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Best Resume Examples for a Variety of Jobs. Do you need to shemales, write a resume? Knowing how to of Anne A Movie Should Essay, start can be the biggest challenge and looking at examples can be very helpful. The following samples are among the best resumes and you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. They vary greatly in in uk skill level, profession and format and are filled with inspiration. Take notes as you browse the augustus caesar, examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and which elements you want to include when you begin writing your own. The first step to writing a great resume is to shemales, choose the The Diary Frank: A Movie Watch Essay, best type of resume for your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for.

Browse these examples to get a sense of your options before choosing the right format for you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on in uk your work experience and lists previous jobs in order. Functional Resume - Focus on your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on the companies you worked for. Combination Resume - Combine the elements of chronological and functional resumes to highlight both your skills and previous employment. Targeted Resume - Write a resume tailored to margaret fuller in the nineteenth summary, the specific position you#39;re applying for.

Mini Resume - Everyone in your job search does not need to see a full-length resume, use the example to write one that#39;s brief and to the point. Nontraditional Resume - From a video to an online portfolio, discover how to in uk, create and use a resume that is unique. Resume Examples with Specific Highlight Sections. Every job seeker#39;s experience and Frank: Watch, goals are different and it#39;s important to add sections to your resume that highlight what makes you the best candidate. In these resumes, you will find examples of shemales in uk, specific sections that can help you direct a hiring manager#39;s attention to what you feel is most important.

Resume with Profile Statement - Give a brief and specific overview of your skills. Resume with Accomplishments Section - Highlight your career accomplishments at the top of your resume to show off your biggest achievements. Fuller In The Nineteenth Century Summary. Resume with a Branding Statement - Create a short, catchy statement that sells you and your skills. Resume Example with Headline - Add a headline to shemales, bring attention to The Diary of Anne Everyone Watch example, your value as a candidate. Shemales. Resume with Summary of Qualifications - Summarize your entire resume in a well-written paragraph that gets to the heart of john locke, your work experience and skills. Resumes for Executive and Management Positions. The following resumes are good examples for individuals in management and executive positions. They can be used when applying for in uk other office and business jobs as well. The highlights of these resumes are the supervisory experience and business management. These are skills that employers are looking for when hiring business professionals and it is theater originally, best to include concrete facts and examples of your achievements.

The world of business is vast and there is a great variety of positions available in it. The examples below are a sampling of great resumes used by business professionals. No matter your skill level or the position you#39;re applying for, these resumes should provide inspiration while writing your own. In Uk. They include various skill sets and experience, which will help you along the way. Positions in The Diary Frank: Everyone Should Essay example the tech industry are particularly competitive and it is extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition. You need to be specific about your skills, the shemales, programs you#39;re proficient with, and it#39;s good if you can give examples of Essay Witch, end results as well.

Many resumes in the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc. Sign up for the Doyle Report and get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on shemales in uk writing a great resume and margaret in the nineteenth, acing your interview! you know. It gives your prospective employer the chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for Education and Human Services Positions. If your career is in education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and certifications. Be sure to shemales in uk, include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of margaret fuller in the summary, these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. What you do outside the workplace can have an impact in shemales landing a great job in these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Careers in healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and augustus, both should be highlighted in your resume. Nurses, therapists and shemales, medical specialists should include any certifications and licenses you hold as well as details of your work experience.

Volunteer experience is also a nice addition to margaret in the nineteenth century, healthcare resumes because it shows the hiring manager that you have compassion off the job as well. If possible, include how you went above the call of duty or add any significant career achievements. Every trade position has a specific set of in uk, skills that are required on augustus caesar the job and it is important that you highlight your technical training in your resume. Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field. Notice how the example resumes are very specific when it comes to shemales in uk, technical skills. Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the adherence to codes and the ability to troubleshoot technical problems. Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers. Freelancers, writers, and other professionals in creative fields may have the most difficult time writing a resume. Your jobs may be varied, your experience and skills vast, and The Red Huntington Essay, it can be difficult getting it all on shemales paper. There are many ways to margaret woman nineteenth century summary, approach these types of resumes and the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for you. You are a creative, so you need to put some of that ingenuity into writing the most effective resume you can.

You might also consider developing a curriculum vitae (CV) and have that available as well. Resumes for shemales Customer Service Jobs. Customer service is a key element in many jobs and it is important that you focus on that in Witch your resume. Whether you are applying at a restaurant, a hair salon or a local store, the hiring manager will want to know that you will put their customers first. Some of in uk, these resume examples also include specific skills required for the position. For instance, a chef may choose to locke, highlight the in uk, presentation and speed involved in serving meals to customers. A stylist will want to focus on special treatments they have learned and Continent Essay, a retail associate may want to show off their merchandising expertise. Also, be sure to include any special honors or achievements you have received. Were you the employee of the month? Did you reach a high sales goal?

Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of shemales in uk, your limited work history. You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and accomplishments at school in your resume and Essay on The Trials Description, use these examples to learn how to feature them. Employers understand that you are young and looking to in uk, add to your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.

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How to shemales in uk Write a Personal Experience Essay With Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for The Diary of Anne Watch Essay example, over 20 years. Shemales In Uk. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and woman in the nineteenth century, easier. 1. What you need to do to get a good grade. 2. How to explain the meaning of a memory. 3. How to choose a great topic. 4. Easy organizing strategies for fabulous essays. Telling a vivid a story from your past. Explaining the significance of that story.

Want a good grade on your essay? Instructors and testing agencies assign a lot of in uk personal experience type essays and margaret woman in the century summary, so it is worth your time to know how to write one easily and effectively so that you get a top score. The reason these types of assignments are given so often is that anyone can write about their own experience and it doesn't require any outside resources or research. However, even though anyone can tell a story about in uk, their life, that does not mean anyone can write a good essay about The Diary Frank:, that experience. As a professor and teacher for 30 years, I've read thousands of essays and can tell you there is a distinct difference from in uk telling a story about yourself and writing an excellent personal experience essay. The difference between good and great: Top essays paint a vivid picture of the experience so that the reader feels they are there. Great papers draw a unique meaning from the experience and explain it clearly. Augustus Caesar Facts. The best papers are well-organized. This article tells you how to do all that!

How to Find Significance of Memory. Writing an essay about a personal experience or relationship can be a powerful way of shemales both discovering the meaning of your own past and sharing that past with others. John Locke Psychologist. When you write about shemales in uk, something in your past, you have two perspectives: your perspective in the present and the perspective you had at the time the event occurred. The space between these perspectives is augustus facts usually where you will find significance in that event or relationship. Your perspective in the present. Your perspective you had at the time the event occurred. The space between these perspectives is usually where you will find significance in that event or relationship. If the shemales in uk, event or relationship is recent, you will be closer to the you that experienced the theater originally, event. If the event is more distant, you will often find yourself reflecting on the experience, your reactions and the meaning of the shemales in uk, experience differently. As you write the essay, you will need to decide if you want to talk about the experience as you see it now, or as you saw it then. Often, you may do both of those things, or use your perspective now as the conclusion.

At the end of what did greek theater originally celebrate 8th grade, my best friend wrote me a note saying she never wanted to in uk be my friend again. I was devastated, and Essay Salem Trials Description, terribly depressed all summer, terrified to start High School alone. Forty years later, I realize that that experience was probably what made me finally reach out to develop new friends. Those friends encouraged me to develop my life-long interest in speech, theater, and writing. More importantly, that experience of rejection gave me a lifelong compassion for others.

Any event from your past can be a good topic if it was important to in uk you. Psychologist. You can use either a one-time event, a reoccurring event, a person, or a place. Brainstorm ideas by shemales in uk thinking about the following: A relationship with an important person like a grandparent or best friend. The Red Man’s Essay. A single encounter with someone that changed you. An event which was small but significant.

A major, life changing event. Something that you did over and over that was meaningful to you. Your experience and memories of a place that embodies who you are, or has meaning for you. How to Decide if You Have a Good Topic. To make sure you have a good topic, you need to determine what the meaning of in uk that event or person was for The Diary of Anne Everyone Should Watch, you.

To help you get ideas about the meaning and to decide whether this topic is shemales a good choice, jot down some notes answering the following 5 questions: What did I think the meaning of the experience was when it happened? How have my thoughts about it changed? What did I learn? How has my life direction been affected by this event? Is there something I would do differently if I could go back to that experience? Any regrets?

Why re-invent the wheel? Use the following professional writing techniques to organize your personal essays. Of Anne Frank: A Movie Watch Essay Example. These strategies aren't secret and they aren't hard. They are what you've seen over shemales in uk, and over in books and movies. Now you need to use them yourself. This is the The Diary of Anne Frank: A Movie Should Essay example, most obvious way to tell the shemales in uk, story. You just tell it in the way it happened in the order it happened.

Most of the other organizing techniques use this way to tell the main part of the story. See Anne Dillard's Handed My Own Life for a good example of chronological organization of a personal essay. Characteristics of this organization strategy: Tells story in locke psychologist, the order that it happened. Tells story suspensefully--least important events leading to shemales in uk more important ones and finally coming to climax. Explains meaning after climax or lets events show the meaning.

For example, Dillard states her understanding in a series of phrases, such as I was handed my own life, and my days were my own to plan and fill along with a lot of specific details of how she did that. The Diary Of Anne Everyone Should Essay. Of course, she also uses the shemales, title to explain her meaning. Expectations Unfulfilled Organization. Want an easy way to organize your essay? Try Expectations Unfulfilled. This organizing strategy works best when there is a contrast (either horrific, funny, or disappointing) between your expectations about the event and what actually happened. You can also do Expectations Fulfilled, but that is generally a weaker paper idea unless you have a situation where the reality clearly superseded all of your expectations. Rick Bragg's 100 Miles an Hour, Upside Down and Sideways is a good example of this kind of essay organization.

Characteristics of augustus caesar facts Expectations Unfulfilled: Introduction vividly describes expectations for a particular event . Bragg talks about in uk, how he was convinced that this V-8 convertible was going to margaret fuller woman in the summary fulfill all his desires. Maybe foreshadow the problem. Bragg's uncle warns him to be careful because That'un could kill you. In Uk. Tell the story of what really happened (use chronological organization above). Continent By Ellsworth Huntington. Bragg tells of race and accident which wrecked the car and ruined it for speed. Describe the contrast between reality and expectations . Bragg's memories of the crash are the radio still playing and being pulled out in uk unscratched and of being famous not for having the best car, but for being the kid who survived a 100-mile crash. Augustus Caesar Facts. Reflection on experience. You can do this by telling your reaction or using an ironic twist, as Bragg does. Bragg tells how his car was put back together but never the same (just as his ideas of shemales speed, freedom, and fast cars have been wrecked in what did greek, the accident). Conclude with irony.

An ironic end can sometimes be a good conclusion for this sort of story. Braggs writes about how after his car gets rear-ended at the Piggly Wiggly supermarket he sells it in disgust to in uk a preacher's kid who drove the speed limit. Using a frame story for Huntington, the introduction and conclusion should be familiar to you from lots of movies.One good example of a story frame is UP. In this case, the movie opens with the frame of Carl looking at the scrapbook Ellie has made for shemales, him about their life and dreams, before flashing to the present story of Carl and locke, Russell and their adventures. The movie returns to shemales the frame at the end of the movie as Carl looks at the last page of the photobook Ellie has made for him. He learns that it was the journey of the relationship which was the real adventure. Another kind of on The Trials Description frame can be a flashback. In this technique, you start in the middle of the in uk, action (or after it is over) and then flashback to theater originally an earlier memory. Shemales In Uk. The Notebook uses the story of a man spending time with his wife with Alzheimer's as the frame for his re-telling the caesar, story of their romance. The advantage of using a frame is shemales in uk that it makes it easier for you to talk about the meaning of the story, especially if you use the present day to fuller nineteenth century summary flashback to the past. Be sure the frame is not just random.

There should be an event, object, conversation, or situation which causes you to flash back in memory. Internal and External Conflicts Organization. With this technique, you organize your story around what is happening internally in your mind, versus what is happening in the event. In Uk. Of course, like Expectations Unfulfilled this works best if there is a conflict between what is happening in of Anne Everyone Watch, your thoughts and what is happening in the situation. An example of this could be a wedding which seemed to be a joyous celebration but which was full of conflict for the bride who wondered whether she had made the right choice in marrying this man. Another example could be a birthday party where the birthday kid seemed to be having fun but was inwardly devastated when her divorced parents acted coldly toward one another. You can combine some of these strategies together to in uk make your essay shine. Caesar. A good example of this is the shemales in uk, student essay by Jean Brandt, Calling Home. Along with using a frame.

Brandt also uses internal and external conflicts in her organization. Introduction: beginning frame story. Brandt's essay has her ride to the mall. First conflict and augustus, resolution. Brandt has an internal conflict about in uk, whether she should steal and the resolution that she will. Second conflict and resolution . Brandt's second conflict is external when she is caught by the store owner and he calls the police. Third conflict and resolution . Brand's third conflict is both internal and external. She wonders how her parents will react. She is brought to the police station but not punished by her parents. She realizes that disappointing them and realizing she had made the caesar, wrong choice is shemales worse than if they had punished her. Conclusion: ending frame and what did greek theater originally celebrate, expectations unfulfilled.

Brandt ends in shemales in uk, another car ride home, which parallels with the ride to the mall in the introduction. The twist is that not only was the mall trip not what she expected, she has disappointed the expectations of her parents too. Small Events Can make Good Essays. Brandt's essay illustrates how to take a single, small incident and turn it into theater, an essay which explains how she learned something about herself. It is shemales in uk a coming of age essay.

When thinking about your own essay topic, try to Description think about moments in your life which were significant turning points. The event can be something small and doesn't have to be dramatic. What is important is how it affected you. Tips for in uk, Chronological Organization. Most students will use this method, so if you want to make your essay stand out, you may want to try one of the other techniques. When you do use this method remember: Where's the Conflict? As you've probably learned in English class, good stories start with a conflict that is either internal (inside yourself) or external (between you and someone else). Good stories show the development of the The Red Continent Essay, conflict, the crisis (called a climax) and then the resolution of what happens afterward (either good or bad). Make sure your story follows this pattern.

Don't add unnecessary details. You need to clip the memory effectively. Imagine yourself as a film editor. What needs to be in the story? What can you leave out? Make details specific and interesting. Make your descriptions of the setting, characters and action concrete and shemales, specific. For example: Don't say, Maura was a beautiful but boring blonde bombshell.

Say, Maura was a sleek, 5 foot 10, long-haired, blonde who never tired of talking about her exotic vacations or newest boyfriend. Keep Boredom at augustus caesar, Bay. Tell enough detail like setting and in uk, character development that the reader is drawn into the story, but don't spend so much time in details that your reader gets bored. Action and Dialogue are Best. If you can, make sure most of your paper is either about celebrate, something happening or someone talking. Both action and dialogue move the story along faster than description. Anne Dillard's. Sometimes, there is a particular object or repeated event which is the focus of the memory. You can use repetition around this object or event to effectively order your essay. On Being a Real Westerner by Tobias Wolff is a good example of in uk using a metaphor to organize.

Characteristics of this organization: Several memories relating to one object, person or emotion. In Wolff's story these memories are related to his rifle: getting the rifle, his mother's objections, playing with the rifle, acting like a sniper, loading rifle, Vietnam comparison-power, killing squirrel, his mother's reaction to the death of the squirrel, his own reaction, and his continued fascination with rifle. Memories often chronological but also should be climactic , with the most important memory last. In Wolff's story, the climax is when he shoots the squirrel and has to deal with the reality of what owning and using a rifle really means, or what it really means to Essay Trials be a westerner. Tie these memories together with the main theme which would be the main point of your essay. Wolff ties his memories together with the theme of power, the shemales, power of the rifle, how the hunger for power shaped him, and facts, his powerlessness to shemales change the past, a man can't help the Essay Salem Witch Trials Description, boy. Write About When You Got Out of Your Comfort Zone. Generally, it helps to keep the essay focused on one to three important memories about that person. These memories can be specific events (best), or anecdotes about events which happened repeatedly. Characteristics of this sort of essay:

1. Vivid Portrait of Person. Dialogue (the reader can hear how this person talks). Describe a place which reflects the person (the reader can know about the interests of the person and shemales in uk, picture them where you do). Person (describe what the person looks like). Pick memories which show the facts, person's character or reveal your relationship. Tell one time incidents: every essay should have 1-3 of these. Describe event in great detail, describing the shemales in uk, scene, what happened, what people said, what you were feeling. Explain recurring activities: you can have these also if you describe them vividly and make sure that they are not too general and prove a point. On The Salem. Don't say, My mother always scolded me. Instead say: My mother always scolded me about my messy habits followed by an incident which describes how this affected your relationship. 3. In Uk. Indication of the Person's Significance.

Choose 1 or 2 main points to make: Trying to explain everything that person means to you is too much to do in a short essay. All of your description and all of your stories should be centered around proving these main points. You can use some of the organizing strategies for woman nineteenth century summary, event essays for people too. Here are some suggestions: I . Revelation/Expectations Reversed. Your usual judgment about the person. Analysis of personality/Physical description /some of background history. The revelation about them (story of a particular moment when you saw this person from a different perspective). I I. Shemales. Conflict and Resolution Organizing. The story of a conflict you have with this person.

Analysis of personality/Physical description/background history. The second story of conflict but this one resolves into a closer relationship. Third story--conflict leads to psychologist a lesson learned. Fourth story--a different conflict/ lesson learned is conveyed to others. III. Comparison and Contrast. Notice that both views are found in each paragraph or section. Shemales. This paper is ordered thematically.

Another possibility is to talk about all the The Diary of Anne Should Watch, views of another person first, then talk about your views. Introduction: Description of person and set-up of contrast between you. Shemales. Body: Comparison and Contrast: How others view this person versus how I view this person. Or how I used to margaret view that person versus how I now view them. Conclusion: How I have come to see this person. How to Write an in uk, Event Essay About a Memory, Place or Experience.

by Virginia Kearney 7. How to Write the Essay, Introduction of an Essay. by wayseeker 18. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. How to Write a Great Topic Sentence.

by Virginia Kearney 37. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. Virginia Kearney 7 days ago from United States. Hi, Ronald-The best topic is something that you know the meaning of easily, but not something that makes you very emotional, or which is hard to in uk talk about. Think of a time when something happened and you learned something about yourself or someone else.

Thinking about the end of your speech (what you learned) means that you already have the fuller woman nineteenth summary, hardest part done. Hi what is the shemales, best topic to write an personal speech and i'll perform it in my teachers and in my classmates. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from caesar United States. Hi Ahm, when you deal with the meaning of the event is where you should talk about in uk, how this experience has affected your life. Generally, you would want to explain the meaning and The Red Continent by Ellsworth Essay, how it changed you.

As far as how long this part should be, I would advise you to give enough detail so that the reader understands the changes it made to you but avoid being overly personal about things you may not want everyone to know or which might reflect badly on another person. Have someone close to you or someone who understands the experience give you feedback after you write. Do you have any tips for in uk, how can I write a personal account of fuller century summary how the ordeal has affected my life? I'd like ask if I should describe the ordeal prolongedly or briefly. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Jorge--I actually have over 100 different articles about shemales in uk, writing posted on Letterpile and HubPages, so generally you can find what you are looking for if you search for it. This particular type of article is also called reflective writing by some English textbooks and instructors. I think what you are looking for is this article: http://hubpages.com/writing/Reflective-Essay-Sampl. which focuses on the example and Essay on The Trials Description, gives you a full essay.

Jorge Lopez 4 months ago. This is like watching a video about in uk, making a soufflé and what originally celebrate, only hearing people describe how it tastes or how hard it was to make. I'd really like to see a sample so I know exactly if I am framing it correctly. Do I write it like an editorial? Do I write it like a 3rd grader? I get it. Shemales. It's subjective. Show me some examples of subjective papers. Walk me through it.

Essay Peer 10 months ago. The setting of a novel or play often plays a big role in Essay Witch Trials, the overall telling of the story. Below are tips on how to write a settings essay: • State your overall theme. • Write your introduction. • End your introductory paragraph with a hook, a statement enticing readers to keep reading. • Write the shemales in uk, body of the theater, essay one paragraph at a time. • Conclude the essay to in uk tie together all of your points and reiterate your theme. Suzette Gray 23 months ago from The Diary Frank: A Movie Should Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. I have now finished my very hard personal experience essay. As it is shemales in uk only for caesar, my best friend I will not be posting it anywhere.

Thank you VirginiaLynne for your comments and your inspiration. The only thing left to do is to shemales in uk show it to my friend and Essay Trials Description, I must admit that I am being a bit of a chicken in doing this, but I will do it. For me, to do this allows me to forgive myself for the hurts I caused my best friend. I thank you again. Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Hi Watson. Shemales. Your comment does make sense to anyone who has struggled in augustus, making a relationship work, and that is most of us! Suzette Gray 23 months ago from Cambridge, Ontario, Canada.

Thanks so much VirginiaLynne. Believe it or not the person I am writing about and the person who is trying to shemales in uk get me on the right track are one and the same and I very much appreciate his critique. I know why he is being tough on me and margaret century, I too am being tough on shemales, myself. The experiences and the feelings are very emotional because when the friendship fell apart it was due to margaret fuller century summary me trusting someone else and also a slip of the tongue. Shemales. Needless to say I don't trust as easily now. The last line that I just wrote was about me giving up on ever having that friendship again and the unexpected happened. We are now friends but on a totally different level now than before. Writing about it is hard and I know that he wants me to john locke be honest as he has been. I start writing and shemales, I can't stop. It is a friendship of over 3 and half years. It is The Diary Everyone Should Essay hard to cut back on it so that it fits essay requirements.

Thank you for your input and it is much appreciated. I have a friend who used to help with college essays and shemales in uk, she will help with this. She also knows what I am writing about. Thanks again. Margaret Fuller In The Summary. I don't know if this even makes any sense.

Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Hi Watson--I appreciate your comment. One thing that is very difficult to do is to separate your feelings and experience from the piece of writing about that experience. It is very easy to feel that the piece we write is really a part of ourselves and that any criticism of that piece is a criticism of us. Of course, that is particularly true if the person giving the in uk, critique is a close friend.

In my view, relationships are more important than the writing, so I think that I would either not share things with that person, or carefully explain that you just want to share the content but don't really feel ready to accept suggestions about the writing. I'm sure there are other people that you can get suggestions for improvement from. It might be that the facts, same suggestions coming from someone else would be helpful rather than hurtful. However, as an overall help in in uk, developing your writing, I suggest that you try to grow into the idea that what you write is a thing you produce, which can be done better or worse some days and what theater, which can generally always be improved. Then you are a participant in shemales, the critique, and a part of the audience trying to woman in the see how it can be shaped better. Suzette Gray 23 months ago from Cambridge, Ontario, Canada. I am not a student but I am wanting to write a personal experience essay about meeting someone unexpectedly who has become my best friend. This person has inspired me to better myself in a lot of ways. We have had a lot of ups and downs in the relationship but right now the shemales, relationship is the locke, best it has ever been.

He is in college at the age of 45 and that in itself is inspiring. I have sent this friend a few essays but he is being very critical. I know he wants me to in uk really think about it and it is going to be very emotional for locke, me. In Uk. I really just wanted to put this somewhere and if anyone has any ideas they would be greatly appreciated. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Ii actually advise students to avoid using quotes to caesar start an essay. I think starting with what you expected, or what most people think about the shemales, library would work best. Another way you could introduce this is caesar with a conversation with someone about shemales in uk, using the library or by remembering the library you used as a child and comparing it to Continent by Ellsworth Essay this college library. A final way to in uk do the what did greek theater originally celebrate, introduction is by starting with a very detailed description of the library.

They you can talk about what your story is and what it meant to you. Mary Norton 2 years ago from Ontario, Canada. I have written some personal experience but it was a hit and miss. This time, you have given me a platform to write them. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. So very sorry Mary to hear about your loss.

I think you could use a frame story for this sort of essay. Start perhaps with a memory right now about taking care of shemales things and maybe feeling frustrated about this or seeing something which reminds you of your mom. Then go back in time and talk about margaret in the nineteenth century summary, your mom dying. End with a return to the present time to talk about the meaning of her death and how it has affected you. I need help on how to shemales start my personal essay off. Of Anne Everyone Should Example. It is in uk going to be about my mum dying in March of this year and me taking on locke psychologist, the responsibility of taking over the house and getting left to look after our two pets and my little sister . How would I go about starting this? heart4theword 6 years ago from in uk hub. Some specifics to think about, in writing your essay. Thanks for sharing. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. The Diary Of Anne Frank: A Movie Everyone Should Watch Essay. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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A Comparison of Realism in Uncle Vanya and A Doll#x27;s House Essay. A play serves as the author's tool for critiquing society. One rarely encounters the ability to transcend accepted social beliefs. These plays reflect controversial issues that the audience can relate to in uk because they interact in the same situations every day. As late nineteenth century playwrights point out the flaws of mankind they also provide an answer to the controversy. Unknowingly the hero or heroine solves the celebrate, problem at the end of the play and indirectly sends a message to the audience on in uk how to solve their own problem.

Realism in A Doll#x27;s House Essay examples. Holst, a member of the Christiana Theatre, Ibsen says that every scene and facts, every picture ought as far as possible to be a reflection of reality. There must be equal truth to life on all counts. (Ibsen.Net) When one thinks Ibsenism, one thinks realism. In a letter written to Hans Schroeder, Director of the Christiana Theatre, Ibsen stresses, truth to life - the illusion that everything is real and that one is sitting watching something that is taking place in real life. He goes on to say, every A Comparison of Antigone and A Doll#x27;s House Essay. In A Doll's House, Nora too must decide where the line between right and wrong is drawn. In order to save her husband's life, Nora forges her father's name on a promissory note. Both women thus break the law using similar justifications. In Uk? Antigone does so under the premise that the originally celebrate, Gods dictated that all men deserved a proper burial. Likewise, Nora commits her crime with the shemales, belief that since it is saving a life, her situation is an exception to the rules.

The leading men in both works A Comparison of Irony in Crime and Punishment and A Doll#x27;s House. In A Doll's House the reader is aware that Nora borrowed money from Krogstad without her husband's permission. Nora also forged her father's name to caesar gain the money. She says, You don't know all. I forged a name. (Isben 44) In the following conversation between Nora and Christine it is clearly stated that Torvald does not know of Nora's actions: Mrs. In Uk? Linde. And since then have you never told your secret to your husband? Nora. Caesar Facts? Good heavens, no! (Isben 13) Another example of dramatic irony

A Comparison of Moral Conflict in in uk, Antigone and Trials Description, A Doll#x27;s House. oppose the state's laws, and should just follow them, but then they will never get to have their own beliefs and never have a better understanding of themselves in the end. Shemales? In Antigone there is the margaret fuller in the nineteenth, state and its laws, but in A Doll's House we see more of the shemales, society, and the laws it enforces on the individual. The society's rules prevent the characters from seeing and margaret nineteenth, expressing their true nature. Shemales? When Krogstad tells Nora that the law takes no account of good motives, she cries, A Comparison of Gender-Roles in A Doll#x27;s House and A Streetcar named Desire. caring for Man’s Continent by Ellsworth Huntington, the children, doing housework, and working on her needlepoint. A problem with her responsibilities is that her most important obligation is to please Torvald, making her role similar to shemales that of a slave. The problem in A Doll's House lies not only with Torvald, but also with the entire Victorian society. Females were confined in every way imaginable. When Torvald does not immediately offer to The Red Continent by Ellsworth Essay help Nora after Krogstad threatens to expose her, Nora realizes that there is a Realism and Ibsen#x27;s a Doll#x27;s House Essay. Torvald wants Nora to know that he is the one on top in the relationship; he is the bread winner, the man, and the more powerful person. He is always trying to suppress Nora and keep her dominance over him at bay. Not only shemales must women be submissive to on The Salem their husbands but they were expects to be obedient to shemales him as well.

Torvald is always telling this wife not to eat her favorite treat, macaroons, because her teeth with rot and fall out. When Nora buys the fuller woman summary, dessert in town, she hides them from in uk, Torvald A Dolls House by Henrik Ibsen Essay. In Henrik Ibsens play A Dolls House, pointedly captures the reality of the did greek theater, Victorian Era within the in uk, play. Nora Helmer, the protagonist of the story, represents the typical women in fuller century, society during that era. The audiences first impression of Nora is a money obsessed, childish, obedient house wife to her husband, Torvald Helmer. However, as the play progresses one can see that Nora is far from being that typical ideal trophy wife, she is an impulsive liar who goes against societys norm to be whom Symbolism of shemales, Houses in A Doll#x27;s House and A Rose For Emily Essay. The pairing of the symbols of the house and the character Emily is similar to the way that Mansfield portrays Kezia and the dollhouse.

Kezia is one of the locke psychologist, central images in the story; she symbolizes the silent opposing side to the influence of a social hierarchy. The story deals with the division of social and economic classes, and in uk, it is The Diary of Anne Frank: Everyone Should Watch example greatly amplified with the simplified setting of a childhood peer group. Mansfield uses the dollhouse to symbolize all of society. In Uk? The higher-class, the Burnells A Doll#x27;s House and the House of Bernarda Alba Essay. (Lorca 142) Likewise, Nora of Dolls House assumes the augustus caesar, mask of her husband Torvalds pretty little thing (Ibsen 22), a little squirrel (Ibsen 46), and a submissive dolly-wife. (Ibsen 82) She does so because Torvald expects her to accept that he is right in in uk, not indulging her little whims (Ibsen 21) and expects her to see her dancing and reciting (Ibsen 22) as per his wishes he expects her to be a doll under his control. So, she finds a way [herself] (Ibsen 21) the way of deception Essay on Henrik Isben#x27;s A Doll#x27;s House. you would have it so. You and father have done me a great wrong. Its your fault that my life has been wasted[O]ur house has been nothing but a play-room. Here I have been your doll-wife, just as at home I used to augustus facts be papas doll-childI thought it fun when you played with me Here, Nora pulls together the tragic circumstances.

She sees that she was never truly happy in in uk, the house, just content. Her father kept her as a child would a doll, and Torvald continued this when they were married. They formed

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Essay on shemales in uk Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Read this essay to learn about Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Huntington Essay! Introduction to FDI 2. Concept of FDI 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment 4. Raison detre 5. In Uk! Benefits 6. Selection 7. Negative Impact 8. Types 9. Theories 10. Patterns 11. Policy Framework 12. Promotion 13. FDI Trends in what theater originally, India.

Essay on shemales the Introduction to FDI Essay on the Concept of FDI Essay on Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI Essay on Raison detre for FDI Essay on the Benefits of FDI Essay on the Selection of FDI Destinations Essay on Essay on The Witch Trials Description the Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on shemales in uk the Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Theories of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Patterns of FDI Essay on the Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI) Essay on FDI Trends in India. International trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) are the two most important international economic activities integrating the world economy. With the increase in the mobility of factors of production across countries, FDI has become an integral part of a firms strategy to expand international business. FDI is the largest source of external finance for developing countries. At present, inward stock of FDI amounts to about one-third of the developing countries gross domestic product (GDP), compared to john psychologist, merely 10 per cent in 1980. FDI plays a crucial role in the development process of in uk, host economies.

It also has a significant role in enhancing exports of the host country. It is estimated that the sales from foreign-owned facilities are about double the value of world trade. FDI not only serves as a source of capital inflow into host economies, but also helps to enhance the competitiveness of the domestic economy through transferring technology, strengthen­ing infrastructure, raising productivity, and generating new employment opportunities. FDI has often been viewed as a threat by host countries due to the capacity of transnational investing firms to influence economic and political affairs. Many developing countries often fear FDI as a modern form of economic colonialism and exploitation, similar to their previous unpleasant experiences with colonial powers. Yet, FDI flows are generally preferred to other forms of Frank: Essay, external finance because these are non-debt creating, non-volatile, and the returns depend on the performance of the project financed by the investors. FDI is considered superior to other types of capital flows due to various reasons: i. Firms entering a host country through FDI have a long-term perspective in contrast to foreign lenders and portfolio investors. Therefore, FDI flows are less volatile and easier to sustain at the time of economic crisis.

ii. Debt inflows may finance consumption whereas FDI is shemales, more likely to psychologist, be used to improve productivity. iii. Shemales In Uk! Since FDI provides more than just capital by offering access to internationally available technologies, management know-how, and marketing skills, it is likely to have a strong impact on augustus caesar economic growth. A firm has to evaluate various options to in uk, cater to john locke, foreign markets and select the most appropriate mode of shemales in uk, international business expansion. Geographical distances of markets or resources, especially for low-value products, make it more attractive to get into manufacturing operations overseas.

In addition, the firm has to carry out a risk benefit analysis of licensing vis-a-vis ownership for its international operations. A foreign firm investing in India should understand the institutional and regulatory framework for investment promotion in what theater originally celebrate, India. In simple terms, FDI means acquiring ownership in an overseas business entity. It is the movement of capital across national frontiers, which gives the shemales, investor control over the assets acquired. FDI occurs when an investor based in what did greek originally celebrate, one country (the home country) acquires an asset in another country (the host country) with the shemales, intent to manage it. It is the john, management dimension that distinguishes FDI from shemales in uk, portfolio investment in foreign stocks and other financial instruments. Conceptually, a firm becomes a multinational corporation (MNC) by locke psychologist, way of shemales, FDI as its operations extend to multiple countries.

FDI is defined as an investment involving a long-term relationship and reflecting a lasting interest and control by a resident enterprise (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in one economy in an enterprise (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) resident in an economy other than that of the foreign direct investor. For acquiring substantial controlling interest, generally 10 per cent or more equity is to be acquired in the foreign firm. The lasting interest implies the existence of a long- term relationship between the direct investor and the enterprise wherein a significant degree of influence is exerted by on The Salem Witch Trials Description, the investor in the management of the direct investment enterprise. Direct investment enterprise refers to an incorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor owns 10 per cent or more of the ordinary shares of in uk, voting power or an unincorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor has equivalent ownership. Ownership of 10 per psychologist, cent of the ordinary shares or voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. These are either directly or indirectly owned by the direct investor. The definition of direct investment enterprise extends to in uk, the branches and subsidiaries of the direct investor. FDI is characterized by decreased sensitivity to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Since FDI is the result of facts, a long-term perspective by the investor, it is much less volatile than foreign portfolio investment.

It has been reported that most FDI (i.e., more than 90%) leads to intra-corporate trade at international level. The returns of FDI are generally in in uk, form of profit, i.e., retained earnings, profits, dividends, royalty payments, management fees, etc. Essay # 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI : Foreign portfolio investment (FPI) is defined as an psychologist, investment by individuals, firms, or a public body in foreign financial instruments, such as foreign stocks, government bonds, etc. Shemales In Uk! In FPl, the equity stake in the foreign business entity is not significant enough to exert any management control. Thus, FPI is the passive holding of securities and what did greek theater, other financial assets by a foreign firm, which does not entail management control of the shemales, issuing firm. High rate of returns and mitigation of fuller woman nineteenth century, risks due to geographical diversification positively influence FPL Thus, FPI is passive whereas FDI is active. The returns in the case of FPI are generally in the form of non-voting dividends or interest payments. Portfolio investment, like FDI, is part of the in uk, capital account of balance of payment (BoP) statistics.

It is important to understand why a firm takes a decision to invest in foreign countries when low-risk alternatives to cater to Witch Trials Description, foreign markets, such as exporting and shemales in uk, licensing, are already available. As the firm invests its own resources in a foreign country, the firm is exposed to greater risks. Major factors that influence a firms decision to invest in foreign markets are discussed. Higher costs of transportation between the production facilities and geographically distant markets make it economically unviable for firms to compete or enter such markets. Substantial costs of transportation have to be incurred for on The Salem Witch Trials Description marketing products in countries located at larger geographical distances. For a product with low unit value, i.e., value to shemales, weight ratio, such as steel, fast food, cement, etc., the cost of transportation has much larger impact on its competitiveness in fuller woman nineteenth century, foreign markets compared to a high-unit value product, such as watches, jewellery, computer processors, hard-disks, etc. Therefore, for low-unit value products, it becomes more attractive to manufacture the products in the foreign country itself either by way of licensing or FDI. Liability of foreignness : A firms unfamiliarity with the shemales in uk, host country and lack of adaptation of business practices in a foreign country often result in a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis indigenous firms. On The Description! This adds to the cost of doing business abroad, which is termed as liability of foreignness. For instance, Kelloggs unfamiliarity with Indian breakfast habits led to faulty positioning of its cornflakes as a substitute to the traditional Indian breakfast and has been a classic marketing blunder.

It took several years for Kelloggs to understand the centrality of its traditional food in Indias lifestyle before repositioning its cornflakes as a complementary rather than a substitute to the Indian breakfast. In another instance, Disneyland failed miserably in its French venture primarily due to lack of product adaptation in view of significant differences in customers preferences in Europe vis-a-vis the US market. It has to arrive at a trade-off between scale benefits from in uk, concentrating production at a single location and exporting or benefits of FDI, such as proximity of production locations, higher level of john, control, and gaining better access to the market. Potential benefits of FDI to host countries include the in uk, following: Access to superior technology: Foreign firms bring superior technology to the host countries while investing. Celebrate! The extent of benefits depends upon the technology spill-over to other firms based in the host country. The investing foreign firm increases industry output, resulting in shemales in uk, overall reduction in domestic prices, improved product or services quality, and greater availability.

This intensifies competition in host economies, resulting in net improvement in consumer welfare. Increase in domestic investment: It is found that capital inflows in the form of FDI in­crease domestic investment so as to survive and effectively respond to the increased competition. Bridging host countries foreign exchange gaps: In most developing countries, the levels of domestic savings are often insufficient to support capital accumulation to celebrate, achieve growth targets. Shemales In Uk! Besides, the level of foreign exchange may be insufficient to purchase imported inputs. Under such situations, the FDI helps in making available foreign exchange for imports.

Essay # 6. Witch! Selection of FDI Destinations : A firm has to evaluate various countries as investment destinations and select the most appropriate one for investment. Briefly, the factors influencing net profit of an MNEs operations in shemales in uk, a host country include the following: Cost of capital input: Cost includes interest rate and financial capital employed for setting up of plant or the rent. Wage rate is highly significant for the manufacture of labour-intensive products. The prevailing taxation rates of the on The Witch Trials Description, host country are of prime importance while making an investment decision. A large number of shemales in uk, countries provide tax holidays to woman in the, foreign companies in shemales in uk, order to attract FDI. Costs of what theater celebrate, inputs:

The costs of inputs in the host country, such as raw material, intermediate products, etc. influences the production cost which in turn influences the investment decision. Cost of logistics: Logistics, including availability of various modes of transport, and shemales in uk, the cost of transportation, influence the FDI decision. Demand of locke psychologist, a product in the host country market, including consumer preferences and shemales in uk, their income levels, significantly affects the psychologist, investment decisions. In terms of shemales, most attractive global FDI locations, four of the top five countries, as ranked by fuller, trans-national corporations TNCs are surprisingly, countries from developing economies. China is considered the shemales, most attractive investment location by 52 per cent of respondents followed by The Diary Everyone Watch example, India with 41 per cent (Fig. 12.1).

Indias high ranking is considered to be even more remarkable given the fact that FDI inflows to India have been modest until recently. The US is the only developed country in the top five investment locations. Although, Germany, UK, and Australia could make it into the top 10, traditionally important FDI destinations, such as Canada, France, the Netherlands, and Italy were not included. This implies that TNCs expect investors to move away from established FDI locations, which often have saturated markets and high production costs, towards emerging economies that are often more dynamic. The overall trend in FDI inflows in recent years in developing countries is taking the lead in global FDI recovery. As indicated in in uk, Exhibit 12.1, India has emerged as a hot investment destination.

Leading global firms from a variety of industrial sectors, including IT, telecom, and automobile have not only augustus facts, made substantial investment in India but also plan to shemales in uk, commit significant resources in augustus, the future too. Essay # 7. Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): In most countries, public opinion towards foreign enterprises is not very favourable and FDI is feared due to its impact on shemales domestic firms, the augustus facts, economy, and culture. The major concerns about the negative aspects of shemales, FDI are as follows: Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are far more advanced than domestic companies, owing to their large size and margaret in the nineteenth century summary, financial power. In some sectors, this is leading to MNE monopolies, thus impeding the entry of domestic enterprises and harming consumers. MNEs ability to operate at a large scale and invest heavily in marketing and shemales in uk, advertising and RD activities differentiate their products and makes entry of new firms far more difficult as they are unable to make similar investments in augustus caesar, RD and marketing strategies. (ii) Crowding-out and unemployment effects: FDI tends to discourage entry and stimulates exit of domestic entrepreneurs, often termed as the crowding-out effect.

As FDI enterprises are often less labour intensive, their entry results in higher unemployment and increased social instability. MNEs often function in a way that doesnt result in technology- sharing or technology-transfer, thereby making local firms technologically dependent or technologically less self-reliant. Foreign investors import their inputs and shemales, use the host country as a processing base, with little value-added earnings in the host country. A large proportion of their profits may be repatriated. Large foreign investors often bribe government officials and distort market forces. With MNEs holding a dominant position in sensitive industries, such as telecommunications, and the supply of A Movie Everyone Should example, core equipment and shemales, software for the information technology (IT) industry, there is a danger that the strategic interests of the host country may be compromised. Essay # 8. What Did Greek Originally! Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Foreign direct investment may be classified under various heads depending upon the criteria used.

Major types of FDI are discussed here: (i) On the Basis of shemales, Direction of Investment: Foreign firms taking control over domestic assets is termed as inward FDI. From an Indian perspective, direct investments made by what originally celebrate, foreign firms, such as Suzuki, Honda, LG, Samsung, General Motors, Electrolux, etc., in India are examples of inward FDI. Domestic firms investing overseas and taking control over foreign assets is known as outward FDI. In Uk! Such outward FDI is augustus caesar facts, also known as Direct Investment Abroad (DIA). From the Indian point of view, direct investments overseas by Indian firms, such as Tata Motors, Infosys, Videocon, ONGC, Ranbaxy, etc., are illustrations of shemales in uk, outward FDI. (ii) On the Basis of Types of Activity: When a firm invests in a foreign country in similar production activity as carried out in home country, it is termed as horizontal FDI. Thus, horizontal FDI occurs when the multinational undertakes the same production activities in multiple countries. Horizontal FDI enables the investing firm to exploit its competitive advantage in john, the host country. Multinational firms from both developed and in uk, developing countries use horizontal FDI to establish their competitive advantage abroad.

A number of MNEs, such as Coke, Pepsi, Kodak, HSBC, LG, Samsung, etc., expanded internationally by way of horizontal FDI. Direct investment in industries abroad so as to either provide inputs for the firms domestic operations or sell its domestic outputs overseas is termed as vertical FDI. Thus, vertical FDI takes place when the multinational fragments the production process internationally, locating each stage of The Diary A Movie Everyone Should Watch, production in the country where it can be done at the least cost. A firm gains control over various stages of the value chain from sourcing raw materials to manufacturing and to marketing. The MNEs fragment their production activities geographically on the basis of in uk, factor intensities in vertical FDI. Backward vertical FDI: Direct investment overseas aimed at providing inputs for the firms production processes in the home country is termed as backward vertical FDI (Exhibit 12.2). Locke Psychologist! Such FDI is historically common in extractive industries, such as mining (gold, copper, tin, bauxite mining, and petroleum extraction).

Companies like British Petroleum and Shell have expanded their international business by backward vertical FDI. Forward vertical FDI: Direct investment in in uk, a foreign country aimed to sell the output of the margaret woman in the, firms domestic production processes is shemales in uk, referred to as forward vertical FDI. Setting up a marketing network, assembly, or mixing operations overseas are illustrations of forward vertical FDI. Direct investment overseas aimed at manufacturing products not manufactured by the firm in the home country is termed as conglomerate FDI. (iii) On the Basis of Investment Objectives: In order to gain privileged access to resources vis-a-vis competitors, MNEs invest in countries with availability of augustus caesar, natural resources. This ensures the MNE of stability of raw material supply at right prices. The major economic determinants for resource seeking FDI include: i. Availability of raw material.

ii. Complementary factors of production. iii. Physical infrastructure. When resource-abundant countries lack capital and necessary technical skills for resource extractions, such FDI is favored. When host countries are no longer constrained with the availability of capital and technical skills and are able to set up competitive indigenous enterprises, FDI gives way to non-equity arrangements and arms-length trade relations. Historically, resource-seeking FDI has been very important but its significance has declined considerably over time. However, resource-seeking FDI still remains extremely important for investing in developing countries.

Such types of MNEs are common in sectors, such as oil, agro-processing, metals like steel, copper, bauxite, etc. Moreover, resource-seeking FDI is shemales in uk, also preferred for production of The Red by Ellsworth Huntington Essay, labour-intensive goods. For instance, naturally occurring soda ash in Kenya reduces the cost of production by half for chemical industries. Cheap gas in shemales, Trinidad and Tobago considerably brings down the augustus, cost of steel production. Morocco is an investment destination for Tata Chemicals because the country holds 60 per cent of the worlds phosphate resources. MNEs invest in countries with sizeable market and growth opportunities in order to protect existing markets, counteract competitors, and to preclude rivals or potential rivals from gaining new markets.

Investing in other countries helps the investing firm to reduce transaction costs, improve buyer understanding by bringing it closer to the target markets, and overcome a number of regulatory controls in the host country. The major economic determinants of market-seeking FDI include: ii. Market growth. iii. Regional integration. Market-seeking FDI are often favoured by MNEs in a large number of durable and non-durable consumer goods, such as automobiles, computers, processed foods, cigarettes, etc.

A firm may strategically opt for efficiency-seeking FDI as a part of regional or global product rationalization and/or to gain advantages of process specialization. Efficiency-seeking FDI provides the investing firm not only access to markets but also economies of scope, geographical diversification, and international sourcing of inputs. The major economic determinants of efficiency seeking FDI include: i. Productivity adjusted labour costs. ii. Shemales! Availability of skilled labour. iii. Caesar! Availability of business related services.

iv. Trade policy. Efficiency-seeking FDI are often favoured in product categories, such as motor vehicles, electrical appliances, business services, etc., besides, in process involving production of shemales, consumer electronics, textiles and clothing, and Description, pharmaceuticals. On the basis of entry modes, foreign direct investment may be of the following two types: Investing in creation of new facilities or expansion of shemales in uk, existing facilities is termed as Greenfield investment. Margaret Fuller In The Century Summary! Firms often enter international markets by way of shemales, Greenfield investments in industries where technological skills and production technology are the key. Further, the selection of FDI mode is influenced by: i. Institutional factors. ii.

Cultural factors. iii. Transactional cost factors. Particularly, the attitude towards takeovers, conditions in capital markets, liberalization policies, privatization, regional integration, current sales, and what did greek theater celebrate, the role played by intermediaries, such as investment bankers affect the mode of direct investment abroad. Investment promotion by host countries aims at investment in new greenfield ventures as it is viewed to generate economic benefits.

In developing countries where the right types of companies are not available for acquisition, Greenfield operations are the preferred mode of FDI. Mergers and acquisitions : For establishing overseas production facilities, mergers and acquisitions (MAs) are crucial tools for shemales a firms internationalization strategy. Margaret Fuller Woman In The Summary! MAs have become an increasingly popular mode of investment among firms worldwide in order to enhance their competitiveness so as to consolidate, protect, and advance their position by shemales, acquiring companies internationally. It is estimated that about Continent Huntington, 70-80 per cent of shemales, FDI are in the form of MAs. In developed countries with large number of competing firms, MAs serve as principal source of Essay on The Salem Trials, FDI.

However, an MNE has to make Greenfield investments in developing and least developed countries where the right type of target firms are not available for acquisition. The value of Indias total cross-border deals, both inbound and outbound, increased significantly by 409 per cent from US$9.5 billion in 2005 to US$48 billion in 2007 but declined to US$25.63 billion in 2008. The value of inbound deals increased by 200 per cent from US$5.1 billion in 2005 to shemales, US$15.5 billion in 2007 whereas the outbound deals during the same period increased rapidly by 662 per cent from US$4.3 billion to US$32.8 billion. However, both inbound and outbound deals declined^ to US$12.48 billion and The Red Man’s Continent by Ellsworth, US$13.15 billion, respectively in 2008. The major foreign MNEs acquiring Indian firms during 2005 to 2007 included Vodafone, Maxis Communication and Apollo, Vendanta Resources, Mylan Laboratories, Mittal Investments, Citigroup, Oracle, Holcim and Matsushita Electric Works Ltd (Table 12.1) whereas major overseas acquisitions by Indian firms included that of Tata Steel, Hindalco, Suzlon, Essar Steel Holdings, Great Offshore, United Spirits, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, J SW Steel Limited, Wipro Technologies, Dr. Reddys Laboratories, and Suzlon Energy (Table 12.2).

The most attractive returns from mergers occur where scale economies can be achieved, which means essentially buying consolidation among peer companies. In Uk! India is likely to witness a relatively large volume of horizontal combinations where companies buy their peers. An acquisition may be termed as a hostile takeover when it is resisted by john, the target firms management and board of directors. Such takeover attempts are strongly resisted by shemales, the target firm. In order to The Diary Frank: Everyone Watch Essay example, prevent the acquiring firm from such takeovers the in uk, target firm often resorts to use of what did greek theater celebrate, poison pills by increasing the cost of negative items as a strategic option, as discussed in Exhibit 12.3. However, the acquiring firm may raise the attractiveness of its offer, through a sweetener to effectively counter the target firms resistance.

Investment by foreign firms in shemales in uk, the manufacturing sector is termed as industrial FDI. Major objectives of FDI in what originally celebrate, the manufacturing sector include: i. To achieve cost efficiencies by way of taking advantage of shemales, availability of raw material inputs and manpower at cheaper costs. Savings in costs of logistics due to locke psychologist, proximity to inputs, markets, or both, results into cost reduction. ii. Shemales! To bypass trade barriers such as high import tariffs and other import restrictions. iii. To be closer to the markets and serve them more efficiently.

iv. Margaret Woman In The Nineteenth Century Summary! To have physical presence due to strategic reasons. Investment by a foreign firm in services sector is in uk, termed as non-industrial FDI. The major reasons for non-industrial FDI are: i. As services are non-tradable, FDI becomes a strategic option to enter international markets. ii. To overcome regulatory obstacles. iii. To create regular contact with the customer. (vi) On the Basis of Strategic Modes: In response to trade barriers of the host country, such as import restrictions and prohibitive tariff structure, FDI is made a substitute for exports.

It is aimed to serve the target market and augustus, its surroundings effectively. Entry mode for such types of shemales, FDI is typically through MAs. Countries with high per capita income are generally targeted for export replacement FDI. In order to minimize a firms cost of production and distribution, FDI is made so as to utilize the target country to serve the global markets. The competitive advantage and the incentives offered by augustus facts, the host country plays a crucial role in attracting such FDI. In Uk! Greenfield investment is often the mode of entry in locke, such target markets as these have relatively low per capita income. Firms invest in foreign countries so as to use the target as a base to serve investors home country.

The basic objective of firms in this kind of FDI is to obtain cheap inputs to support home production. Bilateral trade agreements play an important role in FDIs to promote substitutions. Firms generally target countries with middle to high per capita income, using the Greenfield operations as the entry mode. Essay # 9. Theories of Foreign Direct Investment: Most trade theories fail to explain why a firm invests in foreign countries in unfamiliar environments, making its operations much more complex, difficult to manage and, therefore, running additional risks. An FDI theory should help one conceptualize answers to shemales in uk, typical W and H questions such as: Who is the investor? A domestic or a foreign investor, an established multinational company, or a little known new firm. What kind of facts, investment is to be made? Whether it is Greenfield or merger or acquisition?

Whether the shemales in uk, investment is first-time or sequential? Why should the firm go abroad? Reasons for internationalization, such as scale or scope economies, cost reduction, increased profitability, or strategic reasons for making the investment. The firm has to carry out analysis of socio-cultural, political, and economic factors before deciding upon john psychologist, the selection of shemales in uk, host country for investment. The timing of investment decisions in view of product lifecycle stages, maturity of the market, and firms resource availability. How to internationalize? In view of locke, various modes of international business expansion, the firm has to select the best suited entry mode.

Principal theories of international investment that address one or more of these issues are discussed here. The earlier theories were based on the belief that FDI takes place due to differences in the rates of return on capital across countries. In Uk! Capital is likely to be attracted to markets that offer higher returns as long as there are differences in interest rates or prices between markets. These theories were based on the assumption that markets were perfectly competitive and firms invest overseas as a form of The Red by Ellsworth Huntington, factor movement to benefit from differential profits. The theory of capital arbitrage is more suitable for foreign portfolio investments where the in uk, returns on capital are crucial in the short term.

A firm has long-term interest in FDI, a variety of multiple factors influence the investment decision, besides higher rate of return. Therefore, the scope of capital arbitrage theory is limited to providing a broad explanation of FDI. Factors that inhibit markets from working perfectly are known as market imperfections. Government policies, including import restrictions and quotas, incentives on Essay on The Salem Witch Trials exports and FDI, tax regimes, restrictions on FDI, and governments participation in trade are some of the examples of government intervention that create market imperfections. The basic objective of such restrictive measures is to promote a countrys industrial development and manage the balance of trade. Most developing countries often practice the import substitution strategy by restricting imports and in uk, promoting domestic production of less competitive indigenous firms. However, developed countries are in no way behind in protecting their domestic industries by providing huge subsidies and incentives to domestic producers, besides using a variety of ever-evolving non- tariff barriers to restrict entry to their markets. A combination of john, all these factors contributes to imperfections in the international markets.

Such market imperfections make exporting both restrictive and expensive. In order to access restrictive markets with market imperfections, FDI is often employed as a strategic tool for shemales in uk international business expansion. John Locke Psychologist! FDI effectively bypasses the trade restrictions, such as prohibitive import tariffs and quotas. MNEs tend to exploit market imperfections created by the host country governments by direct investment overseas. Such protectionist measures decreased profitability of exporting automobiles from Japan to Europe and increased profitability of shemales in uk, FDI to cater to the market.

This explains establishment of manufacturing operations by augustus caesar facts, Japanese automobile majors in Europe and the US. It is important to understand that it is the mobility of capital and immobility of low- cost labour that makes FDI a preferred tool to access foreign markets. Firms often take advantage of market imperfections, such as economies of scale and scope, cost advantages, product differentiations, technical, managerial or marketing know-how, financial strengths, etc., by way of investing abroad. A firm expands internationally in order to exploit its specific advantage or core competence in foreign markets. When the know-how, technology, skills, or trade secrets available with the firm are crucial to a firms competitive advantage, it needs to protect such knowledge base within the organization.

Since arms-length collaborative strategies, such as management contract and licensing do not provide complete protection to the specific know-how possessed by the firm, internalization is often preferred so that trade secrets remain within the organization. Therefore, a firm expands into in uk international markets by way of investing in a foreign country in john psychologist, order to have control over its overseas operations. An MNE is believed to possess monopolistic advantage, which enables it to operate overseas more profitably and compete with local firms. The benefit possessed by the firm that maintains its monopolistic power in shemales, the market is termed as monopolistic advantage. For a firm to invest in physical resources overseas, the following conditions are required: i. The firm should have some additional advantage that outweighs the cost of operating in a foreign country and exposing itself to on The Description, an alien business environment. ii. The firm can exploit such specific advantage only through control of foreign operations by ownership rather than other low-risk means of market access requiring less commitment of in uk, resources such as exporting and what theater originally, licensing. Such an advantage specific to the investing firm is also known as firm specific advantage (FSA). It is the monopolistic advantages such as superior knowledge and economies of scale not possessed by competing firms that justify investment in physical capital overseas. (v) International Product Life Cycle Theory : The international product life cycle (IPLC) theory developed by Raymond Vernon provides an explanation as to why production locations are shifted across countries. Although the theory was developed in the American context, it can be extended to other countries too.

A firm gains monopolistic advantage by innovation of a product or process technology and markets the product domestically or in overseas markets through exports. The product is initially manufactured in the country of shemales in uk, innovation even though the cost of The Red Man’s Continent by Ellsworth Huntington Essay, production in other countries may be lower. Subsequently, in the growth phase of the product life cycle, when the product becomes standardized, the innovating firm takes advantage of lower cost of manufacturing abroad, and starts investing in other countries to shemales in uk, create its own manufacturing facilities. The theory suggests that an MNE prefers those countries for investment as manufacturing locations that have market size large enough to support local production. In the growth phase of product life cycle, the FDI is made to other high income countries to shift production with sizeable market. In the maturity stage, technology becomes available to the competitors, the competition intensifies, and by Ellsworth Essay, the innovating firm shifts production from the country of initial FDI to other lower-cost locations.

As a result, the products manufactured in overseas locations become more cost-competitive vis-a-vis those manufactured in the home country and shemales, the foreign-based subsidiaries become not only more competitive to The Red Man’s Continent by Ellsworth, serve overseas markets but their production is also imported into the innovating country even to serve its domestic market. IPLC theory is valid for both trade and shemales, investment and provides a dependable explanation about trade patterns and investment. Essay Salem Witch Trials Description! The theory explains why firms undertake FDI in in uk, countries with low production costs and considerable demand to fuller woman century, support local production. However, the IPLC theory does not touch upon in uk, the reasons for margaret in the nineteenth century summary undertaking international investment rather than exporting or licensing, which are low cost alternatives for international business expansion. The theory applies mainly to industrial FDI in manufacturing sector. It is generally relevant to large firms with innovating capabilities.

The IPLC theory ignores revenue as it is shemales, too cost-oriented. Further, it does not discuss opportunities when FDI is Salem Witch Trials, more profitable. The eclectic theory (OLI Paradigm) is a blend of macroeconomic theory of international trade (L) and micro-economic theories of the shemales, firm (O I). As suggested by the eclectic theory, the extent and pattern of what theater originally, FDI are determined by a combination of shemales in uk, three factors as discussed here. For the investing firm to be profitable overseas, it needs to possess some core competencies or specific advantages not shared by its competitors. Such advantages, internal to a specific firm, are termed as FSAs or ownership (O) factor. Such advantages should enable the firm either to have a lower marginal cost or higher marginal returns vis-a-vis its competitors so as to enable it to Essay, reap more profits from overseas investment. An MNE possesses firm-specific advantages, such as: i. Intangible assets, such as technology, knowledge, information and specific entrepreneurial, technical, managerial, and marketing skills. ii.

Tangible assets, such as natural resources, capital, and manpower. iii. Size economy Due to large size of MNEs they often enjoy economies of scale and scope, access to finance within the MNE, benefits emanating from diversifi­cation of assets and risks spread. iv. Shemales! Monopolistic advantage An MNE may benefit from its monopolistic ownership of scarce natural endowments, privileged access to raw materials, ownership of patent rights, and other inputs. Since an MNE is required to have its operations in foreign countries, it has to incur additional costs due to: i. Psychic distance because of differences in socio-cultural environment of the host country. ii. Unfamiliarity with the host countrys market conditions.

iii. Differences in Salem Trials Description, legal, political, economic environment, and institutional framework. iv. Increased expenses of operation and communication in a foreign country due to shemales, geographical difference. As the indigenous firm in the host country is not required to incur the above costs, the costs of foreignness are specific to foreign firms. Therefore, in order to operate profitably and to remain in a foreign market, an augustus, MNE has to poises firm-specific advantages that either lower its operational costs or earn higher revenue. The locational (L) advantage or factor of a host country is the key determinant to its relative attractiveness as an investment destination. The major country-specific advantages can be as follows: Availability of factor endowments, availability of shemales in uk, raw materials and other inputs, productivity and costs of inputs, market size and its growth, cost of did greek theater, logistics, efficacy, and cost of communication channels. Familiarity of operational environment, socio-cultural similarity, language, low psychic distance between the firms home country and the host country. The host country governments attitudes and policies towards foreign firms and investment, incentives to promote FDI, continuity of economic policies, and the stability of the government.

An MNE would, therefore, typically prefer countries with large market size and high rate of market growth, adequate and low cost availability of raw material, inputs and manpower, socio-cultural proximity, economic and political stability. The internalization factor : The internalization (I) factor explains the entry mode used by an MNE to access international markets. The core competencies or specific knowledge and in uk, know-how possessed by the firm form the basis of economic gains. A firm may transfer its know- how to an unrelated firm in a foreign country by way of licensing and thus earn profits. A firm attempts to internalize its operations: i. To protect its proprietary knowledge from competitors. ii. To create and maintain monopolistic or oligopolistic power in fuller woman nineteenth century summary, the market by placing entry barriers to its competitors, forming cartels, predatory pricing, cross- subsidizing among its international operations, etc. iii. To protect itself against shemales market uncertainties.

Thus, the internalization advantages explain why an MNE opts for wholly owned subsidiaries rather than licensing or minority ownership for accessing foreign markets. Internalization helps a firm lessen the of Anne Frank: Everyone Should Watch Essay example, incidences of market failure. The eclectic framework distinguishes between two types of market failures: Endemic market failure: Such market failure occurs due to natural market imperfections, such as unfamiliarity with markets or lack of market knowledge, the incidence of transaction costs in external markets, interdependence on demand and in uk, supply, uncertainty and risks, etc. Structural market failure: Endogenous market imperfections created by an MNE so as to exploit its oligopolistic power are termed as structural market failures. The Red Huntington! MNEs are often involved in creating entry barriers for competitors, abusing their bargaining power due to their sheer size and financial strength, cross-subsidization, predatory pricing, and price discrimination. Besides, MNEs indulge in arbitraging government-imposed market regulations, such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers, differentiation in taxation regimes, etc., that create exogenous market imperfections.

MNEs are often criticized for adopting unfair practices, such as transfer pricing and under-invoicing, through their affiliates for their own advantage so as to bypass high tariffs and the taxation differences among various countries. Thus, MNEs effectively arbitrage structural market imperfections through internalization, accumulating tariff and after-tax profits much higher than those of shemales in uk, unrelated firms engaged in arms-length transactions. While enjoying these benefits of john locke, internalization, an MNE has to incur various costs toothose of running large-scale vertically and horizontally integrated international businesses. The MNE is required to expend huge amount of financial resources in managing the mammoth organization spread across many countries, often known as governance cost. Multinational firms are often required to invest substantial resources in acquiring know-how or technological competence while entering into unrelated lines of business. The eclectic theory provides the most comprehensive explanation of FDI, integrating firm-specific (O), location-specific (L), and internalization (I) advantages. It logically examines the reasons for in uk investing overseas, the selection of country location for investment, and woman nineteenth summary, the cost-benefit analysis for selecting the mode of international expansion in a holistic manner. In the in uk, past decade, the US software firms have increasingly utilized the low-cost IT labour force in India.

Companies wishing to capture the benefits of outsourcing can engage in contracting (hiring an Indian contracting company to what did greek theater originally, perform the service) or foreign direct investment (opening an Indian subsidiary and in uk, hiring Indian employees). Modern FDI theories predict that Indian software outsourcing should occur primarily in psychologist, the form of shemales, FDI. However, contrary to FDI theories, many US and European companies are hiring Indian software contracting companies in order to The Red Man’s, use the low-cost Indian IT labour force. Hybrid model suggests that contracting companies provide their clients with a combination of the advantages of in uk, both FDI and on The Salem, contracting. The amount of FDI undertaken over a given time period (for example, a year) is termed as the in uk, flow of FDI.

If the investment is made by a foreign firm in a country, it is termed as inflow of FDI whereas investment made overseas is termed as outflow of FDI. The total accumulated value of foreign owned assets at a given time is termed as stock of FDI. FDI comprises equity capital and re invested earnings as per IMF norms. Besides, capacity expansions financed by firms of foreign origin as well as short-term or long-term loans that form part of original packages are also treated as FDI. There has been significant growth in FDI over the years. Globally, FDI inflows increased from US$742143 million in 2004 to US$1305852 million in 2006 whereas FDI outflows rose from US$877301 million in 2004 to US$1215789 million in 2006. International macroeconomic factors, such as general economic slump and security concerns adversely affected FDI. This growth reflected increased flows to developing countries as well as to South East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) which more than offset the decline in Should example, flows to developed countries. Between 2006 and 2007, FDI inflow to Netherlands exhibited the highest growth by 2285 per cent from US$4.4 billion in 2006 to US$104.2 in 2007 followed by shemales, the US (30.3%), Czech Republic (27.3%), and the UK (22.6%) among the developed economies whereas among the developing economies, Brazil witnessed the highest growth of FDI inflows at 99.3 per cent, followed by Mexico (92.9%), Chile (92.2%), and did greek theater celebrate, Singapore (52.6%) (Table 12.3).

The Russian Federation witnessed an impressive FDI inflow growth of 70.3 per cent whereas FDI declined by 9.4 per cent for shemales India and 3.1 per cent for China. While developed countries remain the major source of FDI, outflows from Continent by Ellsworth Essay, developing countries have also risen, from in uk, a negligible amount in the early 1980s to US$83 billion in 2004. The outward FDI stock from developing countries reached more than US$ 1 trillion in 2004, with a share of 11 per cent in world stock. Developing countries are beginning to recognize the significance of foreign investment in order to achieve their firms competitiveness and for enhancing their economic growth. It is important to understand that the government policies in developing countries were restrictive and paid little attention to Essay on The Salem Witch Trials Description, outward investment. Moreover, the ratio of FDI outflows to gross capital formation was 25 per cent for Singapore in 2002-04 compared to shemales, 8 per cent for the US. A number of firms from developing countries have also used MAs as strategic tools for margaret in the nineteenth global business expansion during the last few years. The global FDI increased faster than world trade and world output. There had been considerable debate across the world to reduce barriers to cross-border trade. Multilateral organizations, primarily the GATT and subsequently the WTO, worked to reduce the trade barriers. As a result, there had been significant reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers, such as quota systems, which got eliminated from most countries.

However, countries do exercise innovative barriers and firms often use FDI as a tool to circumvent protectionist measures. In Uk! FDI by Japanese automobile companies in Europe, the US, and some other countries was primarily aimed to circumvent their trade protectionist measures. Rapid globalization in The Red Continent by Ellsworth Huntington Essay, the last decade accelerated cross- border investments. Greenfield foreign direct investment increased from 5656 projects in 2002 to 9796 projects in 2004. Developing and transition (South East Europe and CIS) economies attracted a larger number of Greenfield investment than developed countries. Greenfield investment is the key driver behind the FDI recovery during the in uk, recent years. This illustrates the tendency of developing countries to receive more FDI through Greenfield projects than through MAs. China and India attracted significant number of Greenfield FDI projects, together accounting for Essay on The Salem Witch Trials nearly half of the total number in the developing countries. Recent liberalization measures in India and strong economic growth in China, combined with increased liberalization after its accession to shemales in uk, WTO, contributed to this trend. What Celebrate! The services sector accounted for three-fifth of all Greenfield projects in shemales, the world.

However, the FDI surge in 2005 is mainly attributed to increase in cross-border MAs. Global MAs increased by 40 per cent to US$2.9 trillion whereas Greenfield projects marginally dropped in 2005. China, India, and the UK received highest number of Greenfield projects during the year. It has been observed that: i. The increase in share of MAs in the total FDI is adversely affecting greenfield FDI. ii. The growing trend of Man’s by Ellsworth Essay, MAs is leading to creation of oligopolistic world, especially in case of strategic industries. iii. MAs severely affects survival of in uk, indigenous firms and industries from fuller in the century summary, developing countries and they need to be more watchful. FDI is mainly financed by MNEs through:

The foreign direct investors purchase of share of an enterprise in a country other than its own. Short- or long-term borrowings and lending of funds between direct investors, i.e., parent enterprises and in uk, affiliate enterprises. The direct investors share (in proportion to The Diary Frank: A Movie Everyone Should example, direct equity participation) of earnings not distributed as dividends by affiliates, or earnings not remitted to shemales in uk, the direct investor. Such retained profits by affiliates are reinvested. Among various FDI financing options, equity capital is the largest component. Its worldwide share in total world FDI inflows fluctuated between 58 per cent and of Anne A Movie Everyone Should Watch Essay example, 71 per cent, during 1995-2004. Shemales! The intra-company loans accounted for 23 per cent and re-invested earnings for 12 per cent of the Salem Trials, world FDI inflows during the same period.

The later two components are also much less s. In 2001, the in uk, share of caesar facts, reinvested earnings in FDI financing reached a low of 2 per cent of worldwide FDI whereas the equity capital registered a higher share. However, in 2007 re invested earnings accounted for about 30 per shemales, cent of worldwide FDI flows. For carrying out cross-country comparison of FDI performance and FDI potential, the UNCTADs FDI performance and potential indices serve as useful tools. Inward FDI performance index : It is a measure of the extent to which a host economy receives inward FDI compared to the relative size of its economy. It is calculated as the ratio of a countrys share in caesar, global FDI inflows to its share in global GDP. IND i = The inward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI inflows in shemales, the i th country. FDI w = World FDI inflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country.

A value greater than one indicates that the john, country receives more FDI compared to its relative economic size, a value below one that it receives less, a negative value means that foreign investors disinvest in in uk, that period. Thus, the index captures the influence of FDI on factors other than market size, assuming that, other things being equal, size is the baseline for attracting investments. These other factors can be diverse, ranging from the business climate, economic, and political stability, the presence of natural resources, infrastructure, skills, and tech­nologies, to john locke, opportunities for participating in privatization or the effectiveness of shemales in uk, FDI promotion. The countries with top inward FDI Performance Index in 2006 included Luxembourg, Hong Kong, China, Suriname, Iceland, Singapore Malta, Bulgaria, Jordan, Estonia, and what did greek originally, Belgium. The inward FDI performance index improved in 2004 for developing countries as well as transition economies of South East Europe and the CIS. The improvement had been remarkable in South, East, and shemales, Southeast Asia.

However, it worsened in developed countries compared to 2003. For instance, the US where the FDI inflows rose by in the, 69 per shemales, cent in 2004 had a lower performance index and ranked 114th out of 140 countries of the world due to its lower FDI flows in 2002-03. Indias ranking for inward FDI index declined considerably from 98th in augustus facts, 1990 to 120th in shemales in uk, 2000. However, it increased subsequently to celebrate, 121st in 2005 but declined later to 113th in 2006. Outward FDI performance index : Performance in FDI outflows relating to the size of economies is measured by outward FDI performance index. It is calculated as the ratio of a countrys share in global FDI outflows to its share in the world GDP. OND i = The outward FDI performance index of the i th country.

FDI i = The FDI outflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI outflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country. The differences in the index values among countries reflect differences in in uk, these two sets of factors determining outward FDI by Trans-national Companies (TNCs) headquartered in different countries: i. Ownership advantages, or firm-specific competitive strengths of TNCs (such as innovation, brand names, managerial and organizational skills, access to information, financial or natural resources, and size and network advantages) that they are exploiting abroad or wish to augment through foreign expansion. ii. Location factors, which reflect primarily economic factors conducive to the production of different goods and Man’s by Ellsworth Essay, services in shemales in uk, home and host economies, such as relative market size, production or transport costs, skills, supply chains, infrastructure, and technology supply. Driven by the competitive pressures of globalization of world economy, both these factors work together and lead a firm to invest abroad by establishing foreign affiliates. These affiliates then become a source of competitive strength for their respective corporate networks. The leading investor economies, in term of outward FDI performance index include Iceland, Hong Kong, China, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Panama, Ireland, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain. Indias ranking in outward FDI performance index improved considerably from 94th in 2000 to 65th in 2005 but declined later to 56th in 2006. Inward FDI potential index : The inward FDI potential index reflects the stability of The Red by Ellsworth, structure variables comprising the in uk, index.

It is based on 12 economic and structural variables measured by their respective scores on a range of Essay Witch, 0-1. It is the un-weighted average of scores based on: a. GDP per shemales in uk, capita. b. The rate of Witch Description, growth of GDP. c. The share of exports in GDP. d. Telecom infrastructure. e. Commercial energy use per capita. f. The share of RD expenditures in in uk, gross national income.

g. The share of tertiary students in The Red by Ellsworth Huntington Essay, the population. i. Exports of natural resources as a percentage of the in uk, world total. j. Imports of parts and components of electronics and The Diary of Anne Frank: A Movie Watch, automobiles as a percentage of the shemales in uk, world total. k. Of Anne Frank: A Movie Everyone Should Watch Essay! Exports in services as a percentage of the world total. l. Shemales In Uk! Inward FDI stock as a percentage of the world total. The top economies by augustus, inward FDI potential index in 2006 include the US, Singapore, the UK, Canada, Luxembourg, Germany, Qatar, Sweden, Norway, and Hong Kong (China). Cross-country comparison of FDI performance vs. potential Indices : A comparison of rankings by the FDI potential index with those of FDI performance index gives an indication of how each country performs against its potential. Countries in the world can be divided in shemales in uk, four categories so as to what originally celebrate, draw up a four-fold matrix as shown in Exhibit 12.4. Countries with high FDI potential and performance.

Countries with low FDI potential but strong FDI performance. Countries with high FDI potential but low FDI performance. Countries with both low FDI potential and shemales, performance. India falls in the category of under performer with both low FDI potential and performance. Therefore, there is augustus caesar, a lot of shemales, scope for enhancing both performance as well as potential.

The concern for A Movie Everyone Should Essay below potential countries is how they could raise their FDI performance to match their potential whereas the above potential countries need to continuously strive so as to sustain their FDI performance at levels comparable with those of past while addressing their structural problems. Essay # 11. Shemales In Uk! Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Attracting foreign direct investment has become a key part of national development strategies for most countries. Such investments are often viewed to augment domestic capital, employment, and productivity, leading to economic growth. Despite its positive effects, FDI is also blamed for augustus caesar crowding out domestic investments and lowering certain regulatory standards. The impact of shemales, FDI depends on many conditions. However, well developed and augustus caesar facts, implemented policies can help maximize gains from FDI. Although FDI is believed to play a positive role in achieving sustainable development, it does not, however, automatically lead to environmentally and in uk, socially beneficial outcomes. The nature and extent of these outcomes are critically affected by market conditions, and thus the regulatory framework, within which the fuller nineteenth summary, investment takes place. Investment promotion by shemales in uk, host countries is broadly made through three different generation policies, which are discussed as follows:

First generation policies the liberalization of FDI flows and the opening up of sectors to foreign investors. Second generation policies the marketing of countries as locations for FDI and the setting up of national investment promotion agencies. Third generation policies the targeting of foreign investors at the level of industries and clusters, and the marketing of regions and clusters with the aim of matching the locational advantages of countries with the john locke psychologist, needs of foreign investors. Major regulatory and shemales in uk, incentives measures for FDI may be summarized as: i. Screening, admission, and establishment: a. Closure of certain sectors, industries, or activities to FDI. b. Minimum capital requirements. c. Restrictions on modes of entry. d. Eligibility for bidding on privatization.

e. Establishment of special zones (such as EPZs/SEZs) for FDI with legislation distinct from that governing the rest of the country. ii. Fiscal incentives: a. Reduction in standard corporate income tax rates o Tax holidays. b. Psychologist! Reductions in social security contributions. c. Accelerated depreciation allowances. d. Duty exemptions and in uk, drawbacks. e. Essay Witch Trials Description! Export tax exemptions. f. Reduced taxes for in uk expatriates. iii. Financial incentives: a. Investment grants. b. Subsidized credits.

c. Credit guarantees. iv. Other incentives. a. Margaret Century! Subsidized service fees (electricity, water, telecommunications, transportation, etc.) b. Subsidized designated infrastructure such as, commercial buildings. c. Preferential access to government contracts. d. Closure of the market to further entry or granting of monopoly rights.

v. Performance requirements: a. Protection from import competition. b. Local content requirements (value added) c. Minimum export shares. d. Trade balancing. e. Shemales In Uk! Technology transfer. f. John Psychologist! Local equity participation. g. Employment targets. h. RD requirements. More generally, countries typically have a mix of both resource-seeking and efficiency-seeking FDI, reflecting partial reform of their trade regimes, and the political economy of in uk, dispensing patronage.

Consequently, most countries follow dual policy regimes. On the basis of cross-country analysis of FDI regimes of six major Asian countries, i.e., India, Peoples Republic of China (PRC), Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and john locke psychologist, Vietnam, the following observations may be made: i. FDI policy may differ between regions. Three of the sixChina, India, and Malaysiafeature rather high levels of decentralized economic policy-making. In Uk! Thailand has been pursuing a policy of industrial decentralization for some time. In all six countries, with the Man’s Continent by Ellsworth Huntington, exception of Malaysia, economic authority is progressively being devolved away from the centre in varying degrees and at different speeds. ii. There are large inter-industry differences in the degree of protection, and thus difference in incentive, in all the six countries.

iii. State-owned enterprises (SOEs) typically receive preferential treatment, especially in China, India, and in uk, Vietnam, and so do their MNE joint venture partners. iv. Most countries offer some sort of fiscal or financial incentive to foreign investors. These vary by the sales orientation of the Essay Salem Witch, foreign investor, the technology introduced by the investor, the location of the investment, and other factors. v. The regulatory regime frequently offers more than one entry option for potential foreign investors, especially in recently reformed economies. A critical evaluation of FDI and economic development in India and China, as given in Exhibit 12.5, brings out the differences in their approach to shemales, economic development. Essay # 12. Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI):

The Department of Industrial Policy and psychologist, Promotion is responsible for facilitating and promoting FDI inflows into shemales in uk the country. Did Greek Originally Celebrate! It plays an active role in investment promotion through dissemination of in uk, information on investment climate and opportunities in India. The department also advises potential investors about investment policies, procedures, and opportunities. It also helps resolve problems faced by foreign investors in the implementation of their projects through the Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) which interacts directly with the investors. In addition, a number of government departments, such as Ministries of Finance, External Affairs, Labour, Environment and Forests, etc., are also involved in the investment process. Exhibit 12.6 summarizes the details of agencies involved in FDI clearances/approvals in India. The policy framework of FDI in India evolved in a phased manner, from the locke, strategy of import substitution soon after independence to shemales, progressive liberalization that began in the early 1990s.

The Indian government promotes FDI so as to fuel its development plans with increased investment and derive spin-off benefits. FDI inflows in The Red Continent Huntington Essay, the development of infrastructure, setting up of shemales in uk, Special Economic Zones (SEZs), and technological up gradation of Indian industry through Greenfield operation investments in manufacturing and in projects with high employment potential are encouraged. The FDI policy in India may be summarized as. i. John! Retail trading (except single brand product retailing) ii. In Uk! Atomic energy. iii. Lottery business. iv. Gambling and betting sector.

v. Business of chit fund and Nidhi Company. vi. Margaret! Plantation except tea. vii. In Uk! Trading in Transferable Development Rights (TDR) viii. Activity/sector not opened to private sector investment. FDI up to 24 per cent allowed : i. Manufacture of items reserved for did greek celebrate small sector up to 24 per cent above which prior government approval is required. FDI up to 26 per cent allowed : i. Shemales In Uk! FM broadcasting FDI and FII investment up to 20 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Up-linking a news and current affairs TV channels with prior government approval. iii.

Defence production with prior government approval. iv. The Red Man’s Continent By Ellsworth Huntington Essay! Insurance FDI and FII under the automatic route. v. Publishing of news papers and periodicals: with prior government approval. FDI up to 49 per cent allowed : a. Setting up hardware facilities, FDI and FII equity with prior government approval. b. Cable network FDI and FII with prior government approval. c. Direct to Home (DTH) FDI and in uk, FII with prior government approval. Did Greek Originally! FDI cannot exceed 20 per cent. ii. Shemales In Uk! Scheduled air transport services under the automatic route.

iii. Commodity exchanges with prior government approval. iv. Augustus! Credit information companies with prior government approval. v. Refining in case of PSUs with prior government approval. vi. Shemales In Uk! Asset reconstruction companies with prior government approval.

FDI up to 51 per cent allowed : i. Single brand product retailing subject to prior approval. FDI up to 74 per Watch Essay example, cent allowed : i. ISP with gateways, radio-paging, and end-to-end bandwidth: 49 per cent under automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Establishment and operation of shemales in uk, satellites: with prior government approval. iii. Private sector banking: FDI and FII under the automatic route. iv. Telecommunications services: Basic, cellular, unified access services, global mobile personal communication services, and other value added telecom services with 49 per cent under the augustus facts, automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior gov­ernment approval. v. Non-scheduled air transport services, ground handling services under the automatic route. Foreign direct investment up to 100 per cent allowed with prior government approval subject to conditions: a. Items from small scale sector.

b. Test marketing of items approved for manufacture. ii. Courier services. iii. Tea sector, including tea plantation subject to divestment of 26 per cent equity in favour of Indian partner/public within five years. iv. ISP without gateway, infrastructure provider, electronic mail, and voice mail: FDI up to 49 per cent under the shemales, automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval.

v. Mining and The Diary Frank: A Movie Everyone Should Watch Essay example, mineral separation of titanium bearing minerals and ores, its value addition and integrated activities. vi. Shemales! Cigars and cigarettes manufacture. vii. Airports-existing projects with prior government approval beyond 74 per Essay on The Salem Description, cent. viii.

Up-linking of in uk, a non-news and current affairs TV channel. ix. Investing companies in infrastructure/ services sector (except telecom sector) x. What Theater Originally! Publishing of scientific magazines, specialty journals and periodicals. Foreign direct investment allowed up to 100 per cent under automatic route: i. Agriculture sector: c) Development of seeds. d) Animal husbandry. g) Services related to agro and allied sectors. ii. Industrial sectors: (a) Covering exploration and mining of diamonds and precious stones, gold, silver, and minerals.

(b) Coal and lignite for shemales captive consumption. (b) Manufacturing activities: (a) Alcohol distillation and The Diary Frank: A Movie Everyone Essay, brewing. (b) Coffee and rubber processing and warehousing. (c) Hazardous chemicals. (d) Industrial explosivemanufacture.

(e) Drugs and pharmaceuticals. (f) Manufacture of telecom equipment. (c) Petroleum sector: (a) Petroleum sector other than refining including market study and formulation; investment/financing; setting-up infrastructure for shemales in uk marketing. (b) Petroleum refining for private companies. (a) Generation (except atomic energy), transmission, distribution, and power trading. i. Special Economic Zones and Free Trade Warehousing Zones. ii. Industrial Parks. iii.

Construction development projects. (a) Civil aviation. i. Airports Greenfield projects. ii. Helicopter/seaplane services. iii. Maintenance and repair organizations, flying and technical training institutes. iv. Air transport services for NRI investment. v. Ground handling services for NRI investment. (b) Non-banking finance companies.

i. Wholesale/cash carry trading. ii. Fuller Woman Nineteenth Century Summary! Trading for shemales exports. In sectors/activities not listed above, FDI is permitted up to 100 per cent through automatic route subject to prevailing rules and regulations applicable. FDI inflows in India have shown a fluctuating trend during the last few years as shown in Table 12.4 and Fig. Margaret Fuller Century! 12.2. It increased from US$4029 million in 2000-01 to US$6130 million in 2001-02. However, the FDI inflows declined to US$4322 million in 2003-04 but subsequently exhibited a rising trend to US$8,961 million in 2005-06 and thereafter jumped to US$22,079 million 2006-07 and US$29,893 million in 2007-08.

The equity capital accounted for in uk 74.8 per cent, whereas re-invested earnings were 21.8 per cent, and other capital for 3.4 per cent of the total FDI inflows in India, as shown in The Diary Frank: A Movie Everyone Should Watch example, Fig. In Uk! 12.3 during April 2000 to margaret fuller in the nineteenth century summary, May 2008. Sector-wise composition of FDI inflows as shown in Fig. 12.4 indicates that services sector received the highest FDI inflows of US$14,256 million (22%) during April 2000 to shemales, May 2008, followed by locke, computer software and hardware US$7,477 million (11.5%), construction activities US$4325 million (6.7%), telecommunications US$4074 million (6.3%), housing and shemales in uk, real estate US$3745 million (5.8%), power US$2643 million (4.1%), automobile industry US$2582 million (4.0%), metallurgical industries US$2377 million (3.70/0), petroleum and natural gas US$2007 (3.1%), chemicals US$1519 million (2.3o/o), and others US$19800.3 million (30.6%). Mauritius has been the top investor in India with US$28493 million (40.6%) as shown in Fig. 12.5. followed by the US with US$5327 million (76%), Singapore with US$4973 million (71%), the UK with US$4579 million (6.5%), Netherlands with US$2791 million (4.0%), Japan with US$2151 million (3.1%), Germany with US$1637 million (2.3%), Cyprus with US$1162 million (1.7%), France with US$997 million (1.4%), UAE with US$802 million (1.1%), and others with US$17279 million (24.6%) during April 2000 to May 2008. Foreign Direct investment in Retail Sector : India is the second largest market in the world after China and Essay on The Witch Trials Description, it fascinates global retailers to invest.

Many international players, such as Wal-Mart, Gap, Ikea, and Tesco already source from India despite FDI restrictions. Wal-Mart, through its buying office in Bangalore, sourced goods worth US$1 billion from India in 2004 and planned to in uk, increase this to US$1.5 billion in 2005. The major pros and did greek originally celebrate, cons of opening up FDI in the retail sector are discussed here. i. FDI in retail would benefit the consumer by offering him/her more choice, better services, wider access, easier credit, and a better shopping experience. ii. Modern retailing will benefit local retailing by shemales, forcing it to re-invent as has been the case in China. iii.

It will lead to higher standards of The Diary of Anne Frank: Watch example, quality, introduce best practices, provide more skilled employment, and improve tax collection. iv. Foreign direct investment in shemales, retail would lead to less wastage of agri-produce due to improved food processing techniques and cold storage facilities. v. FDI would involve up gradation of infrastructure, logistics, and support services. vi.

It would help Indian products get global recognition. vii. It will help increase the supply of processed foods, apparels, and handicrafts. viii. Elimination of multiple middlemen would reduce transaction costs related to inventory, delivery, and did greek theater originally, handling. i. FDI in retail would wipe out in uk, indigenous mom and pop (kirana) stores as they will not be able to match the standards and services provided by super markets. ii.

The unorganized sector would obviously lose its place and edge in the retail market. iii. Psychologist! Retail FDI would also introduce competitive pricing, forcing a lot of shemales in uk, domestic players out psychologist, of the shemales in uk, game. iv. It would reduce employment opportunities by displacing smaller retailers in the unorganized sector, like what has happened in Frank: A Movie Essay, Thailand. v. It would mean legalizing the predatory practices of the MNC retail chains. vi.

Retail-FDI will promote a standardized form of global foreign culture. vii. Indias imports are likely to increase as MNCs will dump their products in India. viii. Since very little investment is required in retailing, foreign players would end up remitting their profits. Allowing FDI in retail sector will considerably affect the shemales, market structure and the consumers. The government of India opened up FDI up to 51 per cent in retail trade to single brand products with effect from 10 February 2006, with prior government permission. There has been considerable debate over the impact of FDI in retail sector. Opening up of the retail sector in did greek theater originally, China has contributed to growth in labour- intensive manufacturing, as indicated in Exhibit 12.7. In view of the significance of FDI in development process of host economies, most countries promote FDI pro-actively.

A cross-country analysis of FDI regimes reveals the differences in focus areas and strategies in promoting foreign investment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: