] are unconsciously operationalized in current life as core beliefs, overt behaviors, fantasies and obsessions, internal physical reactions, and of Iron reinforcing memories (O'Reilly-Knapp Erskine, 2010, p. 292). The script system is quotes maintained: €¢ To avoid reexperiencing unmet needs and the corresponding feelings regarding the unmet needs. €¢ To generalize the unconscious experience of self in relationship with others. €¢ To create homeostatic self-regulation (the script system helps to organize experiences and of Iron Essay maintain some stability in present life) €¢ To provide a predictive model of life and interpersonal relationships€”this is how life is and Essay this is how people are and of Iron Essay what they do. (Erskine, 2008, p. 128). The Road to the Unconscious and what did the Meaning Making. The script system, as an A Study Essay, unconscious organization of experiences, provides the therapist and Essay The Scarlet Letter, Hawthorne client with the means of recovering unconscious experience and the client's way of making meaning. This is partly done by giving meaning to the thoughts, feelings, sensations, and behaviors present in A Study of Iron, here-and-now experiences both in and out of therapy sessions.

When I am working within the script system, I am reminded of Bollas's (1987) concept of the unthought known, which he describes as countless rules for educational psychologists years being and relating that have been operationally determined. He identified fantasy as the first representation of the unthought known: It is of Iron a way of thinking that which is there (p. 279). He went on to consider mental representations€”which are similar to Bowlby's (1979) internal working models, Sterne's (1985) representations of of Peter Essay internal generalizations (RIGs), and Damasio's (1999) from wakefulness to A Study Essay, consciousness model. Bollas's recognition of somatic knowledge as part of the unthought known reinforces the importance of the body in dealing with the unconscious. In script system analysis, the educational sport psychologists usually years of training inclusion of physiological reactions as well as beliefs about self and others and the meanings given to A Study of Iron, experiences, relational patterns, and the script displays of fantasies all bring together the Weir concepts addressed by the term the unthought known. Working with the script system within the therapeutic relationship allows the person to understand and give meaning to present, here-and-now, lived experiences. Bollas described this process as working with a fundamental split between what we think we know and what we may know and never be able to think (p. 282). With the of Iron use of the script system as a blueprint for script analysis, the Essay The Scarlet by Nathaniel Hawthorne unconscious organization of experiences becomes coherent so that there is an organized whole.

The fundamental splits identified in script are integrated to A Study, enhance flexibility, spontaneity, and psychologists of training intimacy. Forming an Autobiographical Self. According to Sameroff and Emde (1989), a narrative is the story or account of the internal working models of regulations as told to oneself or another (p. 66). Both the story, which is generally conscious, and the internal working model, which is generally unconscious, coexist throughout life. The narrative model is A Study Essay generally conscious, verbal, social, and Essay on Sexual on Children made up of referrants experienced via words. Formulation of the narrative organizes the historical experiences of the individual.

The emergence of A Study Essay language facilitates further development of the sense of self. Stern (1985) described the arrival of language as bringing about the ability to narrate one's own life story and, ultimately, to Essay The Law of of Momentum, construct narratives that begin to form the autobiographical history that evolves into the life story a patient may first present to a therapist (p. A Study Of Iron Essay? 174). Analysis of the script system adds to formulation of the narrative by reconstructing unconscious, implicit memories, that is, organizing an autobiographical memory€”a record of the of Peter Essay past. An autobiographical self emerges where memory is connected neurally and A Study of Iron cognitively to what Damasio calls the proto-self and to eventually to the emergent and conscious core self of each lived instant (p.

173). Knowing will help being, wrote Damasio in discussing consciousness and the emergence of the Essay about of Momentum autobiographical self. He went on to say that some memories may not be fully reconstructed and of Iron some may never see the light of consciousness (p. 227). Other memories may be reconstructed differently from the original. Analysis of the script system facilitates becoming known and adds to the autobiographical self by updating memories with new, current information cocreated in the therapeutic relationship. The script system gives us as transactional analysts an image of the make-up of the client's unconscious script dynamics, which are composed of four primary elements: script beliefs about self, others, and the quality of life; behavior, fantasy, and physiological manifestations; reinforcing experiences; and the intrapsychic process of Essay by Nathaniel repressed needs and A Study of Iron feelings (Erskine, 1997; Erskine Moursund, 1988; Erskine Zalcman, 1979). Another valuable element of the script system for me has been the framework it provides for working within the therapeutic relationship; it offers a guide to The Films of Peter Essay, help me, both as a therapist and of Iron Essay as a client, to understand internal processes and to fill in the blanks of relational experience. Essay On Sexual Abuse? In this cocreative process, the A Study Essay inner world of the various subsystems that comprise the script can be known and understood. Life scripts can now be seen within the backdrop of developmental stages, relationship models, attachment theory, neurobiology, and the narrative model. The Scarlet By Nathaniel Hawthorne? All this adds further to the understanding of both intrapsychic and Essay interpersonal experiences.

Richard: I want to begin this roundtable with Rosemary Napper, who has written about a different perspective on life scripts than what we have heard in the keynote speeches. Rosemary: My perceptive is as an organizational and educational transactional analyst and as a counselor. I want to emphasize some different aspects of script, which I think have been underplayed within transactional analysis. The perspective I bring echoes the concept of cocreation, which Jo Stuthridge talked about in her speech, and the continuous process of scripting. The formation of script is not just something that happens at the beginning of life; script continues to form throughout our lives in relation to the wider context that we live within.

I think that there have been some interesting writings that look at both the setting and at transference (e.g., transference to objects). This is an area that we could be developing much further. In particular, I want to Essay about Collisions The of Momentum, emphasize culture. Some transactional analysis€”such Berne, Denton Roberts, Jerry and Terry White, and A Study of Iron Essay Pearl Drego€”have emphasized the importance of culture. This is an area of on Sexual Abuse on Children theoretical development with much potential. I see culture as being one of the most important aspects of our script; it is embedded and embodied within us. A Study Of Iron Essay? There are many cultures that we each live among, so we each have many cultures inside us (e.g., family, ethnic, and sport psychologists have years national cultures). We all manage to find the institutions and the organizations that somehow reflect the culture and script we bring with us and also cocreate a script with us. Being a member of A Study of Iron a transactional analysis association is a major way that we could be thinking about our own script and the script of TA associations.

I notice the pattern among many transactional analysis associations as an organization is Essay Abuse very similar. I would argue that there is a cocreation here between the individual's proclivities and the structures that they then create, which in turn influence the individuals. We then both internalize and interject cultural and organizational scripts. A Study Essay? These become part of our implicit selves and our individual stories, which we enact interpersonally. So perhaps we should be talking about systemic scripts as well as individual scripts. Fanita: Richard suggested that we have a debate, but the only thing I do have to say is Weir Essay I am so fortunate that nobody ever cured me of my script! I think that many of our misunderstandings relate to the use of the word script, because I do agree with everything that people have said, including Richard, who defines scripts differently than I do. I wrote an article in the Transactional Analysis Journal titled Let's Not Call It Script When It Ain't; for me, script is something completely different than the speakers have described today. Richard: I just had a fond memory of A Study Essay 35 years ago when you and I were walking all night long through Washington, DC, having this same argument.

Richard: It was a beautiful summer night as we walked through the memorials in Washington arguing about the definition of Essay about Collisions Law of Conservation life scripts. My quandary was: Is the concept of A Study script that we use the same as Berne originally used it? As Fritz Perls used it? As they borrowed the concept from Alfred Adler? Those definitions imply that script is that which inhibits spontaneity and limits flexibility in Essay about Collisions, problem solving, health maintenance, and relationships with people. In that case, we are talking about script as something that limits a person. People also have a frame of reference, which is the term for what I think you are talking about, Fanita. We all have a frame of reference. We have our family culture. We have our national culture.

We have our own religious or spiritual culture€”some of us are multicultural. Does adherence to the proclivities of our culture(s) limit our spontaneity in of Iron, problem solving, in health maintenance, and on Sexual Abuse relationships with people? When I hear you Fanita, I think you are talking about of Iron opening the frame of reference, using the culture, owning those possibilities and potentials. When I think about psychologists years life scripts, I am thinking about what inhibits and A Study Essay limits a person. Fanita: I must answer: For instance, there are survival conclusions, as I call them, which are inserts in the personality that are negative, although their original function was hopeful. There are decisions and other issues that are embedded sometimes in script. For me the script is Essay on Sexual on Children creative: It is in the DNA, it is the mystery of who I am, of how I am developing, of how I am trying to grow, of who I am trying to be, and of what I am trying to A Study of Iron, achieve. That is what I mean by Essay, script. The script is an ongoing narrative. While I agree with Berne that it starts very early, at age five, and that even some of the structure of script is A Study Essay started in early childhood, I believe that children have tremendous stuff that is going on in the unconscious to Essay on Sexual Abuse, create their story.

So this for me, this is A Study of Iron script. I want to add one more very important thing; I met Eric Berne in 1964, having only read Transactional Analysis in Psychotherapy (Berne, 1961) and Games People Play (Berne, 1964), which had just appeared. Much of Essay Collisions The Law of of Momentum my contact with Berne involved arguing. I guess there is something about my childhood and the need to of Iron, fight. Back then he would deal with my Child ego state and what did the act do not with my Adult ego state. His attitude then was, Don't bother with script.

There is much to do in treatment without bothering with script. That attitude of Berne's has influenced me. Resi: I want to contribute to this discussion by mentioning the concept of repetition compulsion, which I think Berne had in mind when he created the idea of script. We have to rethink the concept of repetition compulsion. We have to challenge this idea so that we can distinguish what people repeat from what they do not repeat, which is equally important. Maybe our worst experiences in life are the ones that are most influencing in a positive way. Richard: May I suggest an A Study, additional way to think about repetition compulsion? When I think of the concept from a phenomenological and relational perspective, repetition compulsion is not a compulsion to did the act do, repeat the pain but rather simply an attempt to repeat an experience with the desire to repair and resolve the pain.

Marye: When you were talking about repetition, I was also thinking in terms of what the repetition means to the person. That would fit with your understanding of the person's own narrative. There is often the search for resolution in what clients are trying to A Study, tell us, in what the person gives to his or her beliefs or actions. Essay On Sexual? Are they telling themselves I can never do this, I am no good, or I am clumsy? Fanita, what do you do with the negative messages, the Essay negative frames of reference that people have? Fanita: I work with the negative message and I don't bother with thinking about script and getting out of negative messages. Marye: In the way you define script, I can understand that. Richard: Jo, I am interested in hearing from you, because Marye, in Essay about Collisions Law of Conservation of Momentum, her speech, was talking about script beliefs and A Study the script system and yet in your talk you said that changing script beliefs does not seem to change anything. Would you elaborate on that more.

Why have you taken that position? Jo: I think we have the what whole thing upside down when we think of development as an individual process, as Berne did at the time he was writing. From this perspective, intrapsychic processes are primary and generate the interpersonal realm. However, these days we mostly agree that development is a relational process. It follows that script processes originate in the interpersonal realm. Traditionally, transactional analysts have focused on A Study intrapsychic processes: digging up the client's script beliefs and making redecisions. The script diagram implies that beliefs produce feelings and behaviors. I would put it the other way around, suggesting that change begins with a focus on interpersonal experience in the present rather than trying to change the client's intrapsychic beliefs. I think fundamental change requires an emotionally transformative relationship. The other point I want to make concerns the idea that the mind is embodied.

From a Cartesian perspective, we assumed that thoughts and feelings were separate. These days neuroscience tells us that thoughts are anchored in feelings, suggesting that change happens at the level of bodily affective experience, not by challenging cognitive beliefs. Quotes For Essay? So I think we need to Essay, attend to Essay, the client's nonverbal transactions and A Study of Iron Essay feelings in the present rather than to cognitive decisions made in the past. Richard: That is not how it was meant in sport have of training in, my writing about the script system. The script beliefs, behaviors, fantasies, and physiological reactions are a reflection and an expression of what is going on unconsciously as a result of all of those intersubjective experiences we have had throughout our lifetime. So the A Study of Iron Essay script is really a crystallization of hundreds and quotes for essay hundreds of interpersonal experiences.

The script beliefs are a condensation of the person's narrative. Resi: When I was listening to your presentations, I was thinking that we were addressing the script from three different points of A Study view. In your book chapter, Jo (Stuthridge, 2010), you were talking about the differences between I and Me. So you were especially talking about the I. How can you create an I, which is a form to integrate and connect different parts of the self? I was also thinking that we are talking about the different needs in each of The Films Weir Essay our lives. It is important to understand the relationship between an individual's needs and the needs of the whole family. I think that the script system represents the person's longings and needs.

Fanita: I love this distinction: There is me suffering, there is me feeling exalted and triumphant. Resi, you pointed out in your writing the connection between script and identity, which was enlightening to me because script really has to do with identity. May I be biographical in terms of my identity? My identity started as a child on the streets of Istanbul. I received a confusing, overt message from my father: When you grow up, you have to find a way to earn your living.

This was quite a startling message, a useful one and a good one. You can call it an injunction or whatever you want to call it. There I was, wondering, How am I going to earn my living when I grow up? The models I had at that time were only school teachers and nurses. I did not want to be a school teacher. I did not want to be a nurse. I did not want to be a maid or a governess. I could also see another wonderful model€”a gypsy on the street.

It is A Study Essay only because I saw it with my child's eye that I was able to grasp it and take it as my identity. I took the idea of the gypsy as my identity. Essay On Sexual? I could not even begin to think about the A Study of Iron real lives of Essay Letter, by Nathaniel gypsies. For me, a gypsy was a free woman who could say and do anything she wanted and who knew your fortune when she looked at your palm, so she knew how to A Study of Iron, earn a living. She wore powerful clothes, she could say and do anything, and on Sexual on Children she could buy all the A Study sweets she wanted to on the streets. That is quite an identity. Fortunately, I took on what pendleton this identity, which has enabled me to travel and do workshops all over Europe.

Jo: When I listen to this dialogue, I notice that we use different words, like script, stories, or frame of reference, and A Study of Iron Essay I wonder if we are talking about a kind of The Films continuum. At one end of this continuum, a script can be rigid and restrictive, while at the other, a script can be fluid and A Study Essay flexible€”like a story that is continuously retold and changes over time. I think we use scripts to make sense of experience; however, life is constantly changing. Did The Act Do? There was an idea throughout the new book (Erskine, 2010) that script operates like a nonlinear system. We might start to of Iron Essay, think of script as a process and educational sport usually in something that is continually evolving and changing so that yesterday's healthy, flexible life script, unless it is updated by A Study of Iron, new experience, will become tomorrow's defensive or rigid script. Jeremy Holmes uses the terms story-making and story-breaking to describe this dialectical tension. Scripting is a constant process of disintegration and integration, making new stories and dispersing them in light of new experiences. I suggest we retain the word script to represent the whole continuum. Richard: Back in the 1920s, when Alfred Adler broke with Freud in disagreement over Freud's drive theory, Adler talked about the importance of people telling their story to overcome what he called a personal inferiority.

He suggested that people stay in on Momentum: Conservation, analysis long enough that they could tell their entire life story in A Study of Iron Essay, detail at least three different times. What he listened for was how the telling of the story changed€”not the content, not the facts, but the emotional valence, the emotional thrust of the story. The person's body language will be different by the third telling than it was in the first telling. Without using the word narrative, Adler wisely created an analysis of the narrative. Fanita: I want to go back Rosemary€”to your identifying place, objects, and culture as different aspects of the script, regardless of how we define script.

For me, looking at Conservation of Momentum, the sea is a source of great consolation, but for someone else, looking at the mountains might be a source of consolation. The mountains don't do anything for of Iron me; they are pretty and lovely, but they don't touch me as the sea does. I have discovered in the course of Essay on Sexual Abuse meeting many people that every one of us has this yearning for location. Another word I would like to add to our talk about script is yearning, whether you talk about it negatively or positively€”a suffering script or a happy script€”script always has the element of yearning or wanting or looking or hoping. Richard: Fanita, I wish we had another word for what you call a happy script. I have thought for a long time about a better term for what you call script.

I use the term frame of reference. I think that what you are doing is looking at peoples' potential. You are looking at A Study of Iron, those hidden talents, the unexpressed creativity and the desire to grow, the person's expansive fantasies. When I observe you in a workshop with professional psychotherapists, I see you enhancing and building on each person's potential. In my clinical practice, I work with clients who have been neglected for many years, who have been beaten when they were a child by the people they depended on, who have been sexually abused, who have been humiliated through school. Their painful stories are held tightly in their bodies.

For many of these clients, their story is not conscious when they enter therapy. Often it is The Films not conscious because no one has ever engaged them in a discussion about their experiences. Nobody was there at bedtime to ask them what they felt or after school to ask about what happened duriing their school-day. This is why I define script as I do. I would love to A Study of Iron, spend all of my time on creativity, but I can't get to the creativity while I am still dealing with that pool of pain that is deep inside my client's body. Rosemary: I have the pleasure of working as a coach, and in doing so I talk about years recognizing, releasing, and realizing potential, which I think is of Iron what you have been talking about. I was reminded, as you talked, about The Films Weir that Chinese character that stands for crisis€”which is A Study Essay part of that very tough end of script€”but it also means opportunity.

Opportunity is what you have been talking about. Andersen, S. On Sexual? M., Chen, S. (2002). The relational self: An interpersonal social-cognitive theory. Psychological Review, 109, 619-645. Baldwyn, M. W. (1997). Relational schemas and the processing of social information. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 461-484.

Berne, E. Essay? (1961). Transactional analysis in psychotherapy: A systematic individual and about Law of Conservation of Momentum social psychiatry. A Study? New York, NY: Grove Press. Berne, E. (196). Games people play: The psychology of human relationships. Essay Collisions On Momentum: The? New York, NY: Grove Press. Berne, E. (1966). Principles of group treatment. New York, NY: Grove Press. Berne, E. (1972).

What do you say after you say hello? The psychology of human destiny. A Study Essay? New York: Grove Press. Bollas, C. (1987). The shadow of the object: Psychoanalysis of the unthought known.

New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Bowlby, J. (1979). The making and The Films of Peter Essay breaking of affectional bonds. London, England: Routledge. Cornell, W. (1988). Life script theory: A critical review from a developmental perspective. Transactional Analysis Journal , 18, 270-282.

Damasio, A. (1999). The feeling of Essay what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Company. English, F. (1972). Sleepy, spunky, and spooky: A revised second-order structural diagram and script diagram. Transactional Analysis Journal, 2 (2), 64-67. English, F. Pendleton? (1988). A Study Of Iron? Whither scripts?

Transactional Analysis Journal, 18, 294-303. Erikson, E. (1950). Childhood and quotes for essay society. New York, NY: Norton. Erskine, R. G. (1980). Script cure: Behavioral, intrapsychic and physiological. Transactional Analysis Journal, 10, 102-106. Erskine, R. G. (1997). Theories and A Study of Iron methods of an integrative transactional analysis: A volume of selected articles. Oakland, CA: TA Press. Erskine, R. G. (2008).

Psychotherapy of educational psychologists years in unconscious experience. Transactional Analysis Journal, 38, 128-138. Erskine, R. G. (Ed.). (2010). A Study? Life scripts: A transactional analysis of Collisions on Momentum: The Conservation of Momentum unconscious relational patterns . London, England: Karnac. Erskine, R. G., Moursund, J. P. (1988). Integrative psychotherapy in A Study, action. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Erskine, R. G., Trautmann R. L. (1996). Methods of an integrative psychotherapy.

Transactional Analysis Journal, 26, 316-328. Erskine, R. G., Zalcman, M. J. (1979). The racket system: A model for racket analysis. Transactional Analysis Journal, 9 , 51-59. Luborsky, L., Crits-Christoph, P. (1990). The Films? Understanding transference: The CCRT (core conflictual relational theme) method. New York: Basic Books. O'Reilly-Knapp, M., Erskine, R. G. (2010).

The script system: An unconscious organization of experience. Of Iron Essay? In R. Quotes? G. Erskine (Ed.), Life scripts: A transactional analysis of unconscious relational patterns (pp. 291-308). A Study? London, England: Karnac Books. Mc Leod, J. (2004). The significance of narrative and storytelling in postpsychological counseling and psychotherapy. In A. Lieblich A., D. McAdams, R. Josselson (Eds.), Healing plots: The narrative basis of psychotherapy . Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Mischel, W., Shoda, Y. (1995). Quotes For Essay? A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics and Essay invariance in personality structure. Psychological Review, 102, 246-268. Sameroff, A. J., Ende, R. N. (Eds.). Essay Collisions Law Of Conservation Of Momentum? (1989). Relationship disturbances in early childhood: A developmental approach. New York, NY: Basic Books. Scilligo, P. A Study Of Iron? (2009).

Analisi transazionale socio-cognitiva [Social-cognitive transactional analysis). Rome, Italy: LAS. Steiner, C. (1974). Scripts people live: Transactional analysis of life scripts. New York, NY: Grove Press. Stern, D. N. (1985). The interpersonal world of the infant: A view from pendleton, psychoanalysis and developmental psychology. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Stern, D. N. (2003). The present moment in psychotherapy and everyday life. New York, NY: Norton. Stuntz, E. C. (1972). Second-order structure of the Essay parent. Essay About The Law Of? Transactional Analysis Journal, 2 (2), 59-61. Stuthridge, J. (2010).

Script or scripture? In R. G. Erskine (Ed.), Live scripts: A transactional analysis of unconscious relational patterns (pp. A Study Of Iron Essay? 73-100). London, England: Karnac. Tosi, M. T. (1993). Copione e cambiamento: Una prospettiva narratologica [Script and The Scarlet change: A narrative perspective]. Polarit , 7, 409-416. Tosi, M. T. (2009). The lived and A Study of Iron narrated script: An ongoing narrative construction.

In R. G. Erskine (Ed.), Life scripts: A transactional analysis of unconscious relational patterns (pp. 29-54). London, England: Karnac. Woollams, S. J. (1973). Formation of the script.

Transactional Analysis Journal, 3 (1), 31-37.

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Asian Actors Onstage: Lea Salonga, Phillipa Soo Sound Off on Broadway Representation, Cultural Perceptions. Do people just ask you to sing Aladdin all the time? Phillipa Soo asked Lea Salonga when they met for the first time on A Study a November afternoon at The Films Essay, Manhattan's Paramount Hotel. Soo, 25, is making her Broadway debut in Lin-Manuel Miranda's Hamilton , while Salonga, 44, is of Iron starring opposite George Takei in Allegiance . Their conversation began as a laugh-filled fangirl session, swapping stories about their shows' opening-night parties, and short stage breaks. (Should I get cake from the costume room or run to The Films Essay the bathroom?! debated Soo.) But it quickly evolved into an in-depth discussion about advocating for racial and A Study of Iron Essay, cultural representation onstage, pushing past typical Asian professional goals, and meeting their own parents' standards of excellence. I understand the practical pieces of of Peter Weir Essay advice that parents give their kids, said Salonga, who is taking a breather from A Study her role as a judge on the local edition of The Voice in the Philippines to psychologists in return to Broadway. Turning to Soo, she added: Someone who looks like me and A Study of Iron, looks like you can have this career. Salonga made history as the first actress of Asian descent to win a Tony Award when she took home lead honors in 1991 for the blockbuster musical Miss Saigon, and she remained the only Asian actress in quotes the Tony club until earlier this year, when Ruthie Ann Miles won for The King and I . A Study! Theater awards pundits are already predicting that Soo has a good shot at expanding the membership to three when Hamilton is up for Essay The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, consideration at A Study of Iron, the 2016 Tonys. Lea Salonga and Phillipa Soo meet for the first time at the Paramount Hotel's Think Tank in New York City. Photo credit: Jai Lennard.

For a long time, roles for Asian actors on Broadway were severely limited, and resumes tended to The Films Weir read the same with revivals of The King and of Iron Essay, I , Flower Drum Song and about The of Momentum, maybe a production of Stephen Sondheim's Pacific Overtures or David Henry Hwang's M. Butterfly . Coming in the wake of a year-long off-Broadway run at A Study, the Public Theater for the Imelda Marcos bio-musical Here Lies Love (which also starred Miles), the ongoing King and I revival and the Broadway premiere of Allegiance mean that more Asian actors have been consistently employed on Essay by Nathaniel prominent New York stages than at Essay, any time in Abuse history. The big question now is of Iron whether that momentum will continue, with more non-traditional casting like that of Soo as Eliza, Alexander's wife, in Hamilton . Phillipa, when did you first learn of Lea? SOO: Aladdin was a huge part of my childhood that was the psychologists have years first time I heard you. Then, becoming more interested in theater and definitely looking into plays and musicals that represented people I thought looked like me, that's when I found all these amazing videos of you auditioning for Miss Saigon . I don't know if you've watched those. SALONGA: I actually have.

People on Facebook tag me and say, Oh my god, Lea, you were so young! That's 27 years ago! It blows my mind to think about it now. SOO: Truly, such an important part of A Study of Iron Essay me growing up, as someone of mixed race and someone of what did the act do color, was seeing someone so successful but so beautiful in of Iron Essay your work and what you do. What do you each love about your character? What's your favorite musical moment of hers? SOO: In Hamilton , the most amazing thing about my journey [as Alexander Hamilton's wife Eliza] is her discovery of herself and her power, and the impact on history that she's searching for and doesn't necessarily realize herself, but the Letter, audience can see. I always look forward to that last moment [when Eliza sings of of Iron Essay her accomplishments after Alexander's death in Who Lives, Who Dies, Who Tells Your Story], which is Hawthorne very much a culmination of the entire three hours of experience, the entire 20 years we've just seen in the play, the entire rehearsal process where we are in that very moment. Soo (second from left) alongside Leslie Odom Jr., Lin-Manuel Miranda and Christopher Jackson at Hamilton's Aug.

6 Broadway premiere. Photo credit: AP Images/Invision. As a woman, it's nice to hear people at A Study, the stage door say, I didn't even know! She's a woman, and Essay about Collisions The Law of of Momentum, that's the most amazing thing. And I say, But isn't it crazy that you're so surprised? It's a surprising thing that it ends with her story!

But I think that's great. We're making our way toward something else. I can't wait to see your show but I'm sure there's something similar. SALONGA: Yeah. In Allegiance , Kei Kimura starts out A Study Essay compliant with her environment. Her father says, We have to keep our heads down, and she'll say yes. She pretty much bends in Essay on Sexual Abuse on Children whatever direction she feels she's being pushed in. Very compliant, very traditionally Asian; This is my role in this family. Then she gets thrust into a whole other set of circumstances with a whole other set of influences pushing her. I look forward to Essay a very short reprise [of Higher], when everything is educational psychologists usually have years in taken away from her and of Iron, she now gets to that decision: You know what? I am effing tired of everything going on here, and it's time to do something.

I look forward to ripping into quotes that every day. Then we see her more proactive and less compliant and much more of an A Study of Iron Essay, instigator of Essay Abuse things. Both of A Study of Iron your characters are empowered to continue the work of men in Essay Abuse on Children their lives, these goals might not be achieved without them. A Study! Did that factor into what pendleton act do accepting the role? SALONGA: When this role was first developed, there was a whole lot of none of Essay that! Then [co-writer] Marc Acito came into the picture and streamlined the educational psychologists years script killed off the A Study Essay mother and an older brother, and gave their arcs to me, which made for Essay Conservation of Momentum, a really rich experience. Even in of Iron Essay the San Diego production where Kei was introduced, she was still not this instigating force that she is The Films Weir now. As for looking for roles, my gut just tells me, Yes, you have to do this, and you have to stick with this. Sometimes it's the arcs of the A Study of Iron Essay character, but usually, because I tend to be led by singing over anything else, if it's something I feel I can really work with, that's the path I'll go. From left: Salonga and George Takei as Kei and quotes, Ojii-chan Kimura in Allegiance . Photo credit: Matthew Murphy. SOO: I joined [ Hamilton ] as the ball started rolling faster and faster about two years ago.

I relate to that idea of not necessarily seeking out interesting female roles, but this character, this role, who happens to be a woman, is interesting to me, and Essay, I relate to it in some way, so I'm just gonna go with my gut and see where it leads me. Is it exciting to work on The Films this? Even if I don't necessarily hit the nail on the head the first time, is the A Study Essay prospect of working on quotes it getting my gears going? Then it turned out to be a wonderful surprise. I hope that's how I can do it for the rest of my career. Both shows also use your Asian makeup in different ways: Allegiance tells an Asian-American story about the WWII internment, and Hamilton uses colorblind casting to showcase the founding fathers. SALONGA: It's amazing that both of A Study of Iron Essay these shows are on Broadway in the same season.

Allegiance is one of those shows where race is quotes like a main character in the show, because the xenophobia happening at the time needs to be very clearly illustrated. The only people who can replace us are other Asians, which is A Study Essay rare. The only exception is Essay on Children Katie Rose Clark, who is A Study Essay as white as snow, and understudied by two girls who are Hapa half [Asian, half white]. One of pendleton act do them also understudies me, but she can be pushed either way and it would not be politically incorrect to do so because she embodies both. It's refreshing that this is a specifically Asian-American story that shows the uglier, seedier side of American history, and how relevant it is today for A Study, example, with so many discussions about immigrants in this country today, and Essay about Collisions The Conservation, with what's been happening around the A Study of Iron world with the terrorist bombings in Beirut and Paris. The lens is now closing on Muslims and the Muslim-American community, and I feel sick to my stomach, hearing the politicians talk and seeing which states will not allow [Syrian] refugees in. Yes, we understand, we get it, but remember, this same attitude was trained on educational sport psychologists in another ethnic group back in the day. It's happening again have you not learned from history? Have you not read your history books?

Oh wait, hang on the Japanese-American internment was not even a paragraph in history books. Essay! Where can you learn this history if it's not even written down and it's not even taught? It's just very scary. I totally went off-topic. SOO: There's a hope that one day, enough people will have been exposed to enough art and enough history just to think twice. [When watching Allegiance ,] I'm not just enjoying this as a story, but this is really messed up. Someone who looks like me and looks like you can have this career, said Salonga (left) with Soo at the Paramount Hotel's Think Tank in New York City. Photo credit: Jai Lennard. Phillipa, you're of Asian descent and educational usually years, playing a character that isn't written as Asian, or any race at all.

SALONGA: But it's awesome and A Study of Iron Essay, with all of these colorful people! SOO: Yeah! So I'm half-Chinese and half white, and it wasn't until being part of this show even though I've been in other mixed race casts that I have been considered an actor of color. Usually Of Training! Up until now, I haven't been talking about being an Asian-American woman! I don't know why, but clearly it has something to do with the statement that we're making in our show, and that you're seeing so many different colors that you're thinking, Wait a minute, what is everybody? I was in Natasha Pierre the Essay Great Comet of 1812 , a Russian story based on Tolstoy and with a mixed race cast. But it wasn't a mixed race cast playing Russian people; it was just us telling the story. Because of Weir who I was playing opposite, I think people assumed I was white. It depends on the frame that highlights different things. Also, it hasn't been until now that I received this beautiful letter from this young woman who thanked me for representing Chinese-American people in the theater. Essay! That's never happened to Essay The Scarlet Hawthorne me before!

But it's beautiful because I feel like as amazing as it is to acknowledge, it's also amazing on Essay the other side that people don’t even think twice about it [in Hamilton ]. At the for essay Allegiance opening, speaking about Asians in the performing arts, George Takei told me, Other parents, if they had talented children, they would be encouraged. But Asian parents all want their sons and daughters to be professionals it's an of Iron, insecure business and that's the about Law of Conservation reality SALONGA: Right. My parents told me that. They not only don't encourage them, they discourage their youngsters. We should be confident enough that if they have talented children who have that drive, to A Study Essay give them wise guidance: 'Yes, it's a very competitive field and there aren't that many opportunities, but if you really have that grit and the talent and the ability to bounce back from rejection, then we will support you.' That kind of encouragement is needed, and I think it's starting to happen now.

SALONGA: I grew up in the Philippines, and I spent most of my life acting and singing and dancing onstage or TV or on The of Momentum film. My parents were somewhat supportive, but they were always a typical Asian family: Get your education, get your college degree and no one will ever take that away from you. Don't count on show business as a primary occupation because it's very fickle. Which it is, and we've seen people be complete successes one minute and total wash-ups the Essay next. It's a very practical piece of advice. Usually Have Years Of Training! There were other things that interested me anyway, and I went into college as a biology major because I truly and sincerely enjoyed it. Then, Miss Saigon happened, and bam, my life changed. All of us were feeling like we're blazing a trail for other people of our race, and we have no idea what's going to happen once this show opens, and it then became an incredible employment opportunity for so many Asian-American actors. But even while I was in that show, I thought, 'One year and then go back to college, pick up where I left off and life will just continue.'

Salonga (second from left) at the 1991 Tony Awards alongside fellow winners Nigel Hawthorne (' Shadowlands' ), Mercedes Ruehl (' Lost In Yonkers' ) and Jonathan Pryce (' Miss Saigon' ). Of Iron! Photo credit: Richard Drew/AP. I do understand why a lot of Asian-American parents, especially the first-generation and what pendleton act do, the immigrants that come here, would encourage their kids not to A Study Essay get into the business: because Asians onscreen, onstage, it's a very underrepresented group. Until Allegiance and Hamilton and other shows are written for Essay about Collisions on Momentum: The of Momentum, people like us, it's difficult, and A Study of Iron, it's extremely competitive as it is, so I understand the practical pieces of advice that parents give their kids. But the cool thing about Allegiance is, you see the Asian romantic lead get the Asian romantic leading lady at the end! It's not a spoiler: there's B-roll of us kissing at what did the pendleton act do, the end of of Iron Essay a romantic number! That's not been seen on Broadway yet, and it's awesome. And there's another Asian lead and what pendleton, he's involved in an interracial romance how often do these stories happen? The times, they are achanging. Someone who looks like me and A Study of Iron Essay, looks like you can have this career. SOO: I was having a great conversation the psychologists in other day with a very mixed group of friends: black friends, white friends, gay friends, straight friends. And we were talking about A Study Essay, particularly just giving anybody of minority an opportunity in Essay on Sexual Abuse the theater.

The opportunities don't exist because there's not enough people, and A Study, there's not enough people because the opportunities don't exist. It's a catch-22. So you create the for essay opportunity, even though the perfect people might not be there, you create it so that more people [emerge]. A Study Essay! There's a catalyst. It has to start somewhere. There's a huge responsibility to tell those stories and put those stories out there so we can be a part of it. And then there will be a young woman outside the educational have years in stage door saying, Oh my gosh, thank you. A Study! She'll feel like, in five years, there's more of a chance that there will be something for her, and she'll want to pursue this.

SOO: In terms of what my own experience, my dad is Essay first-generation, so his parents were from China, and The Films of Peter Essay, my mom was born and raised in southern Illinois, and she was involved in the arts. Essay! My dad's a doctor. I was very much always encouraged, but the mentality of get your education was still there. But of course, from his experience, he was like, I kind of want you to do what you want to do, but remember, there's a legacy here, and you have a lot to live up to. Don’t forget that. I think he just wanted me to do the best at whatever I wanted to do, so whether it was in the arts or the The Scarlet by Nathaniel sciences, to be well-rounded and to have an amazing time doing it, but also to just educate yourself and if you're going to A Study be a performer, be the best performer that you can be. I think that still lives on in me and will be something I pass onto my own children. Quotes For Essay! I think there's something beautiful about that. What can Hollywood learn from of Iron Essay Broadway right now? SALONGA: Watch the season, first of all! And with On Your Feet! and The Color Purple , it's an incredible season of shows.

It's quite groundbreaking, and it just shows what's possible. Essay! It's possible for any ten-year-old of any background to A Study look up at the stage and say, 'Mommy, that's what I want to educational have do,' and then for that mom to say, 'Well then go for it. I'm right behind you.' It's nice to be able to have a hand in that, instead of saying, 'There's nobody like you onstage, where are you gonna fit?' But we're fitting quite nicely, eight shows a week. Stop seeing us as exotic and oriental and far-removed from the experience of what this country actually is. Don't see us as foreigners, see us as part of the country. Then, maybe there will be more really great stuff written on A Study of Iron film for The Films Essay, people that look like us, because theater people are writing things for us! Kei was written for me I can actually say that! SOO: Hamilton just asks us all to go a little bit deeper: whether you're a hip-hop fan seeing musical theater for the first time, or if you were thinking you were gonna see some reprise of A Study of Iron 1776 , and quotes, now it's this? And you're thinking, 'Wait a minute, these people aren't white!' It asks you just take a step and go a little deeper.

It's not like there's no opportunity for you to get on A Study the train; there's a lot of opportunity to get on. Essay The Scarlet! Let's do that, let's write some more complicated characters that are of many diverse backgrounds culturally and racially, because that's a whole other thing. A Study Essay! Yeah, I'm being represented racially, but culturally, that's so broad! I'm seeing broad people, not my neighbor, not you, not me.

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2017 MBA Essay Questions: NYU Stern. New Fashion / Luxury and Tech MBAs at Stern. Heads up BSers! NYU is innovating! If you#8217;re in A Study Essay a hurry to get your MBA done, and you#8217;re looking to take full advantage of the known strengths that Stern offers, one of these could be the perfect match for you. The Tech MBA and the Fashion #038; Luxury MBA are both one year long, matriculating in May, so you can minimize your time out of the workforce in these fast-changing industries.

They both have the same two deadlines, one in Essay on Sexual September and one in November (see below). We#8217;ve been coaching BSers to jump on the Stern advantage for these sectors for years, and now there#8217;s an even more attractive opportunity to do so. We expect admissions to be somewhat more flexible for A Study of Iron Essay, these two programs at least during this first year of inception, as the educational psychologists years of training in school builds momentum and app volumes. There are no other comparable programs to the Fashion MBA; Cornell has the Tech MBA which is the only other of A Study of Iron Essay its kind after this NYU one. 2017 NYU Stern Full-Time MBA Essay Questions Class of what did the act do 2020. They#8217;ve gone and switched things up fairly radically here too! Stern was a school like Stanford: They had the A Study same questions in their MBA app for eons.

Now, though, Stern is showing what they#8217;re made of: They#8217;re using the practices of innovation within their admissions process and sport psychologists usually, they#8217;re inviting applicants to do something different! Essay 1 Professional Aspirations (500 words): What are your short and long-term career goals? How will the A Study of Iron MBA help you achieve them? This is an usually years of training in, awesome, straightforward question. Essay! Why do you even want an MBA? That#8217;s what they need to know. What Did The! (Our Career Goals App Accelerator is Essay, perfectly suited to helping you identify the framework for this!) Essay 2 Program Selection (1 or optionally 2 essays, 250 words each): Primary Program: Please indicate the primary MBA program for which you would like to be considered, as indicated in the Primary Program Selection section of the application. Explain why the program you have selected is the best program for you. (250 words) Optional: Please indicate any alternative program(s) for which you would also like to be considered, as indicated in Essay Abuse on Children the Alternative Program Selection section of the application and why you would also like to be considered for this/these program(s). (250 words) This is your chance to of Iron Essay, pitch them on educational sport usually years in, #8220;Why Stern#8221; and of Iron Essay, also why are you selecting this program #8212; or these programs. It#8217;s going to be tough to lay out proper justification for multiple alternates, and usually, it#8217;s going to be a hard sell to convince the of Iron adcom that you#8217;re a fit to did the pendleton act do, more than 1 alternate anyway.

You#8217;ll need to navigate this carefully, BSer! We#8217;ll cover it all in the Stern guide. Essay 3 Personal Expression aka Pick Six: Describe yourself to Essay, the Admissions Committee and to on Sexual Abuse on Children, your future classmates using six images and Essay, corresponding captions. Collisions Law Of Of Momentum! Your uploaded PDF should contain all of the following elements: A brief introduction or overview of A Study of Iron Essay your #8220;Pick Six#8221; (no more than 3 sentences). Six images that help illustrate who you are. A one-sentence caption for each of the six images that helps explain why they were selected and are significant to you. Note: Your visuals may include photos, infographics, drawings, or any other images that best describe you. Your document must be uploaded as a single PDF.

The essay cannot be sent in physical form or be linked to a website. They#8217;ve also got an optional essay of up to about Collisions Law of, 250 words, which is quite short, but it#8217;s only to be used if necessary to lay out some specific circumstance from A Study of Iron Essay your profile or your past. Why all these changes? Well, one reason is that NYU has fallen out of favor among MBA candidates. This is reflected in the data. The average GMAT score for the Stern Class of 2018 went down #8212; it#8217;s a much more reasonable 710 again. (It had been up to 721 for the Class of 2016.) We discussed these changes here.

This is good for you but not so great for a school that#8217;s trying to maintain its prestige factor in the marketplace. As they say, necessity is the for essay mother of invention. Stern is not sitting on A Study of Iron, its laurels. (How many other lame cliches can we throw out at you here?) as our #1 favorite business school and now you can see why they remain a top choice from The Scarlet our side! NYU Stern MBA Recommendations and A Study, the EQ Endorsement. In the quotes for essay Professional Recommendations, Stern is asking the same four questions that a handful of A Study other schools are asking (not the The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel identical questions that Columbia asks, though). Of Iron! They are reasonably straightforward but you still may want to pick up our Recommender#8217;s Instruction Sets if you#8217;re applying here based on The Films, this new evolution with the A Study EQ Recommender. Here#8217;s what your EQ Recommender needs to answer: Please provide one specific and compelling example to demonstrate the applicant’s emotional intelligence. (250 word maximum) The Stern site does not specify but our advice is to Essay on Children, use a different person for A Study, your EQ Recommender as you do for the two Professional Recommendations. That will give you an even greater opportunity to share varied perspectives on who you are with the adcom. This will not be an easy choice!! Round 1: October 15, 2017 Round 2: January 15, 2018.

We don#8217;t list last-round deadlines on the blahg because you really should not be applying then. Hit NYU F/T in on Children one of their first two rounds for the greatest chances. HOWEVER: If you#8217;re aiming for one of the A Study of Iron Essay shorter-format specialized programs in Tech or Fashion, then it#8217;s different! Only two deadlines: Round 1: September 15, 2017 Round 2: November 15, 2017. And even more innovation: You can apply to The Films Weir, ANY of the Essay flavors of MBA at NYU Stern SIMULTANEOUSLY. Essay The Scarlet Letter, By Nathaniel Hawthorne! They took the practice that Stanford recently implemented where you can do a joint app to both the A Study GSB MBA and their MSx program, and went even bigger with it. For NYU, you should pick the program that you#8217;re most interested in and apply by Essay on Sexual that program#8217;s deadline. In your app, you#8217;ll be able to select any of the other programs that they offer as alternate interests. This makes total sense! It#8217;s more like how the Wharton Lauder application or the MIT LGO application works: If the A Study of Iron Stern adcom decide that you#8217;re not the best fit to Letter, Hawthorne, your first choice program, they#8217;ll still consider your application for A Study, your alternates. Did The Pendleton Act Do! What you need to do is be very strategic on a) which program(s) you#8217;re going to target (we do not suggest naming them all. ), and A Study Essay, b) how you#8217;re going to position yourself as a possible fit to for essay, more than one, if that#8217;s the route you choose with your app.

We will be updating the A Study of Iron NYU Stern SnarkStrategies Guide with a complete discussion of these options ASAP. NYU’s GMAT score and the Class of 2018 (August 2016) A BSer#8217;s comparison of Columbia and NYU (June 2016) If you#8217;re doing a PowerPoint for Stern Essay 3 (September 2013) Stern has rolling admissions (October 2012) Columbia and quotes for essay, NYU: What#8217;s the difference? (October 2012) What you need to know now, before applying, about NYU Stern (November 2012) NYU Stern: Is it easier to get into the P/T program? (July 2010) EssaySnark has reviewed a fair number of of Iron NYU essays on quotes for essay, the blahg over the years. Here#8217;s a couple from past seasons for of Iron Essay, your review. Even if the questions were different, the Abuse on Children gist of your pitch will need to be similar: For Reference: NYU Stern Past-Season Questions. Included in case anyone wants to see what they asked before it#8217;s been very consistent from year to year! Click to view 2016 questions. Essay 1 Professional Aspirations (750 words): Why pursue an MBA (or dual degree) at this point in your life?

What actions have you taken to determine that Stern is the best fit for A Study of Iron, your MBA experience? What do you see yourself doing professionally upon graduation? Please describe yourself to educational sport usually years of training in, your MBA classmates. You may use almost any method to convey your message (e.g. words, illustrations). Feel free to be creative. Even though they#8217;ve asked for specific elements to be included in a structured manner, Essay 1 should not be broken out into Essay three separate essays. Way back in Abuse on Children 2013 they had the three questions marked #8220;a)#8221;, #8220;b)#8221; and #8220;c)#8221; which implied that they wanted the answers separated. They don#8217;t. They#8217;re just using separate bullets for the subquestions to make sure that you realize that each should be answered in your essay.

You should do that by writing it as an essay to do otherwise makes it look like a report or something. The Stern SnarkStrategies Guide explains this and other important advice for constructing your pitch to A Study Essay, NYU which we#8217;ve updated for 2016 even though the questions have not changed! We got you covered. You should also study the guidelines offered by the Stern adcom themselves on their website . Want to Essay The Scarlet, picture yourself at A Study Essay, NYU? What better way than the NYU Coloring Book! [end Stern 2016 questions] Click to view 2015 questions. The Films Of Peter Weir! 2015 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis.

Yay to Stern! They have gone back to their roots. They#8217;ve simplified their requirements by focusing in on the two questions that make them Stern: A very well-crafted career goals question, and A Study Essay, their classic #8220;Personal Expression#8221; essay, which is now required. For the past two years it was optional, and applicants could choose a #8220;what if?#8221; type question about an alternate career path which we never felt was that great. (If you#8217;re curious, we post past-season questions below.) Kudos to Stern for taking it back to what did the, basics. Essay 1 Professional Aspirations (750 words): Why pursue an MBA (or dual degree) at this point in your life?

What actions have you taken to A Study, determine that Stern is the best fit for did the pendleton act do, your MBA experience? What do you see yourself doing professionally upon graduation? Please describe yourself to your MBA classmates. You may use almost any method to A Study Essay, convey your message (e.g. words, illustrations). For Essay! Feel free to be creative. The only change that we can detect from this (besides that they are now requiring these two essays and only these two, without an alternate that you could do instead) is it appears that they#8217;ll accept YouTube submissions and A Study, other online video for Essay 2. Used to be, you had to mail in a DVD if you had a video to Essay on Children, submit.

So in that sense, they#8217;ve joined the 21st Century! In terms of actually constructing your answers, please note that Essay 1 should not be broken out into three separate essays. A Study Essay! Way back in 2013 they had the three questions marked #8220;a)#8221;, #8220;b)#8221; and #8220;c)#8221; which implied that they wanted the answers separated. They don#8217;t. They#8217;re just using separate bullets for the subquestions to make sure that you realize that each should be answered in your essay. You should do that by writing it as an essay to do otherwise makes it look like a report or something. The Stern SnarkStrategies Guide explains this and other important advice for constructing your pitch to NYU. [end Stern 2015 questions] Click to view 2014 questions. 2014 Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. Quotes For Essay! These are AGAIN identical to what they asked last year. A Study Essay! (Please click the 2013 Questions link to see the archived essays they were literally exactly the quotes for essay same in 2013 and in 2014.) For the Essay best advantage in preparing your strategy for this school including an in-depth discussion of the Essay on Sexual Abuse times when Essay 2 Option A is best and when it might not be, and how Option B (Personal Expression) can be perceived by the adcom check out the A Study of Iron Essay NYU Stern MBA Strategy Guide, exclusively from EssaySnark! [end Stern 2014 questions] For reference: 2013 Stern Essays EssaySnark#8217;s Analysis. These are identical to what they asked in The Films of Peter Weir Essay 2012 — except that you don’t. have to answer them all now.

Essay 1 Professional Aspirations (750 words): Why pursue an MBA (or dual degree) at A Study, this point in did the act do your life? What actions have you taken to A Study, determine that Stern is the best fit for your MBA experience? What do you see yourself doing professionally upon graduation? Essay 2 Choose One:Option A: Your Two Paths (500 words) Describe two different and The Films, distinct paths you could see your career taking long term. A Study Essay! How do you see your two paths unfolding?

How do your paths tie to the mission of NYU Stern? What factors will most determine which path you will take? Option B: Personal Expression (500 words if written, other constraints apply if non-written form) Please describe yourself to your MBA classmates. You may use almost any method to convey your message (e.g. words, illustrations). Feel free to be creative. One point to make: Essay 1 should not be broken out into three separate essays. In 2013 they had the three questions marked #8220;a)#8221;, #8220;b)#8221; and #8220;c)#8221; which implied that they wanted the quotes for essay answers separated. They don#8217;t.

Write Essay 1 as one essay. The Stern SnarkStrategies Guide digs into how to do it. [end Stern 2013 questions] 2017 MBA Application Strategy Guides. The 2017 Darden MBA Application Guide - rewritten almost from scratch to help you with the 2017 app! The 2017 Michigan Ross Essay Guide - totally new to help you with the nine short-answer options and your career goals! The 2017 MIT Essay Guide with brand-new material on the cover letter and the 'introduce yourself' video. The 2017 Duke Essay Guide - covers the 25 Random Things essay and all the rest too!

The 2017 Harvard MBA Application Guide - refreshed with new details and strategies for your Class of 2020 app. Brave Supplicants' latest reviews on The 'Snark. I think that the reviewer raised a lot of good points, but a) three pages of A Study Essay feedback on a 250 word . As a re-applicant, I knew I needed considerable improvement to my pitch in The Films of Peter Weir Essay order to maximize my . Essay! Thanks so much for on Children, the additional feedback ES. Of Iron Essay! I really appreciate it. I just submitted my HBS app, . What were we snarking about at this time in Hawthorne past years? 2016 : Good luck for Essay, HBS applicants! 2016 : No, you don't have to about Collisions The Conservation, actually do the thing you say you will do in A Study of Iron Essay the career goals essay. 2014 : Did you just discover EssaySnark? 2014 : The disturbing trend of decreasing transparency 2013 : More on visiting schools 2013 : ($) Being a thought leader is not a career goal.

2012 : ($) Duke's main essay: What do you tell your family, friends, and colleagues? 2012 : About Deadlines. And Momentum. 2011 : Battle of the Blogs! EssaySnark® is a registered trademark.

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VBA Error Handling – A Complete Guide. “Abort, Retry, Fail?” – MS-DOS error message circa 1986. If you are looking for a particular topic on VBA Error Handing then check out the of Iron, table of quotes for essay contents below(if it’s not visible click on the post header). If you are new to VBA Error Handling , then you can read the post from start to finish as it is A Study, laid out in logical order. This allows us to handle the error. (Only useful if you need to check a specific error occurred.) Error Handling refers to code that is written to did the pendleton act do handle errors which occur when your application is of Iron Essay, running. These errors are normally caused by something outside your control like a missing file, database being unavailable, data being invalid etc. If we think an error is likely to occur at Essay about on Momentum: The some point, it is good practice to write specific code to handle the error if it occurs and deal with it. For all other errors we use generic code to deal with them. This is where the VBA error handling statement comes into play.

They allow our application to deal gracefully with any errors we weren’t expecting. To understand error handling we must first understand the different types of A Study Essay errors in VBA. There are three types of errors in did the pendleton VBA. We use error handling to deal with runtime errors. Let’s have a look at each of these error types so that it is clear what a runtime error is. If you have used VBA for of Iron Essay, any length of time you will have seen a syntax error. When you type a line and press return, VBA will evaluate the syntax and if it is not correct it will display an Weir Essay, error message. For example if you type If and forget the Then keyword, VBA will display the following error message. Note: You can turn off the Syntax error dialog by going to Tools-Options and checking off “Auto Syntax Check”. The line will still appear red if there is an error but the A Study, dialog will not appear.

Compilation errors occur over more than one line. The syntax is correct on a single line but is incorrect when all the project code is taken into account. Examples of compilation errors are: If statement without corresponding End If statement For without Next Select without End Select Calling a Sub or Function that does not exist Calling a Sub or Function with the Essay of Momentum, wrong parameters Giving a Sub or Function the same name as a module Variables not declared( Option Explicit must be present at the top of the module) To find compilation errors, we use Debug-Compile VBA Project from the Visual Basic menu. When you select Debug-Compile , VBA displays the first error it comes across. When this error is fixed, you can run Compile again and VBA will then find the next error. Debug-Compile will also include syntax errors in it’s search which is very useful.

If there are no errors left and you run Debug-Compile , it may appear that nothing happened. However, “Compile” will be grayed out in the Debug menu. This means your application has no compilation errors at the current time. Debug-Compile finds compilation(project wide) errors. Of Iron Essay? It will also find syntax errors. It finds one error each time you use it. When there are no compilation errors left the Compile option will appear grayed out in the menu. You should always use Debug-Compile before you run your code. This ensures that your code has no compilation errors when you run it.

If you do not run Debug-Compile then VBA may find compile errors when it runs. These should not be confused with Runtime errors. Runtime errors occur when your application is running. They are normally outside of your control but can be caused by errors in quotes for essay your code. For example, imagine your application reads from an A Study Essay, external workbook. If this file gets deleted then VBA will display an error when your code tries to open it. Other examples of runtime errors are. a database not being available the user entering invalid data a cell containing text instead of a number. As we have seen, the purpose of error handling is to deal with runtime errors when they occur. Expected Versus Unexpected Errors. When we think a runtime error could occur we put code in place to handle it.

For example, we would normally put code in place to deal with a file not being found. The following code checks if the file exists before it tries to open it. The Scarlet Letter, By Nathaniel? If the file does not exist then a user friendly message is displayed and A Study, the code exits the sub. If we don’t have specific code to handle an error it is considered an unexpected error. We use the VBA error handling statements to Essay Hawthorne handle the unexpected errors. Runtime Errors that are not VBA Errors. Before we look at the VBA Handling there is one type of error we must mention. Some runtime errors are not considered errors by VBA but only by the user. Let me explain this with an example.

Imagine you have an application that requires you to of Iron add the values in the variables a and b. Let’s say you mistakenly use an for essay, asterisk instead of the plus sign. These errors cannot be dealt with using error handling as they obviously won’t generate any error. You can deal with these errors using Unit Testing and Assertions. I have an in-depth post about using VBA assertions – see How to A Study of Iron Make Your Code BulletProof. As we have seen there are two ways to treat runtime errors. Expected errors – write specific code to handle them.

Unexpected errors – use VBA error handling statements to handle them. The VBA On Error statement is did the pendleton, used for error handling. This statement performs some action when an A Study, error occurs during runtime. There are four different ways to use this statement. On Error Goto 0 – the code stops at the line with the error and displays a message. On Error Resume Next – the sport usually have years, code moves to next line.

No error message is displayed. On Error Goto [label] – the code moves to a specific line or label. No error message is A Study, displayed. This is the one we use for error handling. On Error Goto -1 – clears the quotes for essay, current error. This is the default behavior of VBA. In other words, if you don’t use On Error then this is the behavior you will see.

When an error occurs, VBA stops on the line with the error and A Study of Iron, displays the error message. The application requires user intervention with the code before it can continue. This could be fixing the error or restarting the application. In this scenario no error handling takes place. If you select End then the application simply stops. If you select Debug the application stops on The Scarlet by Nathaniel Hawthorne, the error line as the screenshot below shows. This behavior is unsuitable for an application that you are given to a user. These errors look unprofessional and they make the application look unstable. An error like this is essentially the application crashing.

The user cannot continue on without restarting the application. They may not use it at all until you fix the error for them. By using On Error Goto [label] we can give the A Study of Iron Essay, user a more controlled error message. It also prevents the application stopping. We can get the application to perform in a predefined manner. Using On Error Resume Next tells VBA to ignore the error and continue on. There are specific occasions when this is useful. Most of the time you should avoid using it. If we add Resume Next to our example Sub then VBA will ignore the divide by zero error. It is not a good idea to do this. If you ignore the error, then the behavior can be unpredictable.

The error can affect the application in multiple ways.You could end up with invalid data. The problem is The Films Weir Essay, that you aren’t aware that something went wrong because you have suppressed the error. In the code above, we continue on if there is an error. Then in the next line we check the A Study, value of the The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, Outlook variable. A Study Of Iron? If there has been an error then the value of this variable will be set to Nothing . This is an what did the, example of when Resume could be useful. The point is that even though we use Resume we are still checking for the error. The vast majority of the time you will not need to use Resume . This is how we use Error Handling in VBA. It is the equivalent of the Try and Essay, Catch functionality you see in languages such as C# and on Sexual Abuse on Children, Java. When an A Study, error occurs you send the error to Letter, a specific label. It is normally at the bottom of the sub. VBA jumps to the eh label because we specified this in A Study of Iron Essay the On Error Goto line.

Note 1: The label we use in the On…Goto statement, must be in the current Sub/Function. If not you will get a compilation error. Note 2: When an error occurs when using On Error Goto [label] , the error handling returns to the default behaviour i.e. The code will stop on The Films of Peter, the line with the of Iron Essay, error and display the error message. See the next section for more information about of Peter Essay this. This statement is of Iron, different than the what act do, other three. A Study Essay? It is used to quotes clear the current error rather than setting a particular behaviour. When an error occurs using On Error Goto [label] , the of Iron Essay, error handling behaviour returns to the default behaviour i.e. “On Error Goto 0”. That means that if another error occurs the code will stop on the current line.

This behaviour only applies to the current sub. Once we exit the sub, the error will be cleared automatically. Take a look at the code below. The first error will cause the code to jump to the eh label. The second error will stop on the line with the 1034 error. If we add further error handling it will not work as the error trap has not been cleared. In the code below we have added the line. after we catch the first error. This has no effect as the psychologists of training in, error has not been cleared. In other words the code will stop on A Study Essay, the line with the what pendleton, error and display the message. In the code below we add this line and the second error will now cause the code to jump to the eh_other label.

Note 2: The Err Object has a member Clear . Using Clear clears the text and numbers in the Err object, but it does NOT reset the error. As we have seen, VBA will do one of three things when an error occurs. Stop and display the error. Of Iron Essay? Ignore the error and continue on. Jump to a specific line. When an error occurs you can view details of the error using the Err object. When an runtime error occurs, VBA automatically fills the educational sport usually, Err object with details.

The Err.Number is the ID number of the error e.g. the Essay, error number for The Films Essay, “Type Mismatch” is 13. The only time you really need this is if you are checking that a specific error occurred and Essay, this is The Films Weir Essay, only necessary on rare occasions. The Err.Source property seems like a great idea but it does not work for a VBA error. The source will return the A Study, project name, which hardly narrows down where the error occurred. However, if you create an error using Err.Raise you can set the source yourself and this can be very useful. The Erl function is used to pendleton return the line number where the error occurs.

It often causes confusion. In the following code, Erl will return zero. If we change the Sub above to have line number it will now print out 20. When you are finished working on a project and Essay, hand it over to the user it can be useful to add line numbers at this point. If you use the error handling strategy in Essay by Nathaniel the last section of this post, then VBA will report the line where the A Study Essay, error occurred.

Err.Raise allows us to create errors. Quotes For Essay? We can use it to create custom errors for our application which is A Study of Iron, very useful. It is the equivalent of the Throw statement in JavaC#. The format is as follows. Let’s look at quotes a simple example. Imagine we want to Essay ensure that a cell has an what pendleton, entry that has a length of 5 characters. A Study Of Iron? We could have a specific message for this. Err.Clear is used to clear the text and numbers from the Err.Object. In other words, it clears the description and of Peter, number. It is rare that you will need to use it but let’s have a look at an example where you might. In the code below we are counting the number of errors that will occur.

To keep it simple we are generating an error for each odd number. We check the error number each time we go through the Essay, loop. If the number does not equal zero then an error has occurred. Of Peter Essay? Once we count the error we need to A Study of Iron set the error number back to zero so it is ready to what did the act do check for the next error. Logging means writing information from your application when it is running. When an error occurs you can write the details to a text file so you have a record of the error. The code below shows a very simple logging procedure. Below is an example of Essay logging.

How you implement logging really depends on the nature of the application and how useful it will be. This section covers some of the on Children, other Error Handling tools that VBA has. These items are considered obsolete but I have included them as they may exist in legacy code. The Error Function is of Iron Essay, used to print the what act do, error description from a given error number. It is included in VBA for backward compatibilty and is not needed because you can use the Err.Description instead. Below are some examples. The Error statement allows you to simulate an error. Essay? It is included in sport psychologists have of training in VBA for backward compatibility. You should use Err.Raise instead. In the following code we simulate a “Divide by zero” error. With all the different options you may be confused about how to use error handling in VBA.

In this section, I’m going to show you how to implement a simple error handling strategy that you can use in A Study Essay all your applications. This is a simple overview of on Sexual Abuse our strategy. Place the A Study of Iron, On Error Goto Label line at the start of The Films Essay our topmost sub. Place the error handling Label at the end of our topmost sub. Essay? If an expected error occurs then handle it and continue. If the application cannot continue then use Err.Raise to jump to the error handling label. If an unexpected error occurs the code will automatically jump to the error handling label. The following code shows a simple implementation of this strategy.

We don’t need to add error handling code to did the every sub. If an error occurs then VBA exits the application gracefully. A Complete Error Handling Strategy. The strategy above has one drawback. Essay? It doesn’t tell you where the error occurred. VBA doesn’t fill Err.Source with anything useful so we have to for essay do this ourselves.

In this section I am going to introduce a more complete error strategy. I have written two subs that perform all the heavy lifting so all you have to do is add them to your project. The purpose of this strategy is to provide you with the Stack* and line number when an error exists. *The Stack is the list of sub/functions that were currently in use when the error occurred. This is our strategy. Place error handling in all the subs. When an error occurs, the Essay, error handler adds details to Essay on Momentum: of Momentum the error and raises it again. When the error reaches the topmost sub it is displayed. The only messy part to this is formatting the strings correctly. I have written two subs that handle this, so it is taken care of for you. These are the two helper subs.

An Example of using this strategy. Here is a simple coding that use these subs. A Study Of Iron Essay? In this strategy, we don’t place any code in what pendleton the topmost sub. We only call subs from Essay, it. If your project has line numbers the result will include the line number of the error. Error Handling is used to handle errors that occur when your application is running. You write specific code to handle expected errors.

You use the VBA error handling statement On Error Goto [label] to what did the act do send VBA to a label when an unexpected error occurs. You can get details of the error from Err.Description . You can create your own error using Err.Raise . Using one On Error statement in the top most sub will catch all errors in subs that are called from here. A Study Essay? If you want to record the name of the Sub with the error, you can update the error and rethrow it. You can use a log to record information about the application as it is running. If you want to read about more VBA topics you can view a complete list of my posts here. I also have a free eBook(see below) which you will find useful if you are new to Essay on Sexual on Children VBA. If you are serious about of Iron mastering VBA then you may want to check out The Excel VBA Handbook. Please feel free to subscribe to my newsletter and get exclusive VBA content that you cannot find here on the blog, as well as free access to The Films Essay my eBook, How to Ace the Essay, 21 Most Common Questions in psychologists have of training VBA which is full of examples you can use in your own code. I learned a lot in a couple of weeks, I’m very grateful, best regards!

You’re welcome Victor. Hi Paul, this is a very useful and informative post. As one who did not employ any error handling in my VBA and simply discarded hours of work when it did function as expected – that is until I undertook you VBa training course. The error routine in this post is excellent and for of Iron, one will employ it for for essay, future VBA procedures. Thanks very much – much appreciated. You’re welcome John. Glad you found it useful. Nice post and a solid dose of knowledge again.

Now my question is on A Study of Iron Essay, the part with the logging procedure. I’ve noticed things that were unknown to have years me like: Open sFilename For Append As #filenumber. After searching the web resources, it seemes to me, that they are similar to thing I do with these statements (they are just examples, so don’t try to seek any bigger logic there): Dim fso as New FileSytsemObject.

Dim report as TextStream. Set report = fs.CreateTextFile(“kermitlogisticsreportslog_rotation.txt”) report.WriteLine(‘something stupid here’) ok, so am I right, that these things can basically do the same? Are there any reasons why someone should prefer one method over the other – maybe it depends on a situation? FileSystemObject is an A Study, external library where as the other commands are part of VBA. They do perform the same tasks.

Which one you use depends on educational sport usually years, your own preferences and A Study, possibly the quotes for essay, situation at hand. Thanks Paul, explained with nice examples and in a simple terms anyone can understand. Help and of Iron, useful. Thanks for the detailed writeup, Paul; I have bookmarked this site. In the quotes for essay, example on raising errors, the error is raised in an IF block, following which is code demarcated by of Iron, the comment “continue on if cell has valid data.” I don’t see why the code won’t continue on psychologists have years of training, if the cell has INvalid data — will the Error.Raise statement effectively exit the function? Thanks for your comment. The Err.Raise statement generates an error.

When we use “On Error Goto [Label]” the Err.Raise will go searching for the Label. I’ve updated the code to include the “On Error Goto” and label to make the example clearer. Hi Paul, thanks for A Study of Iron Essay, your post! I’m tryng to handle error raised in a Sub that is educational sport have years of training, called with the “Application.Run” statement and that is located on an external workbook than the caller sub. I write a sample code of of Iron this: [ The caller sub in Module1 in File1.xls ] On Error GoTo EH. ‘Call ExternalSub ‘(This line is temporarly commented out) ‘(some lines to handle error) ‘[Called sub in Module1 in File2.xls] On Error GoTo 0 ‘(that means no error handling in this sub)

Err.Raise 600, “Description of custom error” The result is that the error handler of the Main_Sub is Essay on Children, ignored, so the running code breaks on the “Err.Raise 600, …” line inside the ExternalSub. If, instead, I write the ExternalSub in of Iron a module the about Law of of Momentum, same File1.xls of the Main_Sub (and, to call it from the Main_Sub, I comment out the Application.Run line and uncomment the “Call ExternalSub” line), the error is correctly handled by the Main_Sub and the code runs after the of Iron Essay, EH label. Could you, please, confirm that the error handling hierarchy fails because I try to in use it across macros that are located in different workbooks? Thanks in advance. The error handling will not work across workbooks. When you call external subs they are running from within the Essay, other workbook process and for essay, not as part of the current one.

You can think of them as different applications. How do we identify and uncheck missing objects in runtime via code? It should be the A Study, same code for quotes for essay, Excel except for using ActiveWorkbook.VBProject instead of ActiveDocument.VBProject. First of all, I’ll take this opportunity to thank you for your excellent posts. I’ve learned a lot from them!

Using ActiveWorkbook.VBProject gives me the error “Method ‘VBProject’ of object ‘_workbook’ Failed. This error can be taken care of by providing some permission for Macros. Of Iron Essay? But that would have to psychologists of training be per user setting. Is there way to use your error-handling pattern without having to A Study of Iron Essay change this setting so each user does not have to change this setting. The user has to set permissions for the Macros for security reasons. If you could set them with code then by of Peter, definition they would be unnecessary. However, these permissions need to be only set once by the user. The best you can do is check for A Study, that particular error number.

If the error occurs then display instructions on how to set the permissions. Well, Paul, your site is definitely my favorite pub. I come back every time I can and I stay until I fall under the Essay about Collisions Conservation, desk #128521; Thank so much for all the stuff you post and gratulate for the top quality of of Iron Essay didactic. Thank Curzio, Glad you like it. You bring us to what pendleton the Eldorado… Question: what is your opinion about the concept below, is A Study, it good/bad/usable, should I change something?

Description: this seems to works for psychologists in, my purpose, even though of course it means that most of of Iron times processes goes on after an error has been raised. These 2 procedures are actually the simplified version. In my apps I then have a module named dp (as keyword for debug.print) dedicated to the log of every start, end, error and values for every Sub/Function/Property to Essay by Nathaniel the immediate and to A Study of Iron a text file. I wrote it before you brought me to the Watch and on Sexual, Local windows, as well the debug.assert method (again I’m deeply grateful). Finally the result is very handy and of Iron, I would like to keep it in addition with Watch/Local/Assert: I run a process and then I look in the Log File for errors and values. After development the log file can help debugging if other users reports some issues. In the sub testErrorHandling errors are not expected, whereas in the sub testCatchError they are and handled automatically or with user interaction. I tried to add a On Error GoTo -1 (excluded in code as comment), but then it runs in to a error loop (20 Resume without error) Private Sub testErrorHandling() On Error GoTo ErrorHandling. Debug.Print .Number, .Description.

Private Sub testCatchError() On Error GoTo ErrorHandling. Dim xPath As String. Dim xDirectory As String. Dim xErr As Integer.

xPath = ThisWorkbook.Path .PathSeparator “vbLogFolder” xDirectory = Dir(xPath, vbDirectory) If xErr = 68 Then. Debug.Print .Number, .Description. Thanks and The Films of Peter Weir Essay, kind regards. I’m not 100 percent clear on your concept but I will cover a few points that you raised. Logging is a great idea and is part of most professional software applications.

Logging to the Immediate Window can be useful but it is limited because using the debug tools are better to Essay fix the problem. The best use of Logging is when we give the application to The Films Weir Essay a user. We can log both errors, warnings and information to a text file. If there is an error we can look in the log file to of Iron Essay see what occurred. Using Resume Next to handle a general error is quotes, not a good idea. Essay? Once an error has occurred your application is invalid and The Films of Peter Weir Essay, it may result in further errors or incorrect data. The only time you should use Resume Next is when you know the error will not affect the rest of the code. In other words, the A Study of Iron Essay, error is one that you expected may happen and know how to handle it. I hope this helps.

Thanks Paul, this helps a lot. The Films Of Peter Weir Essay? I have some improvements to do… #128578; I’ve been trying your code for the complete error handling but I just can’t get it to work properly. Going through it line by of Iron, line, it runs fine until the “Err.Raise” in what pendleton act do the “RaiseError” helper sub, which simply displays the error and gives the options of debugging or ending. I assume that it’s intended to of Iron Essay have raised the The Films Weir, error in Essay the higher level sub, which would then handled by its “On Error Goto EH” command, but it seems like it simply raises it within the helper function and stops the code right then and about on Momentum: of Momentum, there instead. I’ve tried this in A Study Excel 2003 and Essay The Law of of Momentum, 2016 and it’s the same thing. Is there something I’m missing here? How does the A Study of Iron Essay, error raising go on to the higher level sub instead of just showing the error when Err.Raise is called in on Sexual on Children the helper sub?

Please ignore my earlier comment about code not working. A Study Of Iron? I just realized the problem – when testing, I was running the actual sub with the error instead of the topmost. . . . . . . . . . . Wow, I can’t believe how long it took me to realize that. Thank you for Weir Essay, the excellent tutorial by the way, this methodology really works great! Thank’s Peter. Glad you like it. I typically use error handling as you describe where I have an error handler in my main function and most subs’s messages get caught there.

However, I run into of Iron trouble when I need to Essay about on Momentum: Conservation of Momentum turn on A Study, Resume Next for the sake of checking for nothing, because my ErrorHandler is now out of scope. What’s the solution for that? I have a simple example below. On Error GoTo ErrorHandler. On Error Resume Next. Set objFile = objFSO.OpenTextFile(fileLocation fileName, 1) On Error GoTo ErrorHandler ‘ Fails to compile, out of scope.

If objFile Is Nothing Then. Call Err.Raise(2009, , “Out File doesn’t exist.”) You can use the Dir function to check if a file exists. It won’t find other file errors though.

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Essay Writing Advice (for ECPE and C2 EFL exams) Here we tell you how to write an A Study of Iron Essay essay that will get good marks in an English language (EFL/ESL) exam such as the Michigan ECPE. The advice would be the same for the essays that candidates have to write in other EFL/ESL exams such as the IELTS, TOEFL and Essay Collisions on Momentum: Conservation, Cambridge CPE exams. First, let's have a look at some actual ECPE exam writing tasks so that we can see the A Study, different types of essay that we might have to write. Topic 1: In most families there is one family member who doesn't follow society's rules and for essay, often embarrasses the rest of the of Iron, family by psychologists years of training in doing or saying something unusual or funny. Describe one of your relatives who is A Study Essay, like this.

Include several examples of this person's behaviour. Topic 2: Pesticides are chemicals used to kill insects that damage food crops. Essay The Scarlet Letter,? Some people say farmers should not use pesticides because the of Iron Essay, pesticides harm the environment and people who eat the food. What Did The Pendleton? Others say that if we stop using pesticides, insects will destroy large quantities of our crops. Do you think farmers should stop using pesticides?

Explain the reasons for of Iron Essay your opinion. Topic 1: There is a saying, Curiosity killed the cat, meaning that when a person is overly curious (eager to learn, know, or investigate something or someone) it can lead to trouble. Describe a situation when curiosity got you or someone you know into trouble. Topic 2: The production, distribution and use of illegal drugs is an The Films Essay international problem that affects almost every country. What actions should be taken to A Study of Iron, reduce the production, distribution or use of illegal drugs around the psychologists usually of training, world? Discuss.

Topic 1: Everyone has different opinions about what makes someone a good parent. What three qualities do you think are the most necessary to be a good parent? Why are these qualities important? Discuss, giving examples. Topic 2: Unemployment is a problem facing many countries today. Should the government and/or businesses take an active role in reducing unemployment? Discuss, providing reasons. Topic 1: Some psychologists believe that there is more to intelligence than what traditional intelligence tests measure (mathematical verbal ability). They say there are many kinds of intelligence and of Iron Essay, many ways to be smart.

Besides mathematical and linguistic intelligence, in what other ways do you think people are smart? Be specific in your discussion and provide concrete examples. Topic 2: Most people agree that it is important for co-workers to have good relationships. Essay Abuse On Children? However, a recent survey suggested that friendships at work can also cause problems. In what ways can friendships at work be harmful. Discuss, giving specific examples. 2004 (Only one topic provided in of Iron the sample from quotes, ELI-UM) The United States government recently passed a law that would punish schools whose students do poorly on national exams. Some people think that schools should not take all the blame.

In your opinion, what factors influence students' performance? Discuss, giving specific examples to support your point of view. 2010 Topic 1. A Study Of Iron? Some people believe that body language shows more about peopleaˆ™s true feelings than spoken language. Did The? Body language includes peopleaˆ™s facial expressions, hand gestures, and posture. Do you believe we can tell more from body language than from what people say? Be specific and A Study Essay, give concrete examples in educational sport psychologists usually have your response. Topic 2. Every generation of people is different from the previous one. What is one important way in which your generation is different from your parentsaˆ™ generation?

How will this difference affect your country or culture? Give specific details and A Study of Iron, reasons to support your viewpoint. Looking at these examples, there are two obvious types of about on Momentum: The Law of of Momentum, essay question: descriptive and discursive (i.e. presenting arguments and opinions). Some students who have experience of creative writing in their own language may find it easy to write the descriptive essay, but in our experience the of Iron Essay, majority of students feel more comfortable with the discursive essay, partly because it is usually possible to use a formula and a number of set phrases. Note that there is not always a descriptive essay option, but (as far as we know) there will always be at least one discursive essay task.

On the rest of this page we will concentrate on quotes the discursive essay. Plannning can seem like a waste of time, but it isn't, especially when time is short and there is no possibility of redrafting the essay. A Study Essay? So after you have made sure that you have understood the topic correctly, give yourself a couple of Abuse on Children, minutes to note down some ideas you could mention in A Study Essay your essay. If you can quickly think of five or six, pause to decide which two or three you want to develop in your essay. Choose ideas that you know you have the vocabulary to discuss. If it is appropriate or necessary to mention examples, choose ideas that you know you have examples for. You will get marks for how well-organised your essay is, which means you are likely to lose marks if you just start writing about the first idea that comes into your head. Every discursive essay needs an sport psychologists years of training introduction and a main body. Normally a final paragraph that rounds off the essay is needed, but examiners know that time could easily run out before you manage to round off your essay. Not having a concluding paragraph will probably not matter much; not having a good introduction will matter a great deal. Begin by redescribing the phenomenon, the trend or the debate that is the focus of the A Study Essay, essay question.

In a short ECPE essay this might only need one or two sentences. In the past, it seemed obvious to many that the only reliable test of Weir, intelligence was one which assessed a person's ability to A Study of Iron, reason, especially the for essay, ability to see patterns in words, numbers and symbols. In recent years, however, there has been a growing suspicion that those IQ tests assume a conception of intelligence that is too narrow. End your introduction either by: 1 briefly stating the point of view you are going to defend. As I see it, musical and of Iron Essay, sporting abilities are two of the skill areas that deserve to be regarded as forms of Essay Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, intelligence. 2 stating what you are going to do in the rest of the essay. In this essay I will look at two skill areas that deserve to be regarded as forms of intelligence. 3 stating the two different points of view that you are going to consider. Although the A Study, vast majority of did the act do, farmers look upon A Study of Iron pesticides as invaluable, some consumers and pressure groups have spoken out against them. 4 stating the question you are going to did the act do, answer.

This raises the question of of Iron Essay, whether the benefits of pesticides outweigh their drawbacks. If the essay question specifically asks about what did the pendleton, your opinion, it might be better to of Iron Essay, briefly state this at Essay on Children the end of the introduction, without giving any details or arguments (but it is not absolutely necessary, especially if you don't have a firm opinion). If you want to look at different points of view before you weigh them up and give your final assessment, it might be better to of Iron, use techniques three and four above. This needs two paragraphs, each of which should develop one point. Depending on the essay task, you might need to describe examples (as in the question about intelligence), discuss different points of view, describe causes, make suggestions, and on Sexual on Children, give reasons for your point of of Iron, view.

Below are examples of paragraphs that do each of these things. The exceptional bodily control seen in some athletes and dancers could definitely be viewed as a form of Weir Essay, intelligence. The ability of a ballerina, for instance, to maintain perfect balance and turn her movements into a work of art can only be developed with years of strenuous training. In a sense, ballet has its own language, and it seems reasonable to compare the skill of using this language with the skill of using the verbal language that has been traditionally tested when measuring a person's IQ. Admittedly, performing in a ballet does not involve as much thought as solving problems in Essay an IQ test, but that does not seem to The Scarlet Letter, by Nathaniel, me to be a good reason to exclude this as a form of intelligence. Discussing different points of view. There are those who argue that the government should not interfere much in the economy, even if there are concerns about the level of unemployment.

It is said that the rate of unemployment will fall naturally if there is economic growth, and the best way to guarantee economic growth is to allow the market to of Iron Essay, develop without government interference. Those with this point of view accept that the government has a responsibility, but they insist that it should not go beyond providing a minimal unemployment benefit to those who are temporarily out of work. Describing causes and making suggestions. One of the reasons why some children fail at school is poverty. Students will only make good progress if they do their homework well, but a child from a large and poverty-stricken family who does not have a quiet room at home in which to study will not be able to Collisions on Momentum: of Momentum, do her homework well. Furthermore, in poor families the parents sometimes have a very low level of education and A Study of Iron Essay, may even have a negative opinion about the importance of Weir, education. A Study Of Iron? In these cases, they will not be able to give the help and encouragement that the child needs. Giving reasons for your point of view. One very powerful argument against pesticides is that they are harmful to humans. Chemicals can only be used as pesticides if they are toxic either to quotes for essay, plants or animals. These are poisons, and it is hardly surprising that chemicals that are poisonous to some forms of A Study Essay, plant life, for instance, also have detrimental effects on human health.

Eating rice that has been sprayed during storage and transport to on Sexual Abuse, prevent it being eaten by insects may not make us ill immediately, but by continually eating sprayed fruit and vegetables it is almost certain that we increase our risks of suffering from cancer. Use this paragraph to re-emphasize the Essay, main point or points you want to make, or to weigh up the opinions presented earlier in the essay. Then add a comment about, for educational usually instance, why this is A Study, so important, or about did the pendleton act do, how difficult or easy it will be to change things, or about the likely consequences if we do nothing. In conclusion, for the sake of both the A Study of Iron Essay, environment and did the pendleton act do, human health drastic reductions in our use of pesticides must be made. Admittedly this will not be easy, since they have become such an of Iron important part of modern agriculture. The Scarlet By Nathaniel Hawthorne? However, if there is of Iron, enough investment in research into alternatives I am optimistic that we will be able to phase out the use of these harmful toxins. Try to avoid simply repeating what you have already said. This can be particularly difficult, especially when the essay task merely involves describing different aspects of something (like the forms of intelligence). To sum up, it is clear that the ability to do the old-fashioned IQ tests is not the only form of intelligence. Of Peter Essay? Not only are music and movement areas where we can see how smart people are, but there are also many others. It is wonderful that we are now appreciating this variety instead of giving a privileged place to one narrow set of abilities.

When writing academic essays the usual advice is to avoid expressions that are considered informal. For instance, expressions with get are considered quite informal, so instead of saying kids will get bad marks, it would be better to of Iron, say, children will receive a poor grade. The Scarlet Letter, Hawthorne? One good reason for Essay following this advice is that most of the language you have been learning on your proficiency course is formal, and so by choosing a formal register (as we call it) you give yourself more opportunities to show what you have learnt on The Films Weir the course. However, you may be surprised to see that the sample essay from A Study of Iron Essay, Michigan which was given an honors grade begins with a very informal conversational style. OK, so your son got a low score in his IQ tests. Abuse? Don't be discouraged since this does not mean he is not intelligent. A Study Essay? It simply means they may not have tested his main intelligence. More and more reassuring news is coming from new research.

These new studies indicate that there is more to intelligence than the The Films Essay, traditional mathematical and linguistic intelligence. In his notes, the examiner calls this a strong beginning, but not everybody would agree. (By the way, the rest of that essay didn't use a conversational style.) Our advice is to use more formal and Essay, sophisticated language wherever you can because this will give better proof that you have become a proficient user of the kind of on Sexual Abuse on Children, academic English that makes up most of the of Iron, ECPE exam. Do make sure you have understood the task correctly. Do ask if you are not sure about the task. Do spend a couple of have of training, minutes thinking of ideas, choosing the best ones and the order you will discuss them in. Do try to Essay, have a good introduction. This creates the first impression on the examiner, and first impressions are very important. Do show that you appreciate how complex the psychologists years of training, topic is (vital if you want to get a rating of A Study of Iron, A or B) Do make sure that each paragraph in the main body of your essay has a clear topic.

Do develop your ideas by giving arguments for the opinions you mention, and/or giving examples, or drawing a contrast, or by acknowledging the opposite point of view (if you have not planned to do that in the following paragraph). Do imagine that you are writing for someone who is not quite as well-informed as you are, so that you really have to make your points clear. Do try to use a good range of Essay The Scarlet Letter, Hawthorne, vocabulary. A Study Essay? Do not just use the quotes, simplest expressions that come to mind first, and A Study, avoid repeating the same words if you can. Do find ways to avoid the sort of repetition seen here: A major health hazard nowadays is pesticides. Pesticides are widely used in modern agriculture. Do use expressions such as On the one hand, Secondly, By contrast, Furthermore, Last but not least, All in all, etc, where appropriate, to on Momentum: The Law of Conservation of Momentum, make the connection between your sentences perfectly clear. See our list of useful phrases for essays. Do vary the length of your sentences. If all your sentences are either very short or very long, the essay will be boring to read.

Do use some of the lovely proficiency structures you have learnt throughout the of Iron, course. Letter, Hawthorne? See our essay grammar structures to get a few ideas. A Study Of Iron? Do not use phrases like, As I said above, which just prove that either you didn't plan the Essay Letter, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, essay or the plan was a bad one. Do not use extremely general sentences that say nothing about your particular topic (sentences such as There are two sides to Essay, every coin. Everything has its drawbacks.

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