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bibliographic essay THE BIBLIOGRAPHIC ESSAY. A bibliographic essay is a narrative discussion, i.e., a review, of the literature on a topic. It is the james escort, equivalent of a conversation in which someone not only advises you about what's out there but shapes that raw material into a coherent survey of the characteristics of bildungsroman, materials available. Ryan Escort. Like all bibliographies, the characteristics, bibliographic essay enumerates sources and, like an annotated bibliography, it describes and analyses them. It goes beyond performing these functions, however, to comparing, contrasting, and evaluating the james male escort, relationships among works. A bibliographic essay thus draws a picture of the literature of a topic, and in so doing, unlike a list and like an essay, it tends to take a position and university football, establish an interpretive point of escort, view. To compile a bibliographic essay, begin by notre dame university football, asking two related questions: 1. Who is writing? That is, who is writing what and publishing or purveying it where and to whom?

Elaborate this question by escort, asking further questions: who are these writers (professional academics, professional writers or persons of letters, amateurs, men or women, etc.) what might their background have to do with their writing and the body of material they#8230; what kinds of information or documentation are the authors using or creating what scholarly, commercial, or private organizations are publishing or purveying materials, and who is their audience. In The Diagram, Households Makers.. 2. What are they writing about and how are they writing about it? Elaborate this question by male, asking further questions: what are the theories, conclusions, images, or points of view in these materials what assumptions do they make or question what do they leave out what are the problems, issues, and points of contention or debate how do works go about presenting their argument, and what kinds of evidence, expectations, traditions, and images do they call upon or evoke. In addition to these questions about individual sources, your essay will also want to account for similarities and notre football, differences among works. You will want to investigate changes over time, geography, and demography as to whose work and what ideas, points of view, images, and representational strategies are influential, as to how the available material has developed in terms of themes, emphases, subjects treated, historical methods, modes of representation, groups of authors or schools of thought, etc. All of ryan escort, these questions lead to building the compare and contrast superstructure that characterizes the bibliographic essay.

With such questions in mind, how, at a practical level, do you go about gathering sources to read? 1. Survey a number of works . Bones Summaries. Your survey will identify and locate candidates for reading. James. In addition to hints from class reading and discussion and advice from your professor, you can survey the possibilities in two ways, namely, 1) by using relevant reference works (e.g., encyclopedias and dictionaries of late antiquity), and 2) by using a variety of databases available through the Smather#8217;s Library webpage. For most topics, spending some time with the reference and theory, secondary literature not only will be a vital part of your research but should be the male, first step you take. 2. Legwork and scanning . To decide which books you will treat in your essay, look at tables of contents and indexes, read introductions, skim sections of each book. Those books on which you choose not to characteristics, concentrate in james male escort your essay will become material for your footnotes or bibliography and for dame football mentioning in passing. Remember that the purpose of a bibliographic essay is to advise people on what to read and that to do so you will have to demonstrate your command of the topic by being able to tell them about the male escort, books they do not need to read as well. In other words, the bones summaries, books you concentrate on will be the ryan james, tip of an and firms are the iceberg, the submerged body of which you will also want to sketch. Other suggestions (from 2 different websites): As appropriate for your topic, you should establish a historical and interdisciplinary context for the theme of the essay; discuss prominent scholarship in fields related to james escort, the topic; survey important schools of thought or scholarly trends, focusing on distinctive methodologies and provocative departures from disciplinary trends in your field; and discuss and contrast the more important monographs.

Abbreviations, acronyms, and the key terms that recur throughout the essay or that might suffer from some implicit ambiguity should be defined. Essays should be both descriptive and evaluative in surveying the relevant titles , although value judgments that run the risk of obsolescence should be avoided (e.g., the most important study) The use of explicit verbs (e.g., contends, asserts, demonstrates, presupposes) is encouraged. Works that are seminal should be identified as such. Do not list titles without commentary. Characteristics. The bibliographic essay should discuss all the historiographical work (monographs and articles) done on a particular subject in the last 10-20 years, with reference to james, any classic works written before 1990 which are crucial to our understanding of that topic. Own Belief. The bibliographic essay should say a lot about the historiography of james male, a topic, but not too much about the specific works it surveys. It should be more focused on recent work and should say more (but not too much more) on those works.

The length of lovely bones summaries, your essay for this assignment should be somewhere between 4 and james male, 6 pages in length and should refer to or discuss at least 6 secondary sources. Anything longer than that probably says too much or the topic is too generally defined. Anything shorter probably doesn#8217;t say enough or the topic is too narrowly defined. Your bibliographical essay should say very little about what happened, instead focusing almost entirely on what historians have had to bones summaries, say about what happened. You can produce a bibliographical essay on ryan, virtually any topic you (or I) could imagine. One hint that may help you with your selection of of bildungsroman, a topic include making sure there are more than a dozen or so works (monographs/articles) written on the topic. If not, your topic is probably too narrow. A second hint is that there should be some sort of ryan, on-going discussion among historians about the topic, meaning that something comes out almost every year.

Some great historical controversies die for lack of additional archival discoveries or methodological controversies. Try not to pick one that has stopped breathing or that is on its last legs. No matter what, you will have to think carefully and critically about appeal, your topic. Otherwise, you will end up spending too much time in the library stacks and james male escort, not enough time in front of your word processor. Finally, a bibliographical essay that takes into account only those works published in notre dame university football English will be considered less than complete.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Pacifism is the theory that peaceful rather than violent or belligerent relations should govern human intercourse and that arbitration, surrender, or migration should be used to resolve disputes. Pacifism is as much an ryan james element of wallerstein theory Western thinking as is the ryan james male escort, notion of Just War Theory, the argument that the state may legitimately or morally bear arms. While most people accept the necessity of war, conscientious objectors (or martyrs in much of football European history) have often been accorded a special recognition for their moral bravery in refusing to take up arms. The philosophical study of pacifism requires examining a variety of aspects of the broad proposal, as well as an investigation as to its consequences.

Pacifism relates to ryan james male, war as well as to domestic injustices and own belief, repressive policies. It can be studied in terms of its coherence as a deontological, or intrinsic, value as well as in terms of the beneficial effects it seeks. Ryan James Male. Examination of the broad theory draws our attention to fallacy, a vast range of possible ethical meanings and issues that the committed pacifist or critic must consider. The doctrine of james male absolute pacifism is first dealt with, before turning to an examination of the more flexible doctrines of pacifism and summaries, conditional pacifism. The best place to begin an analysis of pacifism is with the absolutist argument that all forms of violence, war, and/or killing are unconditionally wrong. The proposed ideal is that social intercourse should be completely non-violent and peaceful, and conflicts which may arise should be dealt with through arbitration and compromise rather than with recourse to violent means. Absolutist pacifism asserts that peace is ryan james male escort intrinsically a good to be upheld either as a duty or on own belief the consequentialist grounds that it is james male escort more conducive to human welfare than any use of violence or force. The ethical evaluation of these two positions, the deontological and the consequentialist, provides the of bildungsroman, traditional framework in which ethicists examine pacifism. Ryan James Male. But what becomes an immediate concern is the lovely bones, kind of pacifism that is intended. Pacifism for james escort, many means an anti-war stance, but pacifism can also be construed as a broader theory incorporating doctrines of non-violence, passive resistance, and moral purity.

Although the emphasis on circular-flow diagram, are the makers. pacifism as an james male escort anti-war doctrine is the focus of this article, the other nuances of the theory need to be noted. The first issue to deal with is that while pacifism emphasizes the notre football, role that peace should play, there are three general aspects derived from the nature of peaceful relations. First, there is the absolute prohibition of war; second, the ryan james male, absolute prohibition of violence (or force); and third, the absolute prohibition of wallerstein killing. The three areas of ethical investigation certainly overlap, and most pacifists hold an ethic of non-violence, which underpins both their disdain of killing and ryan, of war. Wallerstein Theory. Others, however, deny any moral validity to war but accept the use of ryan james escort force or violence (and even killing) under criteria established by the rule of law; some seek a purely non-violent way of life, where as other pacifists are solely nuclear pacifists in that they accept the use of conventional war but not nuclear war. Before moving onto an ethical analysis of pacifism, the concepts of killing, violence, force, and innocents are reviewed. Morally, the topic of killing is intricate and complex, deserving a separate consideration, however, for the purposes of examining the various possible readings of to pity fallacy pacifism, it can be generally asserted that pacifists cannot condone killing. Their beliefs emphasize the sanctity of ryan james male human life, according it a special moral status that necessitates strong justifications for the injuring, harming, restraining, or killing of another. Absolute pacifists deny that there can be any justification for killing. The Mosaic command, thou shalt not kill resounds throughout much Western culture and philosophy and is the starting point for absolutist prohibitions on the killing of people in own belief, the Western philosophical tradition. Ethically, the problem of killing divides between passive and active killing as well as intentional, unintentional, and foreseeable variations.

The pacifist needs to relate his general moral outlook to these particular areas. For example, would the pacifist prohibit all forms of ryan escort killing, including mercy killings and killings in self-defense? Is it any form of killing that the pacifist prohibits, or only those of innocents lives, or those in foreign territories? Or does the pacifist draw a distinction between killing and murder, with the implication that killing could be morally acceptable (e.g., abortion, euthanasia, capital punishment), whereas the intentional killing of an innocent be absolutely immoral? Even so, a pacifist could consistently claim that he would prefer to die rather than raise his fist to protect himself. Kahlil Gibran argues: If my survival caused another to perish, then death would be sweeter and more beloved. ( The Voice of the Poet ). In such ethics, the evil of killing in self-defense outweighs the appeal to pity fallacy, moral value of the victim s own life and the moral purity of the pacifist is to be upheld as the governing ethic.

But self-immolation and especially sacrifice are ultimately illogical, for if all were to ryan james, sacrifice themselves in the quest for moral purity, none would be left to to pity fallacy, continue the human race. However, the pursuit of purity can also be criticized for being other-worldly, unrealistic, and utopian, and in james escort, turn purification policies have also often become crusades against sinners and heretics (cf. Barrington Moore s Moral Purity and Persecution in History ), which even the Buddhist religion is wallerstein theory not averse to accepting. The pacifist who seeks, regardless of the actions of others, moral purity often requires subsidizing or free rides on the moral impurity of ryan james others. The pacifist may reply that it is the duty of only a select elite to be morally pure (a priestly class) or that only bones summaries, a select elite are capable of such purity and james male escort, that they must so act to become semi-divine agents on earth. The reply is cogent, however it admits a moral division in humanity, namely that some are morally better than others and that others live to serve the priests, an argument that moral egalitarians (each to count for one and no more than one Bentham) would reject. While a few pacifists (especially in own belief, the religious vein) may accept the absolute ideal of peace, most have to justify their enjoyment of peace at the expense of others who actively defend the james male, lives of their fellow citizens as well as those of the pacifists.

The dilemma is captured well in a quotation from Clifford Simmons in Paskins and Dockrill s Ethics of War . I could not stand aside from the experiences of others. I still believed that the position of the pacifist was ultimately right but I was beginning to notre university football, realize that, at the same time, I could not stand aside from the struggle which was engulfing my contemporaries. (p.182) There are two solutions for the pacifist at this junction. Firstly, to prohibit any form of self-preservation that requires harming another, even if he is an aggressor, in the belief that one s life is less morally valuable than one s pure death. The criticism is that this rewards aggression, for evil will always flourish when good men do nothing (Edmund Burke), to which the pacifist may reply that the rewards for moral purity are not to be found in this life but in male, the after-life, a reply that is not attractive to those who do not believe in life after death. The second solution is to divide humanity into those who may seek and own belief, attain moral purity and those who cannot or should not. This avoids any need to resort to postmortem tales of heavenly rewards, but then raises a host of james male escort political and ethical questions as to bones summaries, the membership of the pure elite. The next philosophical problem that pacifism has to deal with is what is meant by violence. The adjective violent applies to many situations that the nominal pacifist would not necessarily oppose, from male escort, its uses to characteristics, describe agitated or passionate behavior to morally legitimately violent actions against the self or another person. James. For example, the martial and pugnacious sports involve a violence that the pacifist could accept, although many would decry such institutions as being part of the culture of violence that pervades aggressive nations (and hence are deemed potential causal factors in war) and which ought to be banned or severely limited. Yet the appeal to pity fallacy, violence meted out ryan male escort, on, say a person s body in surgery is not something that most pacifists would accept deserving abolition.

Pacifists may also accept that a violent passion or argument is not something that should be prohibited or morally censured, although there are thinkers here, say, in the Chinese Confucian philosophy that aspire to own belief, the calmer control of the mind/spirit over the emotions, and any violent reaction (hysterical laughter, grief, etc.) or reversion to a violent manner disrupts the inner calm a man should seek, which in turn forms the basis of a peaceful community. Similarly, those who claim that reason is james escort man s most important faculty, and that it can and should rule the body and its conflicting emotions, assert that violent behavior or action against another is wallerstein inimical to the life of a rational being and should be avoided absolutely. Connected to issues of violence is the use of force against another person which a pacifist must consider. The use of force (again a complex area of study in itself) can take many forms including legal restraint as well as bodily restraint. Effectively both seek to ryan, confine the movement of the individual and pacifists may or may not reject the use of force in civil society. The use of theory force need not be violent, or do physical damage, but does imply some infringement on the free activity of an agent. Ryan James Escort. The philosophical discussion revolves around the justification of own belief that infringement, whether, for example, it can be legitimate or justifiable in any situation. Some, on the anarchist wing, can claim that any use of force is an abrogation of morality, whereas most pacifists accept the ryan james escort, need to restrain dangerous individuals from harming others. A question that may be put to such thinkers is why should there be a distinction between protecting people from lovely, dangerous civilians and protecting from dangerous nations. In other words, the james, pacifist has to consider the moral nature of political sovereignty and, if necessary, justify the reason why the use of force is permitted domestically but not internationally for characteristics of bildungsroman, similar issues.

Generally, those that oppose the use of force or violence in society deplore the use of physical means to intervene in another person s behavior, although some are willing to expand the concept of force or violence to include emotional abuse, cultural prejudices, mental games that is, forms of psychological warfare and propaganda designed to undermine the dignity of the individual. Who is the ryan male escort, target of any war, violence, force, or restraint also has to be considered by the pacifist. Few would admit that a dangerous person should not be restrained in some form or other, and most pacifists would accept injuring or even killing a dangerous criminal if the circumstances admit it, although the argument for retaining a moral purity can be deployed here, leaving the pacifist to justify permitting aggression to flourish. In this case, the pacifist has to evaluate the moral nature of the particular threat against characteristics of bildungsroman duties towards others and their right to peace. Deontological pacifists, those who assert that peaceful interaction is a duty to be supported, must weigh their pacifism against the violation of that peace by criminals or dangerous persons. Some pacifists here resort to ryan male escort, defining innocents as people deserving their dignity and peace and whose lives ought to be protected against violent offenders. Violence and the use of force by domestic authorities may be thus permitted by pacifists, who reject war or interventions across borders, but they would emphasize that any infringement should be reasonable and be legitimate and should avoid any unnecessary violence.

Once an interventionist war is morally permitted the pacifist becomes at least pacificist (see below). The most intricate difficulty facing the general pacifist is the link between personal pacifism and international pacifism, which is not very clear-cut in wallerstein theory, most writings. Some pacifists, as we have seen, may admit the use of internal aggression to sustain law and order but be set against ryan the use of aggression for to pity fallacy, resolving international disputes. Unlike domestic issues, they can argue, international affairs is subject to no overriding supreme authority that can be turned to for conflict resolution, and here the pacifist would argue that war should never be employed as a means for resolving disputes between morally or politically equal corporate entities. However, the question can be raised as to why the use of force is ryan male escort morally legitimate within a nation s borders (to restrain criminals) but not so beyond them (to restrain international criminals), especially if the of bildungsroman, case involves halting the ryan escort, illegitimate use of aggression by one party against appeal innocents. As noted above, pacifist ethics can be described from two main viewpoints. Firstly, the deontological position which decrees that moral agents have an absolute duty to avoid aggressing or waging war against others. Secondly, the consequentialist position which asserts that no good ever comes from aggressive actions or war and it is thereby prohibited, not because it is an evil in itself, but because it always leads to a worse off position for the majority. This section investigates firstly the james male escort, absolutist doctrine, then conditional pacifism from both perspectives.

Held as a duty, it is incumbent on the pacifist never to aggress, use force, or support or engage in war against another. Fallacy. Duties are moral actions that are required or demanded in all pertinent circumstances. The first problem for deontological pacifism is the james escort, potential collision of duties. What if force is to be used to halt an aggressor who endangers the pacifist s life, or the life of an innocent? Regarding the pacifist s own life, it can be argued that he or she possesses no right of self-defense (and must turn the other cheek), although this is typically the position of those who place not much value on living this life in favor of living a life in the realms beyond. Among such adherents are religious pacifists. Another example: does the duty to respect others outweigh the duty to respect oneself? The aggressor obviously transcends any duty of respect he should have towards his victim but does that warrant the dame, forfeiture of his life? Those pacifists who admit the right to defend the self against a threat can admit the james escort, use of restraining or disabling force and even, if the threat is deadly, the right to kill an assailant. Deontological pacifists can claim that others rights to life are of a higher order duty than the duty to intervene to notre football, save oneself. But that hinges upon a moral evaluation of the self compared to others, and it is not clear why others should accord a higher moral evaluation: for after all the self is in turn one amongst many others from a different subject s point of view.

If the pacifist argues that his life is his own to lay down in the face of aggression (as a moral principle, as a moral example, as an ryan james example of martyrdom, etc), the problem intensifies when the characteristics of bildungsroman, life of another is threatened, whom the pacifist is in james escort, a position to assist, and who, as a living subject, may prefer life over death. The pacifist who claims that he has no duty to characteristics, intervene in saving others affairs treads a precarious moral path here; the james male, immediate retort is why should the moral life of the pacifist be morally more important than the life of the lovely summaries, threatened innocent? For the sake of his own beliefs, could the pacifist consistently ignore the violence meted upon others? Yes, from two possible perspectives. Ryan Male. The first is that the summaries, ideal of ryan male escort pacifism retains a supremacy over all other ideals and is not to lovely summaries, be compromised. The second is that the life of the pacifist is morally superior to the life of the threatened innocent, even if that innocent happens to be a fellow absolute pacifist. Deontologists argue that certain kinds of moral actions are good in male, themselves, hence deontological pacifists claim peace to be a duty to be categorically upheld; however, other moralists argue for pacifism on the basis of its beneficial consequences rather than any intrinsic notion of the good these are consequentialist pacifists.

Pacifism can be supported by moral consequentialists who assert that the evils procured by violence, force, or war, far outweigh any of the good that may arise. For example, rule utilitarians claim that if certain inimical consequences flow from wallerstein, particular actions, a blanket prohibition on such actions is morally required, which, in terms of the implications of the ryan male escort, argument brings them close to own belief, the deontological position of an absolute prohibition of war, etc. Rule utilitarianism holds that a behavioral code or rule is morally right if the consequences of adopting that rule are more favorable than unfavorable to james escort, everyone. Accordingly, rule utilitarian pacifists claim that the avoidance of war (or violence, or force) should be a moral rule since its abrogation would be less beneficial to all. For example, if, on balance, all hitherto wars are perceived as producing effects that none would have wanted prior to lovely summaries, the war, then a rule against war should be adopted. The rule outlaws war in the particular and in general, even if a particular war could produce better consequences it should not be accepted on the grounds that it violates a moral rule, and that moral rule claims more favorable consequences for ryan, entire world if war is of bildungsroman absolutely prohibited. However, absolute consequentialist principles are exceedingly difficult to sustain, for ryan james escort, they are firstly based on a particular reading of history a reading that can emphasize ruinous results over any good that may ultimately have arisen. Own Belief. They are empirical judgements on the past and ryan male escort, as such open to of bildungsroman, not only historical critique but also the logical argument that what was true yesterday may not be true tomorrow (or at least cannot be proven to ryan james escort, be so). That is, while past wars were wholly detrimental to the human race as a whole, tomorrow s wars, because of new technology or strategy, or even a new ethic, may not be. Characteristics Of Bildungsroman. Accordingly, the moral rule may in principle change and therefore cannot be held absolutely. It is possible, for example, to consider that the male escort, Second World War (and all the untoward deaths and destruction that it brought) ultimately promoted the greater good of a peaceful Europe and enhanced international co-operation.

It is lovely bones summaries difficult to ryan james male escort, empirically sustain that nothing good ever came from notre dame university football, war , for critics can always point to something good whose value may be suitably expanded to provide an argument; in which case the argument becomes a comparison of goods and their respective moral weightings (20 million deaths versus fifty plus years of European peace for hundreds of millions). iii. Absuolute Pacifism Summarized. In summary, the absolute pacifist of both ethical persuasions prohibits war regardless of particular circumstances. As a doctrine, the onus in on justifying the pacifist principle against arguments for aggression and ryan james male, war. What, it may be asked, should be the lovely bones, appropriate response to a person who believes that violence is a morally appropriate method to gain values?

The absolute pacifist thus has to justify not retaliating or defending himself or others (innocents or not) in the face of aggression. Often the recourse is to non-earthly values such as the Kingdom of james escort Heaven, i.e., death is morally superior to fallacy, violent resistance, deterrence, or aggression, or to a moral division between peoples, between the superior pacifists and the impure aggressors. Against the doctrinal absolute prohibition of the ryan male, use of violence or war, conditional pacifism admits its use under certain circumstances. Again, the analysis can begin with an examination of deontological or consequentialist positions. i. Conditional Deontological Pacifism. Conditional pacifism from the deontological perspective admits that the enactment of duties cannot be considered in isolation, for they may overlap and hence require a conditional acceptance or a moral weighing. For the conditional pacifist, the appeal, duty to ryan, uphold peace and non-violence may conflict with the duty to save or defend lives against aggression, if the latter duty is accepted. Therefore, in cases of what Walzer calls supreme emergencies ( Just and Unjust Wars ), the duty to peace may be trumped by alternative ethical requirements.

To take an example from political theory that is an appropriate area of discussion here: a common defense of the use of violence or war is that it is a justifiable or legitimate procedure to defend rights, and rights theories are often supported from a conditional deontological position. The pacifist counters that the argument to violate rights to protect rights is incoherent, for in the diagram, are the, the use of force inherently violates the rights it is supposed to ryan escort, defend or protect. Own Belief. The alleged paradox is ryan male resolved, it can be argued, by theory, asserting that rights are things to ryan james male escort, be upheld and defended , firstly as negative claims requiring an absence of violation, and secondly as positive claims that require freedom to pursue goals. An aggressor violates both elements. A right cannot be a value unless it is defensible, but it does not mean that the rights of aggressors are infringed in defending one s rights, for, as Lockean theorists argue, aggressors lose rights in attacking others. Pacifists can disagree with this and argue that if rights theory is to be coherent, rights ought to be inviolable and inalienable. Hence if they are contingently held they cannot be deemed inviolable rights but conditional privileges , which may accordingly be removed if someone abuses their own rights entitlements by violating those of others. ii.

Conditional Utilitarian Pacifism. For the consequentialist, all moral guides are conditional on the circumstances and protracted outcomes of an action. In the case of to pity fallacy conditional pacifism, a utilitarian ascribes to act utilitarianism in which each particular act, war, battle, etc., is examined from the moral perspective of escort what outcome is likely to produce more favorable results. Accordingly, whilst the pacifist may claim that wars generally do not produce more favorable results, in specific examples they can be acceptable. Such examples may include wars of self-defense, or wars of intervention to protect a people from genocidal campaigns. But the further removed the pacifist gets from the peaceful ideal, the of bildungsroman, more he or she moves into the just war realm, or the theory called pacificism . Pacificism, defined by Martin Caedel ( Thinking about ryan james male War and Peace , 1987), is to pity a useful term to describe those who prefer peaceful conditions to war but who accept that some wars may be necessary if they advance the cause of peace. In a sense this is a further step away from conditional pacifism which rules out war or the use of james force except in very exceptional circumstances. In this case, the political achievements that have generated peace may be defended militarily if necessary for bones summaries, the overriding goal of global peace. Following Richard Norman ( Ethics, Killing, and james male escort, War , 1995), pacificism falls between pacifism and of bildungsroman, defencism, where defencism is the theory that accepts all defensive wars and acts of male deterrence as just (but which rules out aggressive wars).

It implies an interesting justification of war for peace s sake that is not essential to defencism but which also steps beyond the in the households and firms are the, sometimes non-worldly or unrealistic vision of pacifism. Pacificism can reject a defensive war if it undermines the overall concord that may be latent in the international (or national in the case of civil war) situation. James. This reaches into some intriguing territory, for bones, its remit is vague but also flexible. On the vague side, pacificism falls back onto similar problems that general consequentialism faces, namely the inability to propose a rule or guiding principle that is not affected by either new events or alternative interpretations of the same event. This, like general consequentialism, provides the ryan male, theory with flexibility, but where this does become an issue is in the logical extension of the theory to proclaim the war to end all wars as a pacificistic ideal, which logically it does entail. A defensive war, justified on notre football the traditional grounds of ryan james just war theory, may be rejected as causing greater overall international instability, but on the other hand it does not thoroughly rule out an aggressive war of intervention or of lovely imperialism to impose peace, although most pacificists would say that it does, on the grounds that all aggressive wars should be ruled out. But why? If two neighboring nations are about to wage a war that will create greater global instability and the chance is there to contain the momentum with an aggressive policing action, then so long as peace is the ultimate goal, the means become morally acceptable. Pacificism can be acceptable to many shades of opinion. Very few thinkers assert that war should be waged for its own sake, which poses logical problems of its own for often war is to be waged for glory or for valor or for land or for values.

But most thinkers will argue that peace is the escort, most favorable condition for man within which to reside: peace enables enterprise, families, and life in general to flourish. Accordingly, such thinkers will accept that to secure peaceful conditions, war may have to be waged, but that it can only be waged for the sake of peace . University. We read this in Plato, Aristotle, and ryan male escort, the host of philosophers and jurists that they influenced. But if peace is the overriding goal, the appeal, means to secure peace can really include anything. For example, one of the longest recorded reigns of ryan james human peace lasted in Egypt between 5000 and 2000 BC, partly as a result of lovely bones summaries geographical isolation and partly as a result of the strict and unchanging social system that prevailed; the imposition of central control may enforce a long term peace, but it is not a means that all may be willing to accept. Ryan. A strong central state, as Plato argues for appeal, in The Republic , could impose peace by james male escort, permitting no change or allowing any conditions conducive to change. But, arguably, such an appeal environment leads to the stultification of the mind, and if the individual mind is not free to ryan, challenge the present order, to disrupt or create , then society is own belief not in a position to adapt, which ultimately does not augur well for ryan, any society once change comes from outsiders or changes in the environment for wallerstein, example. Imperialism often imposes an international peace that few today would accept, but if peace is secured why should the nature of the political institution be rejected if it works?

The Romans provided the pax romana and the British attempted a similar pax britannica , that secured peace amongst hitherto belligerent and restless tribes. Most present thinkers reject imperialism yet some such as Michael Ignatieff do wonder whether its benefits may outweigh the costs ( The Warrior s Honor ). Empirically, it can be claimed that imperialism is globally more stable and male, peaceful than tribalism and of bildungsroman, its larger brother, nationalism, both of james escort which have generated a great portion of the world s wars. On the other hand, a federation of states, as considered by circular-flow decision makers., the Abbe Saint-Pierre in james escort, his Perpetual Peace and Immanuel Kant in his more famous work of the same name, proposes that while peace is the ultimate end to circular-flow diagram, and firms are the makers., be secured, a federation of escort equal states is the appropriate political vehicle. Kant argues that peoples will be drawn closer together through commercial ties and nature will prompt them to characteristics of bildungsroman, follow the dictates of reason that encourage the more beneficial peaceful enterprises over mutual animosity. Kant suggests that the process towards perpetual peace the escort, pacifistic goal is inevitable, given the manner in which people deal with one another. Yet the appeal to pity fallacy, optimism of the Age of Enlightenment was soon demolished by counter-acting principles of james male thought and politics that emphasized the glories of nationalism, of isolationism, and implicitly or explicitly, the benefits that war can bring. Peaceful intercourse is easily rejected by those who assert the benefits of the martial values, who claim that a war brings out the best of lovely summaries people and of a society, that wars heighten humanity s perception of itself in the great existentialist quest between life and ryan male escort, death, that war relieves the theory, monotony of consumerism and ryan james, so on. This highlights one of the of bildungsroman, most difficult aspects of pacificism, that the escort, goal of peace and of tranquillity may not suffice human nature. The persistent nagging of bellicosity, of adventure, personal and collective glory, whether it derives from something genetic or culturally deeply embedded in most societies, remains an easily revitalized clarion call to war.

The culture of fallacy peace is often very shallow, taking many generations to produce, and james male escort, even then can be swiftly eroded with atavistic rhetoric. Often what secures the maintenance of peace are the rule of characteristics of bildungsroman law and the expansion of commercial ties, as Kant foresaw. But these achievements require, in male escort, the case of the rule of law, a determined political acceptance of the law and its impartial application, and in own belief, the case of commercial ties, a sphere of individual freedom that permits the growth of mutually beneficial ties that most philosophers who look at the world in terms of what needs to be controlled are unable to accept. The crumbling of the james, rule of law undermines the potential for any society to exist peacefully, but so too does constant intervention in market processes which connects to the need for the rule of law. Commercial pacificists, those who see in appeal, the expansion of the market order the foundations of future peace, point to the nature of domestic peace as the ryan james male escort, blueprint for international peace. In the past a war between two English counties was quite an acceptable event (The Wars of the Roses between the houses representing Yorkshire and Lancashire) but today a similar proclamation of war would be absurd. In The Circular-flow And Firms Are The Makers.. In more recent history, the ryan james male, US was torn in two by the States fighting the dame, Civil War, yet war between them today could not be seriously entertained. What has brought peace to these one-time enemies needs to ryan, be understood if peace is to be secured between larger or more independent political units.

The optimism of commercial pacificists is of bildungsroman criticized on two grounds. Firstly, it may take a longer time to secure peace than the present generation is willing to james, permit, and secondly, the beneficial processes of market trading and the rule of law may not be acceptable to the target nation or people. In both cases an imposed order of appeal to pity fallacy peace may be preferred on consequentialist reasons, that less harm is done in the long run by enforcing a peace today. Male. However, it can be reasonably countered that the imposition of peace on cultures not prepared to shed centuries of summaries belligerence will not secure peace in ryan, the long run; various thinkers here, most notably John Stuart Mill, argue that societies must find their own ways to peace (freedom, self-determination) otherwise they will not appreciate them. The article has provided a very general overview of lovely some of the forms pacifism can take, as well as some of the issues it invokes. The area is philosophically broad and escort, intricate, which the expanse of relevant literature reflects. The ethical positions described in the essay divide between deontological and consequentialist positions, but virtue theory is also highly applicable: what kind of person are you if you wield force or if you do turn the other cheek? Is a peaceful life more or less virtuous compared to a life of violence, and on own belief what grounds?

I have touched on the religious moral dimension of pacifism, which typically holds that secular life is of a lower value than the protracted life after death, but justice cannot be done to the variety of theological systems and nuances that produce such an ethic. Justifying pacifism from purely secular premises is a much harder task for any thinker who cannot have recourse to rewards in heaven and it is a challenge that is worth exploring for its own sake by any philosopher interested in war or peace.

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9/11 Museum and Memorial // A Photo Essay + Reflection. Some of the below are affiliate links and I will earn a teensy-weensy percentage of the sale if you purchase through them at no extra cost to you . All opinions are my own and I will never promote something I haven#8217;t personally experienced and believe in. T he 9/11 Museum and ryan male escort Memorial is one of the best (if not the best) museums I#8217;ve ever been to. Own Belief. And when I say #8220;best,#8221; I definitely don#8217;t mean #8220;the museum that gives me all the warm and fuzzies#8221; because that couldn#8217;t be farther from the truth. However, is this one of the most thorough, well-put-together, and emotionally moving museums I#8217;ve ever toured? Abso-freaking-lutely. I want to warn youif you#8217;re afraid exploring the 9/11 Museum and male escort Memorial is going to be depressing and gut-wrenching and emotionally tolling then you are 100% correct. BUTa very big #8216;but#8217; hereyou should go anyway. You knew [insert any Nicholas Sparks movie here] was going to be a tear-jerker but you watched it anyway. You knew volunteering at circular-flow diagram, decision makers., the animal shelter was going to james male escort, slowly rip your heart to shreds week after week, but you continue to notre dame football, go anyway.

This is no different. Only with far fewer kittens you try to escort, sneak home in the pouch of your hoodie. Exploring the National September 11 Memorial and Museum took us about three hours but it could easily have been five if it weren#8217;t for that train we had to catch. The MEMORIAL is a gorgeous outdoor space open to the public and the MUSEUM is the indoor, mostly underground, exploration into and firms are the decision makers., the events surrounding September 11th, 2001. The September 11th Memorial is james male escort, smack dab on the location of the former World Trade Center buildings and exists in university football, the form of two reflecting pools, about an acre each in size, in the exact space of the ryan james male, Twin Towers. Bordering the two fountains are the names of every single victim related to characteristics of bildungsroman, this site and all 9/11 events: both World Trade Center buildings, first responders, the ryan male, 1993 WTC bombing, Pentagon, and everyone aboard flights 93, 175, and 77. Surrounding the reflecting pools is one of the most sustainable plazas ever constructed and own belief a kind of urban forest, if you will. Beginning in male escort, 2003 a competition was held for the design of the future memorial to the recent tragedies (ahem, last 4 or 5 blog posts#8230;).

The total competition submissions numbered 5,201 and from 63 COUNTRIES. That fact right there astounds me. The glory went to in the households and firms makers., architects Michael Arad and Peter Walker for their design meant to convey the spirit of hope and renewal. In this #8220;urban forest#8221; is ryan escort, a very special tree known as the Survivor Tree. Lovely Bones Summaries. This tree suffered destruction of its own during the events of 9/11 but was the only tree nearby to survive.

It was soon removed and placed in the special care of the male, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. It was rehabilitated, babied, hand-fed, rocked to sleep, and returned to the memorial in 2010. Today it serves as a symbol of survival, resilience and in the diagram, and firms are the decision makers. rebirth. Male Escort. Even more awesomeevery year three seedlings from the Survivor Tree are donated to three different communities who have suffered recent tragedies. Some of notre football those communities include Newtown, Connecticut; Boston, Massachusetts; and Fort Hood in Killeen, Texas. The September 11th Museum is james, found underground, beneath the sites and wallerstein within the foundations of the male escort, former Twin Towers. Here you#8217;ll find photographs, memorabilia and personal items, artifacts, and lovely bones summaries salvaged wreckage that shows up in many forms. You#8217;ll hear actual telephone calls and voicemails from those inside the james male, towers after being hit.

You#8217;ll see news footage of the events and appeal fallacy accompanying commentary. And you#8217;ll see the male escort, most haunting thing I have ever seen with my own two eyessecurity camera footage from the airports of the terrorists boarding the planes. You#8217;ll hear stories of the first responders and you won#8217;t believe they are real. You#8217;ll see photographs and personal information about notre dame, each of the 2,983 victims. TWO THOUSAND NINE HUNDRED EIGHTY THREE. An unfathomable number of male escort human beings who thought it was just a normal Tuesday.

You#8217;ll recall what you were doing that morning when you heard the news and you WON#8217;T BELIEVE it has been 15 years. That can#8217;t be right#8230; right? My bff (who I actually went to the museum with) and lovely bones I had just started our freshman year of college and escort were asleep in our dorm room when we got a call from an acquaintance. He told me to lovely bones summaries, turn on the TV because terrorists were flying planes into buildings. I think I laughed it off, like he must be mistaken. I was 18 years old and hadn#8217;t ever really heard about male, terrorists before. I went to lunch at the cafeteria that day, ate my broccoli and own belief cheese in silence, wondering if I should go home because we were about to be in ryan, a war? I seriously had no clue what was happening but I knew I didn#8217;t want to be six hours away from own belief my family. Nothing put this 15-year span of time into perspective more than seeing this dad telling his son about the ryan james, events of notre university September 11th, 2001. THAT KID WAS.

NOT. Ryan Male. BORN. YET. I think I remember that thought actually stopping us in our tracks. To Pity Fallacy. There are teenagers alive today that don#8217;t know a time before 9/11. They have never boarded a plane without taking their shoes off first.

They have never gone all the way up to the airport gate to greet an arriving family member. Remember when we could all just run rampant through airports? In the lobby pavilion are the Tridents that once formed part of the facade of the Twin Towers. Male. The pavilion was actually built around them due to their size. The Slurry Wall that actually helped save countless more lives. Read more here. The above photo shows Foundation Hall and the Last Column. I remember seeing this column in photos but never knew the point behind it. Turns out it was the final steel beam removed from Ground Zero after nine months of recovery efforts. It#8217;s covered in mementos, inscriptions, and even missing persons posters.

A glimpse of the Survivor Stairs that served as a route to safety for appeal many during the 9/11 attacks. A quote from Virgil#8217;s Aeneid is the centerpiece of james male this work by artist Spencer Finch titled Trying to Remember the Color of the Sky on That September Morning . The piece consists of 2,983 individually watercolored tiles, one for each victim, each painted a different shade of diagram, households decision makers. blue representing the ryan, artist#8217;s attempt to remember the color of the sky on September 11th, 2001. Notre University Football. The letters in james male, the quote are forged from salvaged World Trade Center steel. ?Another example of how every single thing in this museum has meaning. What#8217;s left of the radio antennae from the top of the North Tower. The 9/11 Museum and Memorial can be toured on your own but they also offer guided tours where they tell you the horrific stories behind everything you see such as the above Ladder 3 fire truck and the beams that served as the impact point of the first plane.

We chose the self-guided experience but they have strategically located guides to provide you with all the information and stories you can handle. Not pictured is the hall of the historical exhibitionthe guts of the university football, museum, as they were called. There#8217;s no photography allowed in here and it#8217;s advised to keep your mouths shut. This exhibit walks you through the events of 9/11/2001, then the events leading up to it, and a breakdown of life afterwards. Here is where you get to meet the terrorists and learn all about their years-long journey to becoming pilots for a day and terrorists for eternity. You#8217;ll hear a phone call from a man in ryan escort, the first tower to his mother letting her know that it wasn#8217;t his tower that was hit and in the circular-flow diagram, households and firms are the decision makers. he#8217;ll call her back later. Ryan Male. The presentation at the 9/11 Museum is really unlike anything else I#8217;ve ever experienced. Tickets to the 9/11 Memorial and own belief Museum can be purchased up the three months in advancewe bought ours about an ryan male escort hour prior from the kiosks located inside the memorial.

They look like ATMs if that helps. 9/11 Memorial: 7:30 AM 9:00 PM 9/11 Museum: Sunday Thursday 9:00 AM 8:00 PM Friday Saturday 9:00 AM 9:00 PM 9/11/2016: Open for 9/11 family members only lovely bones 7:00 AM 3:00 PM, and open to the public 3:00 PM midnight for the viewing of the Tribute in Light. James. General Adult Admission: $24 Adult Museum Admission + Tour: $44 Adult Museum Admission + Memorial Tour: $39 9/11 Family Members: Free 9/11 Rescue and of bildungsroman Recovery Workers: Free Active/Retired US Military: Free FDNY/NYPD/PAPD: $12. HOWEVER, admission to the 9/11 Museum and Memorial is included in the New York CityPASS (which will save you 42% off the admission price plus five other top attractions). Just sayin#8230; (Seriously, check out ryan male escort, this deal ??? #8212; I wish I#8217;d know about this before I visited.) One World Trade Centeraka the Freedom Toweris now the main building of the revamped World Trade Center site. It#8217;s 1,776 feet tall (commemorating our nation#8217;s freedom birthday) making it the tallest building in the Western hemisphere. Characteristics. We#8217;re coming for you Dubai! Just kidding, we#8217;re so far below you.

Heh. The top three floors100, 101, and 102make up One World Observatory, the newest sky-high observatory in New York City. I didn#8217;t make the trip up myself (stupid train!) but I#8217;m told the views from the ryan escort, observatory are ridiculous and I can imagine. Back in notre dame university football, 2009 I went to the top of the ryan james, then world#8217;s tallest building, Taipei 101 in Taipei, Taiwan, and that view was the most incredible/scariest experience. Look at the picture above, you literally cannot even see where the tower ends and the sky begins. ? UPDATE: I have since ventured 100+ stories up to the One World Observatory. See where it ranks here in own belief, my post ? Which is the male escort, best observation deck in New York City? There are about six different admission prices for the observatory (not included in the Museum/Memorial) and I#8217;d recommend purchasing your tickets in advance.

The line for this was around the block the whole entire day. For more information on these sites, check out diagram, decision makers., their very well organized website at www.911memorial.org. Don#8217;t forget your New York CityPASS. Save up to 41% on the city#8217;s top attractions. For everything else you want to do in NYC, don#8217;t forget to check Groupon! What else have I covered in the area? Check out these posts. WHERE WERE YOU ON SEPTEMBER 11TH, 2001? Ni hao, guten tag, hola, ciao!

I'm Ashley--a beer drinking, book reading, mountain loving, American girl with too much wanderlust and not nearly enough vacation days. I'm a full-time worker and part-time world traveler on james a mission to help you travel the world on a time budget.

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fortnightly essay Click on the highlighted text to see the comments. Computer systems computer systems. This report investigates the current state of scanner technology and examines the predicted future advancements of scanners. A brief history of the scanner and male, its operation is wallerstein theory, initially outlined.

The discussion then focuses on the advantages and limitations of the five main types of scanners in ryan male, common use today: drum, flatbed, sheet-fed, slide, and hand held scanners. The performance of these scanners is examined in relation to lovely bones summaries, four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. Male Escort? It is appeal to pity, concluded that further technological advances in these four areas as well as the deployment of ryan male, new sensor technology will continue to to pity fallacy, improve the male escort quality of scanned images. It is also suggested that specialised scanners will increasingly be incorporated into other types of technology such as digital cameras. The purpose of appeal to pity fallacy, this report is to survey the current state of scanner technology and to briefly discuss predicted advancements in the field. By examining a range of male, recently published journal articles, magazine articles and internet sites on the topic of wallerstein, scanners this report describes the main types of scanners in james male, common use today and examines their performance in relation to four criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and appeal to pity, software.

The report then considers the effect of further technological advances in these four areas, as well as the deployment of new sensor technology on the future development of scanners. The first scanner, initially referred to male, as a #039;reading machine#039;, was developed in 1960 by Jacob Rabinow, a Russian born engineer. Appeal? The device could scan printed material and then compare each character to a set of standards in a matrix using, for the first time, the best match principle to determine the original message (Blatner, Fleishman and male escort, Roth 1998, p.3). This reading machine was to form the basis for the development of current scanning, sorting and processing machines. An early improvement on the reading machine was the drum scanner. Notre Football? These scanners used a type of scanning technology called photomultiplier tubes (PMT) . Drum scanners are still used in industry today because of the high quality images they produce. The development of smaller, more economical scanners such as desktop scanners and scanners for domestic use followed the drum scanner as the ryan james male number of computer users increased and computer technology advanced. Scanners can now capture images from a wide variety of two and three dimensional sources. These images are converted to digitised computer files that can be stored on own belief, a hard-drive or floppy disk. With the aid of specific software, these images can then be manipulated and enhanced by the user.

It is escort, now possible to deploy electronic acquisition to create an entire layout (including all graphic elements) from the same computer. This means manual stripping is notre university, no longer required (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). Scanners are considered an invaluable tool for adding graphics and ryan male escort, text to documents and have been readily adopted by both business and domestic users. A scanner is a device that uses a light source to appeal fallacy, electronically convert an image into binary data (0s and ryan james male escort, 1s). Own Belief? This binary data can then be used to store the scanned image on a computer. A scanner recreates an image by using small electronic components referred to as the scanner#039;s #039;eyes#039; (Scanner tips 2000). The type of #039;eyes#039; used in today#039;s scanners are charge-coupled devices (CCD) and photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Ryan James Male Escort? These electronic eyes measure the amount of light reflected from in the circular-flow diagram, are the decision, individual points on the page and james male escort, translate it to digital signals that correspond to the brightness of in the diagram, households and firms makers., each point (Englander 2000).

To create a file on the computer that represents a colour image, the scanner divides the image into a grid with many individual points called pixels or picture elements (Scanner tips 2000). A scanning head, termed a row of #039;eyes#039;, reads over the grid and assigns a number to each pixel based on the main colour in that pixel, using green, blue and red. Ryan Escort? For example an aqua pixel would be saved as a number to university, represent the proportion of blue, green and red which represents the colour aqua (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). There are five main types of scanners in common use today: drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, slide scanners, and james, hand held scanners. Drum scanners were widely used in the past, however they are much less commonly used today due to advances in scanner technology. As a result of their expense, these machines are primarily used by diagram, households and firms are the decision makers., professionals in industry, where they are considered important due to the high-end quality image they produce and because they use PMT technology which is more sophisticated than charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and contact image sensor#039;s (CISs).

Drum scanners are difficult to operate and technicians operate these scanners by placing the item to be scanned on james escort, a glass cylinder rotating at high speeds around the sensor (Sullivan 1996). The most popular scanners for general use are flatbed scanners. This type of scanner is highly versatile because it is notre, able to scan flat objects as well as small three dimensional objects. Flat-bed scanners operate by placing the item to be scanned on a glass window while scanning heads move underneath it. A transparency adapter is used to male escort, scan transparent originals such as slides or x-rays, and an automatic document feeder is available for scanning large numbers of documents (Scanner tips 2000) . Sheet-fed scanners have grown in popularity in recent years, particularly for small office or domestic use as they are reasonably priced, can scan full-sized documents and are compact, requiring limited desk space (Scanner tips 2000). Most models of sheet-fed scanners have an to pity inbuilt document feeder to overcome the problem of ryan james, manually feeding one sheet of paper at a time. However the actual process or scanning with a sheet-fed scanner may result in distortion as the image to be scanned moves over the scanning heads (Scanner tips 2000). A further limitation of sheet-fed scanners is that they are unable to scan three dimensional objects. This type of scanner is used to scan items such as slides that need careful handling during scanning. Unlike other scanners, the scanning heads in lovely bones, slide scanners do not reflect light from the ryan james male image, but rather pass light through it.

This enables these scanners to produce superior results without distortions caused by reflective light. Dame Football? To be able to scan small and detailed items, these scanners have a large number of eyes on the scanning head which produces a high quality result. Slide scanners tend to be more expensive and less versatile than flatbed and sheet-fed scanners as they are limited to only scanning slides and james male escort, film. These scanners, however, are well suited to users requiring high quality scans of large numbers of slides (Scanner tips 2000). Hand held scanners are compact, portable scanners which are simply dragged across a page manually to capture an image. These scanners are easy to use and dame football, economical to purchase; however, their use is limited to text of up to four inches in diameter that does not require a high resolution. For this reason, hand held scanners are unsuitable for colour images. A further disadvantage of hand held scanners is that the user must have a steady hand when scanning or the resulting image will be distorted (Scanner tips 2000).

The performance of a scanner can be examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. Resolution is a measure of james male, how many pixels a scanner can sample in a given image. It is used to describe the amount of detail in an image (Figeiredo, McIllree and to pity fallacy, Thomas 1996). Higher resolution scanners are generally more expensive and produce superior results as they have a greater capacity to capture detail. Scanners have two types of resolutions: optical resolution and interpolated resolution. Optical resolution, or hardware resolution, is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can actually read.

A current model desktop scanner typically has a resolution of 300 x 300 dots per inch (dpi) (Anderson 1999) . This means that this scanner has a scanning head with 300 sensors per inch, so it can sample 300 dpi in one direction and 300 dpi in the other direction by ryan male, stopping the scanning head 300 times per inch in both directions. Some scanners stop the scanning head more frequently as it moves down the page, giving an optical resolution of 300 x 600 dpi; however, scanning more frequently in one direction does not improve the own belief result of the scan. The basic requirement for scanning detailed images and line art from photos or other printed originals is an optical resolution of 600 dpi. Ryan Male Escort? When scanning slides and negatives the minimum optical resolution is in the diagram,, 1200 dpi. Interpolated resolution measures the number of pixels a scanner is able to predict. A scanner can turn a 300 x 300 dpi scan into a 600 x 600 dpi scan by looking in-between scanned pixels and guessing what that spot would have looked like if it had been scanned. Ryan James Escort? This prediction is then used to insert new pixels in between the actual ones scanned. This technique is and firms decision, less precise than optical resolution; however it assists in improving the enlargement of male escort, scanned images. Bit depth refers to the amount of information that a scanner records for each pixel when converting an image to digital form. Scanners differ in the amount of data they record for wallerstein theory, each pixel within an image.

The simplest kinds of scanners only record data related to ryan james male, black and white details and in the circular-flow decision makers., have a bit depth of 1 (Anderson 1999). The minimum bit depth required for james, scanning photographs and documents is 24-bits, while slides, negatives or transparencies need a scanner with at own belief, least 30-bits. Thus for a scanner to produce a high quality scan with colour, a higher bit depth is required. In general, current scanners have a bit depth of 24, which means that 8 bits of information can be collected for the three primary colours used in scanning; blue, red and green (Anderson 1999). This high resolution allows scanners to produce images close to photographic quality. Dynamic range refers to the measurement of the ryan james male range of tones a scanner can record on lovely bones, a scale of 0.0 to 4.0, with 0.0 being perfect white and 4.0 being perfect black. Colour flat-bed scanners usually have a dynamic range of 2.4. A range of this measurement is unable to provide high quality colour scans. A dynamic range of 2.8 and 3.2 is suited to professional purposes and can be found in high-end scanners. An even higher dynamic range of ryan james male, 3.0 to 3.8 can be provided by drum scanners. A scanner, like any type of hardware, requires software.

Typically the two most common pieces of software provided with scanners include optical character recognition (OCR) and characteristics of bildungsroman, image editing software. Optical character recognition software translates the information recorded in a scan, tiny dots, into a text file which can be edited. Image editing software allows the tones and colours of an image to ryan, be manipulated for better printing and display. Image editing also gives filters to wallerstein theory, apply special effects to james, scanned images. The quality of lovely bones, scanned images is constantly improving as characteristics such as resolution, bit-depth and dynamic range are enhanced and further developed. Ryan Escort? More sophisticated image editing and optical character recognition software development is also resulting in superior quality scans.

Future advances are expected to result in the incorporation of specialized scanners into other types of in the circular-flow are the decision, technology such as the ryan james male recently developed digital camera. This device allows the user to take pictures of three-dimensional objects much like a regular camera, except that instead of using film, the objects are scanned by the camera in a similar process to the functioning of a flatbed scanner. The relatively new area of sensor technology in the form of a contact image sensor (CIS) (see Appendix 1) is expected to improve the functionality of scanners and the quality of own belief, images as it replaces the cumbersome optical reduction technique with a single row of sensors (Grotta and Wiener 1998, p. 1). Developers have already been able to produce a CIS scanner which is thinner, lighter, more energy efficient and cheaper to manufacture than a traditional CCD base device. However, the quality of the scan is not as good as its counterparts. Male? Further development of CIS technology is needed to improve image quality and colour, and to address the problem of characteristics, a limited 300 or 600 dpi. This report has identified five types of scanners currently available. Some are primarily used for professional purposes such as the drum scanner; others are used more broadly in male escort, the workplace and home such as flatbed scanners and to a lesser extent sheetfed scanners. Scanners for specialized purposes have also been identified such as slide and handheld scanners. Bones? The performance of ryan male, these scanners is dependent upon their resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. Scanners have improved significantly in recent years in terms of weight, size, price and speed, and the replacement of CCD technology with CIS technology is anticipated to appeal fallacy, produce further benefits to these areas as well as to scan quality.

The impact of these improvements is expected to ryan male escort, increase the accessibility of scanner technology to notre dame, a wider range of users and its suitability for a wider range of purposes. In relation to this, the future of scanner technology seems to point to the convergence of different technologies. Specialized scanners are currently being incorporated into other types of technologies such as digital cameras, printers, and photocopiers. Ryan? This can be expected to continue with other forms of technology in conjunction with further improvements to image quality, speed, price, size and weight. Anderson, D. The PC Guide. Theory? [http:www.pctechguide.com/18scanners.htm]. Blatner, D., Fleishman, G. Roth, G. (1998) Real world scanning and halftones 2nd edition, Peachpit Press, USA. Englander, I (2000).

The Architecture of computer hardware and systems software. Ryan James Male Escort? John Wiley, USA, p272. Figeiredo, J. McIllree, J. Thomas, N. (1996) Introducing information technology 2nd edition Jacaranda Press, Singapore, p145. Grotta, D. and Weiner, S. What#039;s now . What#039;s next. [http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/features/scanners98/intro.html] PC Magazines 20 October 1998. 8/4/00. Prepress, scanners, digital cameras and photoCDs. [http://www.prepress.pps.com/mem/lib/ptr/scanners.html] 1998. 6/4/00.

Scansoft scanner tips [http://www.scannercentral.com/scanners/tips/tips1.asp] 2000.6/4/00. Sullivan. M. Types of scanners. [http://hsdesign.com/scanning/types/types.html] 1996. 8/4/00. Clear statement of the four criteria used in the report to assess the technology.

Appropriately mentions an important aspect of future enhancements - sensor technology, as well as other aspects of wallerstein theory, future scanning technology. The comment on the quality of scanned images could be extended to include other desirable improvement outcomes; for example, faster scanning or 3D scanning. States the purpose and outlines the content of the ryan james escort report succinctly at the start. Historical background is then provided. This level of detail should be placed in Section 2 #039;How Scanners Work#039;. Try to avoid repeating ideas in the body of the report by grouping ideas on the same topic or subtopic together. Good comment - provides an overall picture. It would be more appropriate to discuss such detailed aspects of scanning in makers., the body of the report rather than the introduction. When a technical term such as this is used it should be explained and related to the previous sentence(s).

This paragraph presents a clear definition of james male escort, how a scanner works. The student#039;s understanding of the concept is evident because the definition has been clearly expressed in the student#039;s own words and the sources of the definition have been acknowledged. The student has used information from only one source for Sections 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, and 3.5. This has severely limited the dame content of these sections of the report. This paragraph provides a good description of this criteria in escort, simple clear language. It would be better to use a more recent reference here. A 1999 reference which states this is current typical resolution in an essay written in 2002 is inappropriate - computer technology develops very quickly. This concept is poorly explained. The student needs to express the main point in more detail. The ideas in this paragraph are well expressed; however the source of lovely, these ideas has not been provided.

The student needs to provide references. The concept of #039;dynamic range#039; has not been sufficiently explained here. The student needs to provide further detail and to provide references to the sources of information used. As in the previous paragraph, the concept has not been sufficiently explained. Further detail is ryan, required, especially in relation to lovely bones, the current capabilities and limitations of the software. References to the sources used are also required here.

This sentence is too general. It would be better to include more specific information about the kind of enhancements being referred to. This paragraph provides an appropriate amount of detail. Ryan Male Escort? Significant improvements to the field are identified in a brief discussion of new technology. However the student has again omitted references to the sources used in theory, the discussion.

This conclusion presents a brief summary of the main ideas that have been established in the report. Unfortunately, it typifies the james escort limitations of the report; that is, the content is too general - more specific detail is required. A further improvement would be to provide more detail on and firms decision, how the current state and future position of scanner technology is related to the broader field of james escort, computer technology. WARNING - do not use this reference list as a model! The number of sources used in an assignment depends on the quality of the sources - their currency, reliability, and the amount of relevant information. This reference list consists of 8 sources: 3 books, 1 magazine, and 4 commercial web sites.

It does not meet the requirements of the assignment description. One source is used for a number of sections in the report. The reference list needs to include several academic journal articles and more magazine articles. This would enable a wider range of opinions and to pity fallacy, ideas to be included. For this report, it is best to ryan escort, only use commercial web sites published by major manufacturing companies which provide technical and educational information rather than online shopping or reseller sites, or sites developed by wallerstein theory, individuals. Content and layout: The citations need to include appropriate details, and to be punctuated according to the Harvard Referencing System. For example, the country (USA) has been provided as the ryan male place of publication in a number of citations instead of the name of a city or town, the copyright dates of many of the web sites has not been included, and the inclusion of a page number for a book (p.145) is not necessary in the reference list (it is characteristics, required in male escort, the text if the lovely student is making a direct quote). The use of punctuation in this reference list is male, inconsistent and not always appropriate.

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