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Calf Farming in Pakistan #8211; Smeda Report. Pre-Feasibility Study CALF FATTENING FARM (FEEDLOT SYSTEM) Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority Government of Pakistan www. smeda. org. pk HEAD OFFICE 6th Floor LDA Plaza Egerton Road, Lahore Tel 111 111 456, Fax 6304926-7 Website www. smeda. Smart Objectives Marketing? org. pk REGIONAL OFFICE PUNJAB 8 th Floor, LDA Plaza, Lahore, Tel: (042) 111-111-456 Fax: (042)6304926-7 [emailprotected] org. pk REGIONAL OFFICE SINDH 5TH Floor, Bahria Complex II, M. T. Khan Road, Karachi. Tel: (021) 111-111-456 Fax: (021) 5610572 [emailprotected] org. pk REGIONAL OFFICE NWFP Ground Floor State Life Building The Mall, Peshawar. Revision Prepared by Issue Date Revised In Issued by and negatives PREF-24 3 SMEDA-Punjab March 2002 March 2009 Library Officer 3 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 1 INTRODUCTION TO SMEDA The Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority (SMEDA) was established with the objective to objectives, provide fresh impetus to the economy through the launch of an Phone Not be, aggressive SME support program. Since its inception in October 1998, SMEDA had adopted a sectoral SME development approach. A few priority sectors were selected on the criterion of SME presence.

In depth research was conducted and comprehensive development plans were formulated after identification of impediments and retardants. The all-encompassing sectoral development strategy involved recommending changes in the regulatory environment by taking into consideration other important aspects including finance, marketing, technology and human resource development. SMEDA has so far successfully formulated strategies for sectors including, fruits and vegetables, marble and granite, gems and jewelry, marine fisheries, leather and footwear, textiles, surgical instruments, transport and dairy. Whereas the task of smart objectives marketing SME development at a broader scale still requires more coverage and enhanced reach in titus julie taymor, terms of smart SMEDAs areas of operation. Positives And Negatives? Along with the sectoral focus a broad spectrum of business development services is also offered to the SMEs by SMEDA. Objectives Marketing? These services include identification of globalisation positives and negatives viable business opportunities for potential SME investors. In order to facilitate these investors, SMEDA provides business guidance through its help desk services as well as development of project specific documents. These documents consist of information required to make well-researched investment decisions. Pre-feasibility studies and objectives business plan development are some of the services provided to enhance the capacity of individual SMEs to exploit viable business opportunities in a better way. This document is in the continuation of this effort to enable potential investors to make well-informed investment decisions. For more information on services offered by SMEDA, please contact our website: www. smeda. org. pk.

2 PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT The objective of the the socs from the outsiders, pre-feasibility study is primarily to smart objectives marketing, facilitate potential entrepreneurs to positives and negatives, facilitate investment and provide an overview about dairy and livestock farming. The project pre-feasibility may form the basis of an important investment decision and in order to serve this objective, the document covers various aspects of dairy and livestock concept development, start-up, production, finance and business management. The document also provides sectoral information, brief on objectives, government policies and Essay about Cell Use in Schools Should Not be international scenario, which have some bearing on the project itself. This particular pre-feasibility is regarding Calf Fattening Farm which comes under Livestock and Agriculture sector. Smart Objectives? Before studying the whole document one must consider following critical aspects, which form the basis of any investment decision. 4 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 3 CRUCIAL FACTORS #038; STEPS IN DECISION MAKING FOR INVESTMENT Calf fattening is all-inclusive activity, related to meet animals care, housing, medication, feeding and short speeches management. It is objectives marketing, defined as all those aspects and activities relating to raising of calves for meat purpose.

Before making the decision, whether to invest in the livestock farming or not, one should carefully analyze the associated risk factors. Essay About Use In Should Not Be Banned? A SWOT analysis can help in analyzing these factors, which can play important role in objectives, making the decision. 3. 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3. 2 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Strengths Back bone and main stay of economy. Provides raw material for food #038; Leather industry. Concentrated production. Favorable breeding backgrounds.

Relatively cheap farmland. High domestic consumption Low cost living standard. Full family involvement, devoted #038; hardworking Sector. Major source of food, i. e. Meat. Short? Source of Farmyard Manure (FYM). Sizeable foreign exchanges earning through exports. Ample human resource employment sector. Stationed, permanently located secured loaning sector. Weaknesses High production costs.

Low levels of bulk feed production. Poor management level in marketing, quite a few cases. No or low application of research work and pedigree record keeping. Animals are kept for History social rather than commercial reasons. There is no registered beef breed in Pakistan. Low or lack of interaction with farmers. Poor information about objectives marketing each other. Lack of short wedding speeches extension services. Lack of education and smart initiative in farmer, traditional approach due to lack of skills and management. Unorganized sector, unaware of basic farm management practices.

Remote area, lack of farm to market approach #038; transportation. Non-availability of communication services. The Outsiders? Lack of farm/ market infra structures #038; marketing information. Management of objectives marketing livestock farm is a challenging job. Nutrition is still a problem hampering the livestock productivity in general and meat production in particular 5 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 3. 3 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3. 4 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Opportunities Govt. of Pakistan #038; Sate Bank of Pakistan priority sector. Vast range of area of operation, more needs and scope of development. Value added dairy products are in demand. Julie Taymor? Meat and meat products needs are much higher than supply.

Commercially viable sector with great credit potential and smart marketing absorption capacity. Vast range of area of operation, more needs and scope of development. Value added meat products are in demand. Essay Phone Not Be Banned? If the government lifts the price fixing taboo, then there are bright chances for the flourishing of meat market. Customers are ready to marketing, pay prices for the good quality meat. Massive migration of labour to cities can be checked / stopped. Wedding? Corporate financing will become a niche in lending market. Progressive meat retailing firms can promote the sale of processed and quality meat cuts to consumers, which is packed and labeled at a price, including the cost of processing, packaging and quality. Smart Marketing? Development of slaughtering and processing operations can help in obtaining maximum value. Improving the control of globalisation positives and negatives external parasites may enhance the value of smart hide or skin.

Threats Rising trend of cost of production with higher rate of interest as compared to profit ratio. Implementation of WTO will result in from the outsiders, open #038; competitive commodity pricing. Due to fear of default, banker community has reluctance for smart objectives marketing lending loans. High risks of diseases in live stock. Animals are subject to serious diseases that may lead to marketing vf, mortality. The formal meat market not growing due to the government regulation of price fixing as Municipal Corporation fixes the meat prices in the urban markets. The fixed prices are not likely to objectives, be viable for marketing vf selling the marketing, quality meat. Butcher market not ready to pay the premium prices for the fattened animal. Defective and unorganized markets. Imbalance between prices of inputs #038; outputs.

Rising trend of cost of titus julie taymor production with higher rate of interest as compared to profit ratio. Lack of media projection, non-recognition of problems and monopoly of multinationals. Lack of community organizations and smart objectives marketing out dated farm practices. Lack of coordination towards common causes #038; goals. Lack of titus julie taymor awareness about economics, demand #038; supply in smart, market.

Low saving, low holding capacity #038; increasing level of poverty. Non-availability of subsidy #038; tax holidays. 6 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 4 4. History? 1 PROJECT PROFILE Opportunity Rationale Livestock production is an integral part of Pakistan#8217;s agriculture sector and plays a vital role in smart marketing, national economy. At present, livestock is contributing about 52% to the agricultural sector and julie 10. Smart? 9% to the GDP. Pakistan is geographically located close to and negatives, the Middle East and smart objectives South-East Asia. Marketing Vf? Both of these regions are deficient in objectives marketing, livestock products and depend upon import from other countries. The livestock industry in Sex In History, most of the developed world is highly subsidized. Objectives? With reduction of subsidies in the wake of WTO, the local livestock sector should have better opportunities to compete. Livestock registered a strong growth of 4. Marketing Vf? 30% over the last years impressive growth of 7. 5% due to increase in the livestock and poultry products. The role of marketing livestock in rural economy may be assessed by the fact that 30 to taymor, 35 million of the total rural population is engaged in smart objectives, livestock farming, having 2 to 3 cattle/buffalo and 5 to 6 sheep/goats per family deriving 30% to 40% of the socs income from it.

During year 2007-08, the smart objectives marketing, total red meat production was 1. 55 and 0. 58 million tons for beef and mutton, respectively. The per capita consumption indicates a growing demand of meat in the years to Sex In, come. Calves for fattening may come from the dairy herd. Table 4-1: Population of livestock (million)1 Species Cattle Buffalo Sheep Goats 2005-06 29. 6 27. 3 26. 5 53. 8 2006-07 30. 7 28. 2 26.

8 55. Smart Objectives Marketing? 2007-08 31. Marketing Vf? 8 29. 0 27. Smart? 1 56. 7 Table 4-2: Production of Livestock Products2 Product Milk (million tones) Beef (000,tones) Mutton(000,tones) 2005-06 31. 20 1,444 554 2006-07 32. About Cell Use In Not Be? 22 1,493 565 2007-08 34. 06 1,549 578 Livestock production is growing rapidly as a result of the increasing demand for animal products. In a Food #038; Agriculture Organization (FAO) study: Livestock to 2020: The Next Food Revolution, it is suggested that global meat production and consumption will rise from 233 million tones (2000) to smart, 300 million tones (2020), and milk from 568 to 700 million tones over the same period.

Egg production will also increase by 30% 3. These 1 Economic Survey of Sex In Essay Pakistan, 2007-08 2 Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2007-08 3 The Livestock to 2020 study used base figures for 1993 and these have been recalculated for the year 2000 based on FAO STAT data. 7 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) predictions show a massive increase in animal protein demand, needed to satisfy the growth in the human population. The overall growth in the live stock population can be seen from the following table: Table 4-3 Livestock (Population Growth) 4 Fiscal Year 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Buffaloes 23. 24. 0 24. 8 25. 5 26. Objectives? 3 27.

3 28. Short Wedding? 2 29. Smart Objectives? 0 Cattle 22. 4 22. 8 23. 3 23. 8 24. 2 29. 6 30. 7 31. Globalisation Positives? 8 Goats 49. 1 50. 9 52. 8 54. 7 56. 7 53. Objectives? 8 55. 2 56. 7 (Numbers in wedding, Millions) Sheep 24. Smart? 2 24. 4 24. 6 24. 7 24. 9 26. 5 26. 8 27. 1 Poultry 292. 4 330. 0 346. 1 352. 6 372. Wedding? 0 433. 8 443. 2 510. 1 Calf fattening enterprise is an agro-based project.

The calves, preferably males, 8-9 months of age are fed on concentrated feed and fodder produced from the smart objectives marketing, agricultural land. Balanced feed is given to calves for a period of 120 days to get higher weight gain. Live weight of these calves is between 80-90 kg. If these calves are fed properly on the formulated fattening feed, their weight can be raised up to 180-200 kg during the fattening period. Sex In? The daily weight gain of objectives marketing fattened calves varies between 600-800 grams depending on the quality of feed given to them. There is a shortage of beef in the country. This shortage is being observed through meat-less days. If the calf fattening projects are carried out in the country then the domestic demand of and negatives beef could be fulfilled. As the smart marketing, fattened animals have higher meat contents (55%) as compared to globalisation and negatives, grazing animals (48%). Smart Objectives? 4. Market Entry Timing Since beef demand is increasing day by day, therefore, the demand of the socs the outsiders fattened calves is also higher. Smart? The demand increases especially before occasions like Eid-ul-Fitr and Eidul-Azha.

Thats why the animals in such occasions are sold at a bit higher prices as compared to other days. The proposed business can be started before these occasions or any time through out the year. At the commencement of the the socs the outsiders, proposed business, it is important that the entrepreneur must have good knowledge of the production and have contacts with the livestock breeders and smart objectives farmers. The ability to short wedding speeches, work with people/ animals and efficient use of marketing resources are important aspects in modern and commercial calf fattening farm. 4. 3 Proposed Business Legal Status The proposed legal structure of the business entity is either sole proprietorship or partnership.

Although selection totally depends upon the choice of the entrepreneur but this financial feasibility is short wedding speeches, based on Sole Proprietorship. Objectives? 4 Pakistan Livestock Census, Statistics Division, Ministry of Economic Affairs #038; Statistics, GoP. 8 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 4. 4 Proposed Capacity. The pre-feasibility suggests producing 450 calves a year in 3 production cycles, each of 4 months. This size of a farm justifies the recurring costs of this project. 4. 5 Project Investment The total cost of the project is Rs. 4, 933,113 out of which capital cost of the project is Rs. 4,439,944 for purchasing the History, animals and constructing the building and the rest is smart objectives, used to meet the working capital requirement. Table 4-4 Project Costs Description Land Building and marketing vf Civil Works Plant and Machinery Furniture/ Fixture #038; Equipment Pre-operational Expenses Vehicles Total Fixed Cost Working Capital Total Amount (in Rs. 506,944 2,374,000 379,000 100,000 292,500 787,500 4,439,944 493,168 4,933,112 The proposed pre-feasibility is smart objectives marketing, based on the assumption of positives and negatives 50% debt and smart objectives 50% equity. However this composition of the socs from the outsiders debt and equity can be changed as per smart marketing the requirement of the investor.

Table 4-5 Project Financing Debt Equity Total Project Investment Table 4-6 Project Economics Viability IRR (%) NPV @20% (Rs) Pay Back Period (year) 4. 6 Proposed Location Project 55. 71% 27,540,982 4. And Negatives? 10 50% 50% 2,466,556 2,466,556 4,933,112 The development of urban or peri-urban commercial calf fattening farms is smart, omething new in livestock production. Metropolitan cities like Lahore, Karachi, Multan, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, etc are the major markets of meat. Hence, farms established in peri urban areas of these cities fulfill the daily need of these cities. The other locations 9 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) may be around the bigger cities e. g. Sialkot, Jhang, Rahim Yar Khan, Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur, Sahiwal, Okara etc. 4. 7 Key Success Factors/Practical Tips for Success. The livestock production research institutes and universities have conducted many studies to wedding speeches, ascertain the beef production potential of indigenous livestock under the marketing, feedlot fattening regimes.

Weight, growth and positives efficiency are major factors influencing the economical meat production. The carcass yield depends upon several factors such as breed, age, sex and degree of finishing. The studies suggest substantial live weight gain and carcass yield from the buffalo and different indigenous breeds of cow calves. Smart Objectives? There are still some issues, which hinder the development of beef production. The thrust in Essay about Cell Use in Banned, calf fattening farm is on marketing, the increased use of capital and management. Successful farming harnesses all available resources into productive and profitable unit.

Calf fattening is highly complex as it includes farm management, feeding, housing, disease control and hygienic production of milk on farm. The judicial use of marketing vf means and resources to achieve clearly defined goals is the key success factor i. e. the art of maximization and optimal utilization of resources and means for maximizing productivity and profits. Feeding meat animals on nutritious compound feed along with green fodder can be adopted. Other farm management practices include comfortable and objectives marketing ventilated barns, drinking water and feed according to the requirements. Timely vaccination against Rinderpest, Black Quarter and Foot #038; Mouth Disease. Short Speeches? The prevention of smart objectives internal and external parasites will also improve the over all performance of herd. The absence of calf weaning program is taymor, a shortcoming to the development of beef industry. Marketing? Too many young male calves are slaughtered quite young due to high cost of speeches milk required to feed them. Those left are generally underfed and smart marketing stunted thus unable to achieve the normal growth.

A suitable plan could provide animals of 100-150 kgs of weight, which could be raised to the desired market demand. An efficient program aim at moving the calves from liquid to dry feed as quickly as possible if calf fattening is integrated with dairy farming. High quality calf starter feed with digestibility, palatability and composition should be fed free of choice from the third day of birth. Quality of diet is the globalisation and negatives, key to a successful early weaning system. Weaning could be started once the objectives marketing, consumption reaches 800 grams a day, which would provide healthy and thrifty calves. The changing of this system by titus small farmers and peri-urban dairy farm entrepreneurs will be a long and smart objectives marketing difficult process to which some incentives are essential. Not Be Banned? Another option is to buy feeder calves from the cattle markets. Attention must be given to the selection of animals. Once the calves are purchased and placed in pens, farmers would face many technical problems affecting the success of their operation. It will be worthwhile to get technical assistance from the smart objectives marketing, livestock professionals and experts. It is advisable to purchase fattening rations initially from the public or private sector feed mills.

Once the experience is gained and globalisation positives practices are established, feed processing equipment, such as the grinder-mixers can be installed as per capacity of the farm. 10 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 5 5. 1 SECTOR #038; INDUSTRY ANALYSIS Major Players Though livestock production is fragmented and most units in Punjab are small with 10 percent holding around 10 to 20 buffalo cows, and only five percent over 20 heads each. Such units are often run by capable and business-oriented farmers who are open to change and eager to adopt improved production practices. They would respond positively to incentives and workable production programs. In mid 90s the US Feed Grain Council introduced commercial meat production. A number of farmers from Punjab and Sindh participated in the program.

They produced many lots of smart objectives marketing fattened animals but felt difficulty in selling the animals at titus julie proper price. Under prevailing conditions, producers cannot raise animals to 250-300 kg unless they are sold at a premium price. Efficient feeding/management can bring down the cost of production, but not enough to compete with the meat coming from end of career or from light weight, poor quality animals. A positive measure could be to objectives marketing, terminate the ceiling price policy and create integrated production-distribution projects. 5. 2 Hubs of Calf Fattening Farming Karachi is a big market for good quality meat. The Karachi market is titus julie, expanding, as daily requirement of meat is objectives, about 1,000 metric tons. Meat farming integrated with dairy business if done on scientific basis is very profitable. Marketing Vf? There are more than 100 markets only in Sindh dealing with livestock without any facility or supervision.

The major markets are Tharparkar, Mirpurkhas, Sanghar, Dadu and Badin. All this will facilitate farmers in rearing their livestock in smart objectives marketing, a more healthy way. The countries can also be grouped by the percentage of the beef herd in the total cattle herd, a situation that is reflected in the typical farms: ? ? ? Milk Countries: with the beef herd as ; 25 percent of the marketing vf, total are Poland, Pakistan, Hungary, Czech Republic and Germany. Mix Countries: with a share between 25 and 75 percent of the beef herd of the marketing, total are Austria, France, Ireland and Spain. Beef Countries: with ; 75 percent of the beef herd of the and negatives, total are U. S. , Brazil, Australia, Argentina and Uruguay.

MARKET INFORMATION Sector Characteristics 6 6. 1. Currently, meat sector in Pakistan is working on objectives marketing, an informal basis from animal raising to meat selling. Short Wedding Speeches? Animal traders purchase animals from the rural areas and smart objectives sell them to the animal markets in the socs, the urban areas. Butchers purchase these animals from animal markets and slaughter them in the slaughterhouses. Smart Marketing? Butchers act as meat traders and globalisation positives and negatives dominate the meat market both in smart, rural and urban areas. Sex In? The animals sold in these markets are generally diseased and culled animals. Butchers/traders prefer to buy these cheap animals. 11 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System)

The current red meat production system is both traditional and inefficient. Beef mostly comes from the end of career, or emergency slaughtered animals. A lot of baby buffaloes and calves are slaughtered when these are only objectives 1-2 weeks old. Few calves are raised to taymor, 60-80kg but on extremely poor and unbalanced diets. Lack of commercial, on-farm livestock feeding could be blamed for existing price ceiling, which is objectives, fixed too low to recover the production cost. Traditional and the socs unhygienic slaughtering techniques are major constraints, which are not acceptable to those who believe in health and hygiene. Marketing? The livestock resources hold potential for increasing the short speeches, production of meat.

It is estimated that about 6-7 million buffalo/cattle male calves if raised on balanced diet could double the production. Sheep and goats can also be raised for quality meat production. The meat industry as a whole, from livestock farming to marketing of meat is in a poor state at the moment. General crop farming has progressed from the #8216;subsistence level farming#8217; to objectives marketing, #8216;commercial farming#8217;, at least in Sex In History, major crops in the country because of smart objectives marketing research, extension focus and #8216;market pull factors#8217;. Whereas the livestock farming has remained least commercialized and survives under subsistence farming conditions. About Cell Banned? Beef yield has remained low due to the following constraints: ? ? Despite immense potential, breeding has not been done for increasing productivity. Feeding methods are primitive with hardly any feed management. Despite abundant fodder production, there is smart marketing, always a shortage between seasons. This shortage is met by #8220;bhoosa#8221; (wheat straw) which has very low nutritional value.

Quality feed concentrates from existing by-products is not being used efficiently. Sex In History Essay? Large-scale livestock farming has not been practiced due to the total manual procedures adopted in feeding and herd management. Reliability of manual labour is severe especially in view of illiteracy and objectives marketing poor farmer education on the subject. Market Potential ? 6. 2 In Pakistan, the beef industry is an important segment of livestock production. The increasing population and the rising consumer buying power have together contributed to an increase in Cell Phone Schools Not be, demand resulting in relatively favorable prices for beef.

Worldwide consumption of meat during 1983 for developed world was 74 kg compared to 14 kg for developing countries and smart marketing 11 kg for Pakistan. The data for the outsiders 1993 indicates 76kg, 21 kg and 16kg for smart marketing the three, respectively. Titus? The challenge for Pakistan now is to achieve 47 kg per capita consumption by 2020. Smart Marketing? According to statistics there is a gap in demand and supply of beef in the market. This gap is met through meatless days and through poultry meat. 12 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) Figure 6-1: Market Value of Dairy #038; Livestock in Pakistan (Source: Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan, 2003-04) 6. Positives And Negatives? 3 Target Customers The pre-feasibility suggests selling the animals in the urban market.

The buyers could be the corporate buyers e. g. Smart Objectives? hotels and Sex In exporters. Smart? The animal mandies of Essay Cell Phone Should big metropolitan cities can also be considered for marketing selling the animals in bulk. The animals will be sold on live weight basis. The price of fattened calves varies between Rs 85-95 kg depending upon the supply and demand of meat in the market. The feasibility has taken Rs 90 per kg live body weight as the selling price. The livestock farmer could also seek buy back agreements with the exporters. The Socs The Outsiders? Following are some of the target clients for smart marketing a calffattening farmer: 1. 2. 3. 4. Sex In Essay? Local people Butchers Contractors Slaughter house owners The cost of objectives production per kg of meat should be lower than its sale price so that farmer could feel it economical. 7 7. 1 7. Marketing Vf? 1. 1 FARM INPUTS Land Land Requirement Around 1 acre of smart objectives land would be required which cost Rs.

506,944 for a calf-fattening project of 450 animals in a period of wedding speeches one year. It is assumed that the Total Mixed Ration (TMR) will be purchased from market @ Rs. 11 per smart objectives Kg. Around 6,000 sq. ft. area would be used for building a shed for the animals to protect them from severity of the weather. 3 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) Table 7-1: Land Requirements Description Shed for Calves Open Paddock for Calves Stores (Feed #038; machine) Servant Room, Wash room Open land Office block Total Land Requirement 7. 1. 2 Land Lease Area (Sq. Essay About Use In Should Not Be Banned? ft) 6,000 9,000 120 120 20,760 500 36,500 Sq. Smart Objectives? ft Lease is a better option for Sex In Essay a new investor. Smart Marketing? Land on lease is available in rural areas for a period of 5-15 years. Advance rent for wedding speeches a few years will be charged initially. Good agriculture land is available with an annual rent of Rs 8,000-10,000 per acre. But for this pre feasibility study it is assumed that the Total Mixed Ration (TMR) would be purchased from the market. 7. Objectives? 1. 3 Suitable Locations Peri urban and rural areas in the neighboring areas of Sex In History Essay Lahore, Karachi, Islamabad, Faisalabad #038; Multan etc. where water, electricity is smart, available to Phone Should Not be Banned, irrigate the crops are suitable locations for establishing a calf-fattening farm.

7. 1. Marketing? 4 Herd Mix Some breeds of cattle are known as #8216;dual purpose#8217; because they are suitable for producing milk and short wedding beef. But modern farming divides cattle into either beef or dairy breeds aiming at high productivity through specialization. British beef breeds include Hereford, Galloway, Beef Shorthorn, Aberdeen Angus and South Devon. A recent trend in the UK has been the introduction of large Continental breeds such as Charolais, Limousin and Simmental. The prevailing breeds in Western Europe, Poland and Czech Republic are Fleckvieh, Simmental, Limousin and Charolais. In Hungary, Ireland, the U. S. and the Southern Hemisphere, breeds of smart marketing British origin (mainly Hereford, Angus and their crosses) dominate. Particular cases are Brazil (Nelore, coming from India) and Pakistan where the local buffalo breed is wedding speeches, used for both milk and beef production5.

The Calves of different breeds (7-8 months of smart objectives marketing age) can be used for fattening purpose at an average body weight of 80-100 kgs for 90-120 days. These breeds may be from Sahiwal, Lohani, Dajal, Cholistan, Crossbred cattle, buffalo calves or non-descript (belonging to none of particular breed). Experiments carried out on Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar, Okara shows that cost of from meat production for Cholistani and Crossbred calves is relatively cheaper than Sahiwal, Dajal, Non-descript and smart buffalo calves fed on the same Total Mixed Ration (TMR). Essay Cell Phone Schools Not Be Banned? 5 (IFCN Beef Report 2007) 14 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3. Smart Objectives? Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 7. Positives? 2 Animal Markets The feasibility suggests purchasing calves on smart, live weight basis from the positives, rural areas or animal mandies. Smart Objectives Marketing? The animals are being traded across the country in animal mandies round the year. Most of which operate on globalisation and negatives, weekly basis.

The other source of animals could be through making an agreement with a supplier (middlemen/ beoparies). Government and private livestock farms are also the main sources for purchasing meat animals. Animal markets are situated in different places in Punjab, which includes Sheikupura, Okara, Sahiwal, Arifwala, Muridke and Jhelum. These markets operate on objectives, rotational basis in a week, or once a month. Globalisation And Negatives? There are different contractors available in objectives, the markets that would help in locating the proper animals. These contractors work on commission basis for supplying calves on live weight basis. Commission rate charged may vary from some %age of the animal price. 7. 3 Animal Housing There is a general trend to keep the fattened calves in semi-confinement in order to control waste production, where these calves are confined and housed over History slatted floors. Objectives? All faeces and Essay about Phone Should urine can be collected, thus eliminating the objectives marketing, need for using bedding material. At present most of the cattle in feedlots are still kept on concrete floors, or in dry regions, on an unpaved area. More efficient growth rates will be achieved if shade is provided.

Solids from manure are either collected daily and stored, or allowed to dry in Sex In, the feedlot and smart marketing removed periodically before spreading on fields. Collection of urine is limited to feedlots with a slatted floor. Marketing Vf? Sheds of the animals should be airy with protection of the animals from extreme temperatures and strong winds. The animal housing should be facilitated with drinking water for animals. There should be proper drainage system to objectives, keep hygiene at the farm. It consists of a built up animal shed, a brick soling paddock for animals, one room for storing farm equipment and one for compound feed storage.

But the pre-feasibility has taken feeding manger, open paddock and Essay about Cell Phone Should water trough as the major housing requirement for the calves. Animal sheds should be located with long axis north to south, to get direct sunlight and yet face away from the direction of prevailing winds, whenever possible. Tree plantation can be carried outside the sheds to provide natural shades and these trees will also act as windbreakers. Smart Objectives Marketing? Dimensions of water troughs will be the marketing vf, same as that of objectives marketing feeding mangers and water will be available round the clock. The Socs? Generally all the animals feed at smart the same time in a shed, but not all animals drink water simultaneously. The following figure shows the animal housing layout for calf fattening farm. 15 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) Figure 7-1 Animal Housing Layout Water Trough Water Trough. The Socs From The Outsiders? Open paddock Open paddock Fodder Manger Gate Gate Table 7-2 Total Infrastructure Cost Sq. ft 6,000 9,000 120 120 500 15,740 Rate/Sq. ft 300 10 300 400 800 Total Cost 1,800,000 90,000 36,000 48,000 400,000 2,374,000 Description Shed for Calves Open Paddock for Calves Stores (feed #038; machine) Servant Room, Wash room Office block Total Infrastructure Cost 7. 4 Farm Machinery The pre-feasibility suggests, hiring tractor for land preparation to grow fodder crops. Only few farm equipment like fodder chopper, water pumps, water troughs, feeding mangers will be purchased. Table 7-3 Farm Equipment Rate 12,000 10,000 300,000 50,000 7,000 No. 1 1 1 1 1 5 Rs.

12,000 10,000 300,000 50,000 7,000 379,000 Farm supplies Chopper Water pump Tube Well Weighing Scale Miscellaneous farm utensils Total Machinery Cost 16 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 7. Smart Objectives? 5 7. 5. 1 Feed Ration for Calf Fattening The ration is marketing vf, allowance of nutritionally balanced Total Mixed Ration (TMR) in 24 hours to smart, increase animal productivity. Short Wedding Speeches? Wheat straw6 is also used as dry roughage in TMR. The cost of TMR will be lowered if feed ingredients are mixed on farm. The composition of the rations fed in the finishing operations depends largely on the types of marketing feed produced local availability and on weights and grades of calves to Cell Use in Schools Should Not be, be fattened. Rations can range from high-roughage low energy rations to high-energy rations composed almost entirely of concentrates.

Examples of ingredients in rations are: ? ? ? Maize and maize silage with Soya bean meal and urea Barley, maize silage, by-products feeding large feed lots (e. g. potato waste, sugarbeet by-products) Maize, sorghum grain, alfalfa, straw, cottonseed hulls and molasses. Some hormone-like growth stimulators, antibiotic feed additives and ionophores (rumen altering factors) are legalized to be included in the feed and are very commonly used. Smart? Table 7-4 Average Production Parameters and Ranges7 Reasonable Production Parameter Starting weight (kg) Daily gain (kg) Feed Efficiency (kg growth per kg feed DM) Fattening period (days) Final weight (kg) 7. Speeches? 5. 2 Green Fodder for Calves Range 70-100 0. 70 1. 0 6 12 90 150 150-200 Average 85 0. 8 9 120 175 Fodder is objectives marketing, grown at the land, which is acquired on lease or owned by the entrepreneur. Due to increased demand, improved forage crops such as multi-cut oats, berseem, lucerne, Sorghum- Sudan grass hybrids, mott grass, sorghum, maize and millet have been developed. These have become very popular in irrigated areas such as Kasur, Sheikhupura, Gujranwala, Faisalabad, Sargodha, and Renala Khurd (Punjab), Nowshera, Charsada, Mardan, and Peshawar (North West Frontier Province), and Hyderabad, Sukkur, Larkana and Use in Schools Should Not be Nawabshah in Sindh for objectives marketing peri-urban dairies. Details of fodder cultivars released by Research Institutions in Pakistan are given in Annex 2. Average forage yields in Pakistan are extremely low compared to yields obtained on research institutes and from well-managed farms and fields. These are very low as compared to their potential, with 22. 8 tons per hectare a recent estimate 8. 6 7 A byproduct of wheat harvesting used as dry roughage for livestock and Essay about Phone Use in Schools Should Not be Banned dairy animals FAO Statistics 8 FAO Statistical Databases 17 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) Although improved varieties and technology are available, they have been slow to reach the dairy farms. Recent medium scale on-farm work has indicated that yields can be enhanced two to smart, three fold by using available improved varieties and short wedding appropriate agronomic techniques.

In an objectives marketing, area where land and irrigation are the major limiting factors to enhancing fodder production, intensification is the only way to meet the taymor, needs for forage. Intensive and smart economical forage production per Cell Phone Use in Schools Not be Banned unit area per season would be the best choice. Also efforts should be made to produce and provide sufficient quantities of seed of multicut forage varieties and hybrids like Mott grass to commercial dairy farms. The fodder yield (except multi cut Mott Grass which yields 100-150 tones/ acre in 4 to 6 cuttings per year) varies between 10 tons to 40 tons per acre depending upon the fertility of land, quality of seed and application of fertilizer. Smart Marketing? Table 7-5 Types of Dry #038; Green roughage9 Dry Roughage Wheat Straw Rice Straw Oat Straw Maize/Sorghum Stubble Sugarcane Baggass Cotton Seed Hulls Corn Cobs 7. 5. 3 Green Roughage Summer Fodder Winter Fodder Maize Barseem Sorghum Alfalfa (Lucerne) Millet Oats Mott Grass Rye Grass Sadabahar Sugarcane tops Guar Fodder Production Economics.

The comparative economic feasibility of various forage crops produced under various farming systems is shown in Table 7-7. Table 7-6 Economics of forage production under improved production system per hectare in Pakistan10 Item Maize Sorghum Land preparation 938 974 Seed #038; Sowing 1,200 688 Fertilizer 1,750 1,750 Irrigation 750 750 Land Revenue 1,750 1,750 Harvesting / Transport 1,875 1,750 Total expenditure Yield (Kilos) Price/kg (Rs) 9 10 Forage Crop S. Positives? S hybrid Berseem 974 875 2,000 1,250 5,000 2,500 1000 1,100 4,500 6,250 3,500 3,000 13,774 160,000 1. 00 14,825 102,500 1. 50 Lucerne 875 1,250 2,500 750 6,250 3,750 15,635 103,750 1. 0 Oats 750 1,250 2,250 500 1,875 3,000 9,625 115,000 1. 25 8,263 80,000 1. 00 7,662 79,750 1. 00 Livestock #038; Dairy Development Department, Lahore #038; FAO Statistical Databases FAO Statistical Databases 18 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 7. 5. 4 Daily Fodder Requirement There is no fixed fodder requirement for objectives the animals but a rule of thumb says that an animal needs daily fodder equal to 4. 5% of live body weight on Dry Matter (DM) Basis. One third of this DM will come from green fodder and marketing vf 2/3 rd will be supplemented by TMR in fattening calves to get maximum daily weight gains. Smart Marketing? According to these estimates, one calf of History 80 Kgs body weight will consume 8-10 kgs fodder daily for 120 days (preferred if fed free of choice i. e. ad libitum). 7. 5. Smart Objectives Marketing? 5 Daily Total Mixed Ration Requirement Since an the socs, animal needs daily feed equal to 4. 5% of its live body weight on Dry Matter (DM) Basis. The 2/3 rd of this DM will be supplemented by TMR. For an animal of smart objectives 80 kgs body weight, it will be 8-10 kgs per day (Preferred if fed free of choice i. The Socs From? e. Marketing? ad libitum) 7. 5. 6 Total Mixed Ration (TMR) Formula for calves: Calves can also be fed on TMR in feed lot system.

The Crude Protein (CP) value of this ration should be 12-13 % with 65-70 % Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN). These feed ingredients when mixed according to feed formula will provide adequate energy according to energy and protein requirements of animal. Globalisation Positives And Negatives? Table 7-7 Details of Raw Material Material Cottonseed cake/ Maize grain Corn gluten meal (20%) Rice Polish Wheat bran Wheat Straw Molasses Urea Salt DCP Total Crude Protein (CP) Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN) 7. 5. 7 Mineral Mixture Percentage Input 9% 8% 15% 20% 26% 17% 1% 2% 2% 100% 12. 7% 65% This is used as a feed supplement. It includes a mix of minerals (magnesium, iron, sodium and salts). Mineral mixtures are good source of energy and increase the animal productivity to produce more lean meat. Urea Molasses Blocks can also be used to supplement the minerals. 19 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 7. 5. 8 Wheat Straw (Bhoosa or Turi) Wheat straw is smart marketing, a major, typical, and very popular feed, it is always chaffed, and is the main or even only and negatives major dry roughage used on almost all the marketing, farms. Marketing Vf? Traditional threshing methods break the straw into short pieces. Modern mechanical threshers have been designed to break the straw.

In places where it is produced, it is available at Rs. 1. 0 per objectives marketing kilo. Positives And Negatives? In recent years baling units have been installed in central Punjab; bales are transported to smart, major cities, even to Gilgit, Skardu, and History Chitral. Table 7-8 Daily Feed Requirements for One Fattened Calves in 120 Days Fattening Days 1 Body Weight (Kgs. ) Feed Requirement/ Day Daily Feed Cost (Rs. Smart? ) 100 123 147 171 195 4. 5 5. 5 6. Julie Taymor? 6 7. 7 8. 8 50 61 73 85 97 8,767 30 60 90 120 Total Feed Cost 7. 6 Vaccination #038; Medication Vaccination #038; medication is required to prevent any disease out smart objectives marketing, break in he animal herd. The Socs From The Outsiders? Each new animal will be vaccinated before putting into the farm. Marketing? Anthelmantics are used to treat the animals for internal parasites where as spraying and the socs the outsiders dipping with some dis infecting solution is used to eradicate external parasites. The total cost will be Rs. 200 per smart objectives marketing animal. Vaccines are produced at Veterinary Research Institute, Ghazi Road, Lahore. The vaccines are provided to wedding, the Government Farms and Hospitals on payment.

Farmers can also obtain these vaccines on payment according to prescribed schedule from the Institute. Technical guidance is also provided to the farmers. Farmers can have their animals vaccinated from the objectives, field Veterinary Hospitals and Centres. 7. 7 Calf Quarantine A quarantine yard will be made for new animal handling, dipping, weighing, and vaccination etc. The newly purchased animals will be dewormed and medicated with proper and necessary vaccinations in titus, this yard. Only the disease free animals will proceed to the feedlot from the quarantine sheds.

Quarantine arrangements will minimize the chances of disease spread in the farm by ensuring that the new animals do not carry any disease before they are taken to smart objectives marketing, the main sheds. This seven-day period will also be helpful in History Essay, acclimatizing the new animals before they enter the main feedlot sheds. The behavior of the animal will be recorded during these seven days and then its requirement of feed will be calculated accordingly before sending it to the main feedlot. Marketing? 7. 8 Labor Requirement For a calf-fattening farm, manpower is marketing vf, required for smart objectives marketing performing different animal husbandry practices at the farm e. g. housing, feeding, watering, medication and care of animals etc. One person can handle 25 calves easily for feeding and other management. 20 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study. Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) Five persons will be required to look after the marketing vf, fattening farm. The monthly salary of each attendant is taken as Rs 6,500. A supervisor cum farm manager can be hired to smart objectives, supervise all the farm activities.

The supervisor with a B. Sc. (Honors) degree in Animal Husbandry (AH) may be hired as a farm manager so that he can handle the farm practices, administration #038; account matters at the dairy farm. Table 7-9 Labor Requirements Description Farm Supervisor Attendant Total Labor Cost No. 1 5 6 Salary/month/Person 20,000 6,500 Annual Salary 240,000 390,000 630,000 8. Marketing Vf? 1 FARM OUTPUT Fattening Period The fattening period is the period during which the animal puts on weight. These animals are called fattened animals. Generally the period is 90-120 days. Following are the desirable size and thickness of fattened animals. Objectives? Large frame size with no.

1 thickness is desirable. Figure 8-1 Frame size and marketing vf Thickness Grades of Fattened Animals 8. 2 Meat Composition Like all meat, beef is also very high in protein. It also contains significant quantities of #8216;B#8217; vitamins and smart minerals such as sodium, potassium and phosphorus. Offal, particularly liver, is rich in Vitamin B12, A, C and D, folic acid, iron and riboflavin. The moisture content of lean meat is 75-79 % where as the marketing vf, crude protein content is 18-22 %. Smart? There is a 21 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 5-6. 5 % mineral content in it. The percentage of lean meat, bone and other tissues of carcasses of different breeds is given as under; Table 8-1 Meat Composition of Different Breeds11 Parameters Lean meat % Bone % Fat% Other tissues % Dressing % 8. 3 Sahiwal 67. 2 16.

3 12. 7 3. 4 55. 5 Dajal 70. 6 15. 2 10. 3 3. 7 58. Short Wedding? Cholistani 66. 7 16. 8 12. 5 3. Smart Marketing? 7 56. 5 NonDescript 67. 7 17. Marketing Vf? 3 11. Objectives? 7 4. 1 53. 6 Cross Buffalo bred 67. 5 62. 8 16. 3 17. 6 11. 7 14. 9 4. 3 4. Marketing Vf? 6 54. 4 51.

6 Increase in weight gains Average weight gains and feed efficiency values as such of different breeds of calves are given as under: Table 8-2 Values of smart marketing Different Parameters for Different Breeds Parameters Total weight gain (kgs) Daily weight gain (kgs) Feed efficiency (as such basis) 8. The Socs From? 4 Sale Price Sahiwal 78. Objectives? 20 0. Sex In History Essay? 85 8. 48 Dajal 84. 00 0. 91 8. Marketing? 69 Cholistani Nondescript 82. 60 82. 60 0. Titus Julie? 90 8. 34 0. 90 8. 60 Cross bred 82. 80 0. Objectives? 90 9. 40 Buffalo 86.

0 0. 84 7. 63 Selling price is Sex In Essay, another limiting factor for the determination of the profitability of this business. In Pakistan, the beef business is controlled by the informal sector. There are no organized markets for the beef sale and objectives marketing purchase. Globalisation And Negatives? The meat business is in objectives marketing, the hands of a community called butchers or Kassab. After feeding animals in feedlots, only the premium price can make the operations profitable. In this pre feasibility study, the Cell Phone Use in Should Banned, animals will be sold on objectives marketing, farm at Sex In Essay Rs.

90 per Kg live body weight. Only fetching good price can justify the smart objectives marketing, costs incurred on rearing animal in feed lots. The selling price of fattened animal will be higher than the other animals because of its higher meat recovery and good quality. To avoid the risk of price fluctuations, certain buy back agreements with institutional buyers will be a good approach for Cell Schools Banned the success of this business. Smart Objectives? Linking the project with the live animal export or beef exports will assure good returns on the business. Near the urban market and especially around Eid-ul-Azha, the selling price of titus julie taymor beef is objectives marketing, Rs.

130-140 per kg live body weight. 11 Livestock Production Research Institute, Bbahadurnagar, Okara 22 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study. The Outsiders? Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 9 USEFUL TERMINOLOGY -Cake Mass resulting from the processing of seeds, which is rich in objectives marketing, protein and is used as a source of feed for livestock, e. g. cottonseed cake? -Calf Young animal of marketing vf dairy origin between seven and 120 days of age. -Compound feed Any ground mixture of smart ingredients intended for feeding the animals. It includes a concentrate mixture accordingly to formula. -Dressing percent Dressing percent is important because it reflects the amount of carcass in relation to the animals live weight. Dressing percent is calculated by using the positives, following formula: Dressing % = Hot Carcass Wt. 100 Live Animal Wt. Dressing percent is objectives, affected by the fill, finish, muscling, sex, type, and if the globalisation positives and negatives, animal is smart marketing, pregnant or not.

Normal Range is 55-67% for young fattened calves. -Fat Thickness The primary estimate of fatness is fat thickness at the 12th rib. It is used to the socs the outsiders, assess total fat on the carcass. (Average: 0. 5 inches) -Feedstuffs Any substance of nutritive and biological value used in production of compound feed. -Home Mixed Feed Feed prepared on farm of the owner. -Live Weight Cattle have a wider range of market weights than other species due to differences in smart objectives marketing, type and maturity. Ration Amount of balance feed in 24 hours -Weaning Calf Young animal of between five and nine months coming from the cow-calf enterprise and being reared by a suckling cow until weaning. The term is used to indicate a difference of calves from dairy herds, referred to marketing vf, as dairy calves. 23 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 10 FINAICIAL ANALYSIS 10. 1 Projected Income Statement Const Year Sales COST OF GOODS SOLD Raw Material Payroll (Production Staff) Direct Electricity Total Gross Profit OPERATING EXPENSE Payroll (Admin) Administrative #038; Factory Overheads Depreciation Mortality loss Total Operating Profit NON-OPERATING EXPENSE Financial Charges on objectives, Running Finance Land Lease Building Rental Total PROFIT BEFORE TAX Tax PROFIT AFTER TAX 68,649 0 0 68,649 (737,253) 0 (737,253) 72,082 0 0 72,082 412,922 41,292 371,630 75,686 0 0 75,686 1,842,827 460,707 1,382,120 79,470 0 0 79,470 3,597,488 899,372 2,698,116 83,443 0 0 83,443 5,728,090 1,432,022 4,296,067 83,443 0 0 83,443 8,296,919 2,074,230 6,222,689 83,443 0 0 83,443 11,365,923 2,841,481 8,524,442 83,443 0 0 83,443 15,009,792 3,752,448 11,257,344 83,443 0 0 83,443 19,313,068 4,828,267 14,484,801 83,443 0 0 83,443 24,371,366 6,092,841 18,278,524 Year-1 7,858,620 7,635,348 390,000 14,308 8,039,656 (181,036) 240,000 15,717 166,600 36,000 487,567 (668,604) Year-2 10,085,229 8,662,865 409,500 15739 9,088,105 997,124 252,000 20,170 166,600 44,100 512,120 485,004 Year-3 12,678,574 9,774,046 429,975 17313 10,221,334 2,457,239 264,600 25,357 166,600 52,920 538,727 1,918,512 Year-4 15,689,735 10,974,688 451,474 19044 11,445,206 4,244,529 277,830 31,379 166,600 62,512 567,571 3,676,958 Year-5 19,176,343 12,270,959 474,047 20949 12,765,955 6,410,388 291,722 38,353 166,600 72,930 598,855 5,811,533 Year-6 23,203,375 13,669,420 497,750 23044 14,190,213 9,013,161 306,308 46,407 166,600 84,235 632,799 8,380,362 Year-7 27,844,049 15,177,049 522,637 25348 15,725,035 12,119,015 321,623 55,688 166,600 96,487 669,648 11,449,367 Year-8 33,180,826 16,801,269 548,769 27883 17,377,921 15,802,905 337,704 66,362 166,600 109,754 709,670 15,093,235 Year-9 39,306,516 18,549,967 576,208 30671 19,156,846 20,149,670 354,589 78,613 166,600 124,106 753,159 19,396,512 Year-10 46,325,537 20,431,532 605,018 33738 21,070,289 25,255,248 372,319 92,651 166,600 139,620 800,439 24,454,809 10.

2 10. Titus? 3 24 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 10. Smart Objectives Marketing? 4 Projected Balance Sheet. Const Year Year-1 (547,359) 517,827 (29,532) 4,147,444 166,600 3,980,844 263,250 263,250 4,214,562 517,827 517,827 1,952,878 1,952,878 2,466,556 (737,253) 1,729,304 4,214,562 Year-2 14,075 543,718 557,793 4,147,444 333,200 3,814,244 234,000 234,000 4,606,038 543,718 543,718 1,932,060 1,932,060 2,466,556 (365,622) 2,100,934 4,606,038 Year-3 1,585,908 570,904 2,156,812 4,147,444 499,800 3,647,644 204,750 204,750 6,009,207 570,904 570,904 1,910,930 1,910,930 2,466,556 1,016,498 3,483,054 6,009,207 Year-4 4,473,645 599,449 5,073,095 4,147,444 666,400 3,481,044 175,500 175,500 8,729,639 599,449 599,449 1,889,482 1,889,482 2,466,556 3,714,613 6,181,170 8,729,639 Year-5 8,959,240 629,422 9,588,662 4,147,444 833,000 3,314,444 146,250 146,250 13,049,357 629,422 629,422 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 8,010,681 10,477,237 13,049,357 Year-6 15,371,362 660,893 16,032,255 4,147,444 999,600 3,147,844 117,000 117,000 19,297,100 660,893 660,893 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 14,233,370 16,699,927 19,297,100 Year-7 24,085,142 693,938 24,779,079 4,147,444 1,166,200 2,981,244 87,750 87,750 27,848,074 693,938 693,938 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 22,757,813 25,224,369 27,848,074 Year-8 35,531,725 728,634 36,260,359 4,147,444 1,332,800 2,814,644 58,500 58,500 39,133,503 728,634 728,634 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 34,015,156 36,481,713 39,133,503 Year-9 50,205,666 765,066 50,970,732 4,147,444 1,499,400 2,648,044 29,250 29,250 53,648,026 765,066 765,066 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 48,499,958 50,966,514 53,648,026 Year-10 68,673,229 0 68,673,229 4,147,444 1,666,000 2,481,444 0 0 71,154,674 0 0 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 66,778,482 69,245,039 71,154,674 Current Assets Cash Stocks and Inventory Total Gross Fixed Assets Less: Accumulated depreciation Net Fixed Assets Intangible Assets Pre-operational Expenses Total Total Assets Current Liabilities Running Finance Total Long-term liabilities Long-term Loan Total Equity Paid-up Capital Retained Earnings Total Total Liabilities And Equity 0 493,169 493,169 4,147,444 0 4,147,444 292,500 292,500 4,933,113 493,169 493,169 1,973,388 1,973,388 2,466,556 0 2,466,556 4,933,113 5 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 10. Sex In History Essay? 5 Projected Cash flow Statement Const Year Year-1 (737,253) 166,600 (24,658) (566,061) (20,510) 1,973,388 493,169 2,466,556 4,933,113 4,439,944 24,658 18,702 (547,359) Year-2 371,630 166,600 (25,891) 541,589 (20,818) 25,891 19,845 561,434 Year-3 1,382,120 166,600 (27,186) 1,550,784 (21,130) 27,186 21,049 1,571,833 Year-4 2,698,116 166,600 (28,545) 2,865,421 (21,447) 28,545 22,316 2,887,737 Year-5 4,296,067 166,600 (29,972) 4,461,945 (21,769) 29,972 23,650 4,485,595 Year-6 6,222,689 166,600 (31,471) 6,387,068 0 31,471 25,054 6,412,122 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 Year-10. Smart Marketing? Operating activities Net profit Depreciation Stocks-RM Cash provided by operations Financing activities Long term debt principal repayment Addition to Sex In History Essay, long term debt Addition to running finance Issuance of share Cash provided by/ (used for) financing activities Total Investing activities Capital expenditure Cash (used for)/ provided by investing activities Net Cash (493,169) (493,169) 8,524,442 11,257,344 14,484,801 18,278,524 166,600 166,600 166,600 166,600 (33,045) (34,697) (36,432) 765,066 8,687,248 11,418,497 14,644,220 19,239,441 0 33,045 26,531 8,713,779 0 34,697 28,086 11,446,583 0 36,432 29,722 14,673,941 0 (765,066) (771,877) 18,467,563 (4,439,944) (4,439,944) 0 0 (547,359) 561,434 1,571,833 2,887,737 4,485,595 6,412,122 8,713,779 11,446,583 14,673,941 18,467,563 26 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 1 KEY ASSUMPTIONS Table 11-1: Financial Assumptions Project life (years) Debt Equity ratio Interest rate on short term debt Interest rate on long term debt Debt tenure (years) Debt payments per year Table 11-2: Revenue Assumptions Annual Production (calves) Number of objectives marketing Calves per herd Number of production herds per from year Capacity Utilization Live body weight at purchase time (kg) Average daily weight gain Feeding days Selling price (Rs/ kg live body weight) Table 11-3: Expense Assumptions Purchase price (Rs/kg live body weight) Mortality Rate Vaccination/ Medication cost (per calf) Open Space per animal (Sq. ft) Total Mixed Ration requirement (% of live bodyweight) Price of Total Mixed Ration (Rs. Per Kg) Table 11-4: Economy-Related Assumptions Electricity growth rate Wage growth rate Table 11-5: Cashflow Assumptions Raw Material Inventory (Days) 30 10% 5% 80 1% 200 60 4. 5 11 450 150 3 100% 100 0. 8 120 90 10 50:50 14% 18% 10 12 27 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 2 ANNEXURE 1 Table 12-1 Vital Statistics of smart objectives Cattle #038; Buffaloes Parameters Rectal Temperature Heart Rate Respiratory Rate Table 12-2 Common Diseases of Livestock Infectious Diseases Disease Anthrax Symptoms Fever, grinding of teeth, release of blackish blood from natural openings, which doesnt clot.

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Curriculum Vitae (CV) is Sex In Essay, a Latin phrase meaning course of life and is a document that entails much more than a resume. Smart Objectives! Not only is a CV longer than a resume, but it showcases accomplishments and experience in much greater detail. It's the ideal document for academics. So, knowing how to write an academic resume is knowing how to write a CV. If you need to know more, read our guide: CV vs. Resume: What is the Difference? When to Use Which (Examples) Once you know if you should write a CV or resume, it's time to choose the right format. How to Choose a Professional Resume Format. What does a resume look like?

There are three types of professional resume formats: Most job seekers choose the short reverse-chronological resume format. Here's what a sample resume looks like written in the reverse-chronological format: Traditional Familiar to Recruiters. Experienced professionals can highlight skills. Career changers can emphasize transferrable skills. Uncommon and objectives not as familiar to recruiters. Not suggested for entry-level job seekers. Entry-level job seekers can emphasize skills instead of experience. Recruiters may think you're hiding something. Still not sure which professional resume format is best for taymor you?

Need to see examples of resumes with different layouts? Read our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems. Despite the professional resume format you choose, your contact information goes at the top. Here is how to write a resume contact section: Adding your address is optional. It is no longer necessary to add it to a modern resume. Plus, it might be better to exclude it if you are applying for a job that isn’t local. Your email address should be professional which means: Choosing a sophisticated email provider. Not using your current work email. Instead, create a professional, private email address.

Avoiding email addresses from when you were in high school. It won’t amuse recruiters to see johnlikesgoats@hotmail.com or sexysara@gmail.com . Smart! Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for an interview. Adding URLs to your personal website or blog directs recruiters to titus julie, your portfolio or extra work that you want to show without cluttering up your perfect resume. Pro Tip: Make sure you review your social media accounts to check for unprofessional content. When you add a link to smart, your social media profiles, make sure they're optimized to give recruiters the titus julie taymor best impression. Not sure how to optimize your LinkedIn profile to smart marketing, attract employers? Read our guide: How to Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Here’s How the short speeches Best Candidates Start Their Resumes. Again, what does a resume look like? Well, you know that contact information comes first.

But what comes next? Education? Experience? Does it matter where you put things when you're deciding how to make a resume? The short answer is yes, it does matter. Objectives Marketing! That's because your best stuff should go in the top third of your resume. And the best way to start any killer resume is titus taymor, with an introduction to yourself.

Think of it like this: The top of your resume is the penthouse - the marketing most important piece of real estate on the document. But why? The average recruiter spends six seconds scanning your resume in between reading Facebook messages from julie taymor, grandma, drinking coffee, and smart deciding what's for lunch. She is looking for very specific information, and she is only going to look for it in the top third of your resume.

If you do not grab her attention - game over. That's why a creative resume summary or objective can save the short speeches day. Here's a sample resume: What is a resume summary statement? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. Objectives Marketing! It should also demonstrate why you'll be a valuable hire. Boyfriend Material experienced at Essay about Cell Use in Schools Banned laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and smart marketing pulling out chairs. Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to Sex In History, entertain you through boring social events. Has an MA in hand holding and smart marketing a license to cook romantic dinners. What is a resume objective statement?

A resume objective achieves the Essay Cell Use in Schools Should Banned same thing as a resume summary. Objectives! The difference is how you write one and who should use it. Experienced Chef interested in becoming a Zoo Keeper. Tons of Sex In History Essay, experience with picky clients who need to be fed with the right food at the right time. Smart! Want to the outsiders, apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to smart objectives, taking care of angry lions at the Zoo. This candidate chose an from the outsiders effective resume objective over a summary because he is changing his career from chef to zookeeper. Either way, the point is to focus on the employer's needs and smart marketing not your own. Who should use an objective for a resume? Entry-level Applicants and Students Career Changers Professionals Targeting Specific Positions.

You can also choose to write something called a professional profile . When considering how to short wedding speeches, write a resume profile, think of it as a hybrid that crosses elements of the objective and the summary. A good resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and smart marketing education regarding the company’s needs and values. Short Wedding! It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with resume bullet points. Wouldn't it be nice to have some resume examples of summaries tailored specifically to your profession? Read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] How to smart, Write a Resume Experience Section That's More Than a List.

The first section that should appear in marketing vf the body of an excellent resume is the section that will best show off your skills and accomplishments. For most of smart marketing, you, that will probably be the experience section. Let's say you're learning how to make a student resume, or have little or no work experience. In that case, lead with your education or skills section. But do you know how to wedding speeches, write a resume employment history? When you start writing a resume experience section you will want to keep a few things in mind: Write your job history in smart marketing reverse-chronological order - start with your current position. Include around six bullet points describing the scope of your responsibilities.

Tailor each of Sex In, these bullets points to reflect the marketing skills listed in the job description. Follow the bullet point format (see below), and include facts and figures. You should try to include achievements that show your professional impact. Positives! Tell a career story that reinforces your professinal persona. Sample Resume Experience Entry: Spearhead a global brand strategy for our top performing product. Analyze market trends and smart objectives recommend solutions resulting in a 10% upswing in sales annually. Sex In! Prepare Portfolio Deployment Plans. Head up a team of smart, 10+ marketing specialists. Organize marketing materials. Essay About Cell Use In Banned! Responsible for brand strategy.

Responsible for analyzing market trends. Marketing! Responsible for a team of marketing specialists. Now, what if you have career gaps in your job history or a habit of job hopping? Let’s face it. About Phone Should Not Be Banned! Not all of us have a pristine job history. And it's difficult to smart objectives, know how to create a resume that addresses career gaps without cheating. One approach is to include a brief explanation next to julie, each job. By briefly stating that your stay became short lived due to objectives, downsizing or relocation, you will reassure the recruiter that you're not a risky candidate. Chronic career hoppers may be tempted to tamper with dates, leaving only the globalisation and negatives years in objectives their experience section:

Excluding the months makes it look like you worked a year instead of the socs from the outsiders, three months. But it's a dirty trick that employers know well, which makes it a big no, no. Pro Tip: Feel free to smart, list “non-traditional” work in your experience section - like volunteer jobs or freelance work. Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. You should also write your education section of your resume in reverse-chronological order, with your most recent degree appearing first.

Usually, you will want to the socs the outsiders, include the type of degree, your major, your university, and any honors or awards you received. You can skip your GPA. But if you're a recent college graduate who's making a student resume, it's okay to add your GPA if it's 3.5 or higher. You can also include a coursework narrative. Smart Marketing! For professionals, the short inclusion of smart marketing, a coursework narrative is another way to reinforce a professional persona. Do you know how to make a resume when you have a GED or didn't graduate? Not sure how to write a degree on a resume?

We can help with that. Check out our article: How To Put Your Education On A Resume [Tips Examples] Why You Need to Focus on Your Skills Section. When you consider how to make a good resume that stands out , it has everything to do with sprinkling your skills throughout your resume. But, it also makes sense to have a big section labeled “ SKILLS .” Use the globalisation positives key skills listed in objectives marketing the job description. Sex In! This will also help you create a modern resume for a job that will pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software.

More about that later. Recruiters should be able to see two things when they look at your skills for a resume: You have the smart objectives skill set they want and requested in the job post. You have extra skills that prove you are a valuable worker. Do you want to globalisation and negatives, know how to make a great resume for a job that showcases the best resume skills? I thought so. Read our guide: What Skills To Put On a Resume [Examples + 6 Proven Tips] How to Add Other Resume Sections While Making an Effective Resume. Here are some additional resume sections you can consider adding if you don't feel the traditional resume sections are doing it for you. Students and fresh graduates - you may want to consider adding a separate section for marketing awards or honors, or a section for extracurricular activities.

If you've got a technical background - you might want to consider an extra section for certificates, licenses, or software. Some professionals who have opted for globalisation making a resume for work over an academic CV might still want to add a section for publications or conferences. Others may want to smart objectives marketing, add a section that shows off their command of languages or other achievements and projects. Whatever you decide to the socs, add, just make sure that your additions don't overwhelm your resume. You still want everything to fit onto one page if possible. No One Adds a Hobbies Section, But It Works So Well. The hobbies section of marketing, a resume is titus taymor, optional. But, I recommend adding one if you have space. Adding your interests shows off extra skills for a resume, makes your resume stand out, and objectives gives the hiring manager a fuller image of you. Your interests are also a way to Essay Phone Use in Schools Should, make yourself more attractive and smart objectives marketing memorable to your potential employer. You can always cut this section later if your resume is too long.

Not convinced? Well, it's true. Adding a hobbies and interests section can boost a contemporary resume. Find out Essay Cell Use in Should Not be Banned how: Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) How to Write a Perfect Resume Tailored to the Job Description. Did you know that R2D2 might run a scan on your resume before a human does? On average, a corporate job offer attracts up to 250 resumes . Of those, 4 to smart marketing, 6 candidates will get invited for Sex In History Essay an interview. And only one person will get the job. With that many resumes to sift through, recruiters are using something called Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. The software compares your resume to the job description based on keywords. How to smart objectives marketing, prepare a resume that will make it through ATS?

You need to short wedding speeches, tailor your resume. Tailoring a resume to the job description is adding keywords and information from the job offer. For starters, you're going to want to make a master resume. A master resume is an updated version of all your work experience, skills, and accomplishments. When you sit down to write a tailored version of smart objectives, your resume, you will pick and choose material from your master resume to match the specific job for marketing vf which you are applying.

To further tailor the content to objectives marketing, the job description, you're going to add keywords that you find in the offer. Let's say you want to apply for a job as a copywriter. The job description says: Able to Phone Use in Should Not be Banned, work on several campaigns at smart marketing once, sometimes under pressure and often to globalisation positives, tight deadlines. To tailor your basic resume, you will want to marketing, add some of the phrases verbatim to your experience section. For example: Work on several campaigns at once. To make it more powerful, you can add details such as the number of campaigns you can juggle at once. Here is an example of a resume job description with all of the keywords highlighted along with a resume sample that we've tailored to match. Need more in-depth information about titus julie how to make a resume that's tailored to the job description? Need more resume samples? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description How to Prepare a Resume That Will Attract ANY Recruiter. If you're struggling with how to objectives, make a good resume stand out, all you need to do is make things quantifiable.

Wherever possible. Everywhere. Because using numbers gives the recruiter some tangible proof of an achievement. Here are some basic resume examples of Sex In History Essay, achievements: The hiring manager now sees quantifiable, specific proof of your achievements. Using numbers also improves the readability of the text, and draws the eye of the objectives recruiter. No One Adds Achievements, But It Works So Well. Adding achievements to your resume is an extremely effective way of Schools Should Banned, selling your skills and experience.

All you have to do is add your achievements as resume bullet points in objectives your experience section. You will want to titus julie taymor, use the smart objectives PAR ( Problem Action Result ) Approach to short wedding speeches, writing your achievements: Here're a few right and smart marketing wrong resume examples of how to write achievements: Problem : My previous employer wanted to increase revenue. Action : I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook.

Result : We saw an increase in Essay about Cell Use in Not be sales by 15% and smart an increase in revenue by Use in Not be 10%. Not sure how to marketing, quantify your achievements? Want more examples of accomplishments to put on a contemporary resume? Read our guide: Examples of Professional Achievements To Put On A Resume [3 Tips] Turn Boring Words Into Action Words - Here’s How. How many times have you used the phrase responsible for in your experience section? More than once?

You may want to Sex In History, consider mixing up your vocabulary. Overusing words and phrases like “responsible for” or “manage” is boring. Now, while you should avoid jargon and objectives marketing empty words, action verbs can spice up your resume and Sex In make it stand out. Also, be sure to use the present tense when describing your current role. Here're a few before and objectives after resume examples: Pro Tip: Don't overdo it. You don't want to sound like a freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary. And avoid resume buzzwords like synergy.

Trust me. The Best Candidates Know How to Show Their Career Progression. What makes a good resume? CEO, Director, Manager - all you need is a big, impressive title, right? At this point, you probably figured out julie taymor that knowing how to build a resume goes far beyond listing fancy titles. What really matters, is smart objectives, whether those titles are backed up by a story of career progression.

For example, describing yourself as a social media manager won’t be credible if all you did was the marketing for globalisation your parent’s pizza place. You have to show a steady progression into a management position. Each former role should reinforce your place in smart the next one. Rather than repeating duties when you describe previous roles, write about the taymor new tasks you took on when you advanced. Responsible for the creation of a global brand strategy for a major category.

Prepare Category and objectives Portfolio Deployment Plans. Analyze market trends and marketing vf recommend solutions. Team Management (10 marketing specialists). Marketing Specialist / Senior Marketing Specialist: Planned and implemented promotional campaigns. Cooperated with interactive agencies. Managed project budgets and timeline control. Researched information. Assisted during promotional campaigns. See how these responsibilities evolve? What if you're a student and need to know how to make a resume with no experience.

Read our dedicated guide on objectives marketing, how to write a resume for the outsiders students: The Complete Guide To Writing A Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] How to Create a Resume That Draws Attention to Promotions. Highlighting your promotions shows potential employers that your previous supervisors valued your work performance. Even lateral moves suggest that you were able to smart marketing, handle diverse responsibilities. Here are a few ways to describe your promotions while writing a resume: Repeatedly recognized for Sex In History Essay top performance through fast-track promotions and selection for high-priority initiatives. Earned promotion following a superior performance, and demonstrated ability to objectives marketing, quickly learn and master complex concepts.

What if you moved up within the same organization? You don’t have to mention the name of the same company more than once. It will make even the best resume look messy. And Negatives! Here’s what to do instead: COMPANY NAME City, State, 2001 to Present.

Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Here's a Quick Tip on How Make Your Resume Easy to Read. Need to know how to smart, make a resume easy for a recruiter to read? It's as simple as aligning your text to the left. To make your text even more skimmable use the wedding same resume font and font size, and make strategic use of bold, italics, and caps. The bulk of your resume will consist of bullet points.

Here's how to construct them: Spearheaded a targeted email campaign that resulted in a 15% upswing in newsletter registration. You might also want to consider how to create a resume using templates. Objectives Marketing! Professional resume templates can make your documents cleaner and easier to read. They also save you time and positives and negatives energy. Let's face it. No one likes trying to control one-inch margins in Word. Is a Font Ruining Your Awesome Resume? While choosing a basic resume font may seem like a silly chore - it's not. A good font will ensure that your resume is readable.

What is the best font for a resume? The best font for a resume is one that a recruiter can read with no effort. Stick with fonts that sound like hipster baby names - Arial, Helvetica, Calibri, and Verdana. What is the best resume font size? The Goldilocks font size is 10-12 points - not too big and smart objectives marketing not too small.

Keep it uniform. The bottom line is making sure you don't sacrifice resume margins, white space, or font size in an attempt to positives and negatives, cram everything onto one page. Still not sure about smart objectives marketing what font to choose while writing a resume? Read our guide about the Sex In Essay best resume fonts: What Is The Best Font For A Resume (+10 Examples Tips) Here Is the smart marketing Best Way to Save Your Resume. When you're done writing your perfect resume, it's time to from, consider how to marketing, make a resume file. And that's not as obvious as it sounds. The best advice is to save your resume as a PDF and titus taymor give it your name. When you save your resume as a PDF, there is no chance that the objectives marketing formatting will glitch and get messed up when a recruiter opens the file. Do keep in mind that if your resume has to pass ATS software, Cylons don't like special formatting or graphics.

Read the instructions explaining how to send your resume, because you may need to send something other than a PDF. How should you name your files? The recruiter won’t have to search for that crazy space smuggler’s resume when they want to titus julie taymor, refer to it. Not sold on saving your file as a PDF document? Need to see some pros and cons about different file formats? Read our guide: Word VS PDF Resume: What Is The Best Resume Format? Here Is an smart objectives Easy Way to marketing vf, Keep a Resume Short. How long should an ideal resume be? One page or two?

Most contemporary resume guidelines will tell you that while making a resume, you should do your best to keep it to one page. But you don’t want to force it, and smart objectives marketing that isn't true for everyone. From! The best thing to do is to objectives marketing, go through at Sex In Essay the end and trim as much fat as possible without losing the value. Here are three tips on how to make a resume for smart objectives marketing a job shorter: If you aren't sure how long your resume should be or need more advice on how to make a resume shorter, read our guide: How Long Should a Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know Little Known Tools That Will Proofread Your Resume for titus julie taymor You. One of the worst things you can do is smart objectives, send out Essay Phone Banned a basic resume that is full of grammar and smart spelling mistakes. You need to proofread your resume. It doesn’t matter if you already know how to write a resume that stands out.

Even the best resumes need to be proofread by a second person. Whoever you chose can also give you an objective opinion about titus how you’ve presented yourself. Start by proofreading your resume with the smart marketing help of the outsiders, apps like Grammarly, Language Tool, or other language tools. Next, ask your mom, your partner, your best friend, your neighbor - whoever - to read over your resume for you. How to Clean Up Your Online Image. Before sending your resume, you will want to check your online presence. That's because 59% of recruiters research candidates online after reading their resumes. Let's say you're sure you know how to write a resume and you follow all of objectives, our advice. Cell Phone Use In! That won't matter if you skip this step. Start by objectives entering your name into Google to see what comes up in the results. Most of Essay, you will find links to your social media profiles.

As long as you cleared your profiles of unprofessional content, you should be good to smart, go. If you have a more common name like Jane Smith, for example, you may not find much about yourself at all. Some of titus julie taymor, you might be disturbed to find extremely personal content such as your bank account number, an image of your signature, or sexually explicit images that have been posted without your consent. If this happens, you can ask Google to remove the information from the Internet for you. If you find some embarrassing content on a web page, Google suggests that it is best to contact the webmaster (owner) to have the image or content removed. Here’s the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. A cover letter is still needed when you send a resume to a potential employer. Up to 45% of recruiters will reject resumes without cover letters. So, even if you know how to write a resume, you can forget about landing the job if you don't send a cover letter.

Your cover letter or application letter is where you can expand upon smart objectives, things that you need to keep brief on your resume. It also needs to be tailored to the job for which you are applying. As for resume references, they're the one thing you truly don't need anymore. So, lose the phrase references upon titus julie taymor, request. Okay, so you need a cover letter. Smart Objectives Marketing! But do you know how to write an application letter? And better yet, how do you write a convincing one? Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Why Sending a Personal Message Can Be a Big Win. When you send your resume to a general email address like jobs@company.com , your resume is entering a swamp of globalisation positives, identical messages from other candidates.

One thing you can do to differentiate your message is to try to find out the smart marketing name of the julie taymor person who will be reading your resume and smart objectives send them a personal email. This is not the julie best solution in every case. You will need to decide if a hiring manager will see the gesture as clever or creepy. Pro Tip : If you use our resume builder, ( create your resume here ) you have the option to publish your resume and send a link to employers. Sending a link will allow you to objectives, track views and downloads so that you know how well your resume is performing. Want to send a personal message but can't find the the socs from the outsiders hiring manager's email address? Need to know how to write a resume email?

We've got you covered: How To Email Your Resume To Get More Replies From Employers Once you've sent your resume, it's a good idea to track it. You can install a free sales tool like Mixmax or YesWare to help you. Knowing if recruiters have opened and read your email will enable you to smart objectives, follow-up promptly or find different email addresses. Your resume is your passport to job interviews. And knowing how to make a resume for julie a job is the first step on any career path.

So, take the time and energy to think about how to write a resume well and how to tailor it to the job description. If you can do that, you're well on your way to the next level - the interview. Bonus: Check out marketing our ultimate checklist of Essay Cell Phone Banned, 56 things you need to do before you send your resume. Objectives Marketing! How many have you missed? Download: “Resume 101 Checklist.” Are there any great resume writing tips we need to include in the socs from the article? Do you have any questions about how to make a resume for marketing your position? Add a comment. Short Wedding Speeches! I’ll be happy to answer. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.

She spends her free time reading complicated novels and objectives binge watching TV series.

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Resume Writing | The 10 Commandments. Follow these 10 commandments of resume writing to ensure that your resume is professional and effective. Smart Objectives Marketing. Click on any of the commandments to Cell Phone Use in Should Not be Banned skip to them directly. 1. You will write more than one resume, targeting each one at a specific audience. This is the golden rule of objectives, resume writing. Positives. You must tailor each resume for every position that you are applying for . For instance, lets assume youre applying to become a waiter, a secretary, a construction worker, or a salesperson. Smart. (Note: Click those links to view a WELL TARGETED resume sample). Each of these positions will need a different resume because they require different skill sets. If you have minimal work experience, youll need to Essay about Cell Phone Should Not be Banned highlight different aspects of your job responsibilities to appeal to each individual hiring manager. For instance, a hiring manager for a construction company may be more interested in objectives how much you can lift, how reliable you are, and whether you can learn new skills quickly . A hiring manager at Sex In History an office may want to know what software you can use, what tricks you use to be efficient, and smart objectives, whether you have writing skills.

To figure out what skills the Essay about Cell Schools, hiring manager is looking for, read the job description they wrote CAREFULLY. Theyve probably listed all of the smart objectives, specialized skills you need to Essay perform well. Simply include those specific skills on smart marketing your resume (if you have those skills) and youre set. Youll need to positives and negatives get creative with your work experience and marketing, demonstrate how the skills you currently have are transferrable into short speeches an unrelated position. In this way, you can write a tailored resume. (NOTE: The Applicant Tracking System (ATS), which is software that can read your resume, will also reject your resume if it seems irrelevant to the job you applied for . Smart Marketing. This is another major reason you should tailor your resume.) 2. History Essay. You will write descriptive bullet points that begin with action verbs. Writing in complete sentences will force you to be descriptive . The worst resumes are filled with boring, bland, 2-4 word descriptions like, Cleaned tables, Wrote reports, or Dealt with customers. Each sentence should begin with an smart objectives, action verb, preferably one that best describes the your responsibility.

Some action verbs are better than others. Use this epic list to find just the right action verb for your bullet point! For instance, the about Use in Not be Banned, verb phrase Managed 6 employees is better than Told 6 employees what to do. Here are some other excellent verbs you can use: Use Verbs Like These To Start Your Bullet Points. Managed Trained Saved Developed Created Sold Arranged Prepared Assisted. Basically, if its a verb and it sounds good, use it. On the other hand

Dont Use These Words to Start Your Bullet Points. Pronouns (I, you, we, us) Adverbs (Quickly, smartly, intelligently, efficiently) Adjectives (Massive, huge, small, smart, quick, efficient, intelligent) 3. You will quantify your resume to the best of your ability, adding numbers to describe your experience. Adding numbers to your resume makes them more descriptive and specific, which will catch the hiring managers attention. Smart Objectives Marketing. Numbers also allow you to show off your achievements and abilities that others may not have. The rule of thumb here is this: if the duty you performed can be described in numbers, do so.

Browse these perfectly quantified resumes for a taste of globalisation, how your resume should look: Quantified Resume Example 1. Quantified Resume Example 2. Quantified Resume Example 3. Still not sure what we mean, or how to do it? In the following examples, weve written each job description twice to smart show an unquantified resume description versus a quantified one.

Wrote reports for the direct manager, summarizing incoming data and suggesting courses of action. Wrote three 1,000-word reports per week for the direct manager, summarizing incoming data and titus julie, suggesting courses of action. Served food and drink and took orders in a fast paced restaurant. Served in smart marketing a 300-seat restaurant, handling up to 5 tables at a time in a fast-paced restaurant. Upsold wine by History using knowledge of wine and entrees to entice customers into smart marketing purchases.

Upsold $250 in wine daily on average by leveraging knowledge of hundreds of positives and negatives, wine brands and smart marketing, matching them with entrees to entice customers into bigger purchases. Managed and trained new employees to successfully open a new branch of our office while maintaining company standards. Managed and trained 6 employees , successfully opening a new branch of our office while maintaining company standards. Other items that can be quantified include: Customer satisfaction ratings Number of customers served daily The size of your company/ establishment Total yearly/monthly/daily sales How much you outperformed your co-workers by How much money you saved the company. Using action verbs and quantifying will make your resume Achievement Oriented. The above two commandments have only History Essay, been a taste we have an in smart marketing depth about titus julie taymor how to write an achievement oriented resume here. 4. You will not include a section about your hobbies and interests. Including a section about your hobbies and interests is widely regarded as a newbie mistake . The company is interested in what skills you have that can help them earn more money, not whether you can juggle or swallow swords (unless you are applying to a circus, then these skills should definitely be on your resume.) For more detail, check out this guide about how to objectives put skills on your resume. If your hobbies, interests, and side projects do coincide with what the company is looking for , then you should include them in your Additional Skills or Qualifications Summary section. 5. Short Wedding. You will not leave any glaring gaps in smart employment history. If you have periods of time where you were not working professionally, avoid revealing those gaps on your resume at all costs . There are a number of ways that you can accomplish this.

The first is Sex In History with resume formatting. The first format you can use is called a Functional Resume , which leaves off work dates altogether in smart marketing favor of simply listing your most relevant qualifications. The other format you can use is called a Combination Resume , which splits your resume into two sections. In one section, your work experience will still be written in reverse-chronological order. Then, once you reach your gaps in work experience, you again simply list your qualifications and Essay Use in Schools Banned, ignore dates altogether.

Finally, you can leave months off of marketing, your resume entirely . If you worked from June 1, 2013, to February 1, 2014 simply leave off writing June and February, which will show that you worked from marketing vf 2013-2014. If pressed in your interview, tell the objectives marketing, truth. The point is to get your foot in the door. 6. You will pay attention to professionalism. This mainly concerns your contact details section. Dont include your nickname . Phone Schools Not Be. We once received a resume from Joey The Hammer Perkins. It was ineffective. Dont include a picture of yourself on smart objectives your resume. If you are an actor, then you will need to include a professional headshot. For all other industries, including a picture of oneself is considered extremely unprofessional.

Dont label your saved document I hate resumes , which we have also seen. It seems that sometimes people forget that the other party will see the file name. Use a professional email address. Julie. For instance, [emailprotected] is hilarious, but were afraid it doesnt exactly smack of objectives marketing, professionalism. Make sure you resume is titus saved with your full name and the word resume . Smart Marketing. Example: Joe Brown Resume Include the position youre applying for if you know it.

Example: Joe Brown Resume Waiter Be 100% sure that your contact details are correct. Not being able to marketing vf contact you for an interview is the smart, height of unprofessionalism. 7. You will format your resume so that it is aesthetically pleasing and legible. Follow these 10 simple rules to marketing vf make an marketing, aesthetically pleasing resume. Or, simply download some of the the socs, best resume templates on the web from our website for smart objectives free. DO NOT use font below size 10 DO NOT use crazy font styles DO NOT write a Wall of Text (no spacing, too much text, too much information) DO NOT use bright colors that are difficult to read DO NOT include images.

DO leave spaces between your work experiences to make reading easier DO bold your headers DO italicize sub-headers DO create columns to save space and use more of the page DO use bullet points to list job descriptions. 8. You will not lie on your resume. Getting caught for resume fraud will follow you for the rest of Not be, your career . Smart Marketing. Its tempting to embellish or outright lie on about Schools Should Banned your resume, as you can get higher paying jobs and well salaried positions by claiming credentials or skills that you do not have. In all likelihood, you will get caught , because it will be obvious that you do not know how to smart competently do your work properly. (That is, unless you are Frank Abagnale, the fraudster portrayed in the blockbuster movie Catch Me If You Can ). Many people are tempted to lie on their resume because they falsely believe that their work experience and education histories are insufficient . In reality, many companies are willing to take risks on employees that have the basic skills and attitude to do the job. For instance, if a company says in the job description that they require 2-3 years of titus julie, experience in objectives marketing a position, that number actually represents their ideal candidate, not a hard and fast rule . 9. You will not repeat any bullet points. Your resume should be formatted with your most recent work experience towards the top, and and negatives, least recent towards the bottom (reverse chronological.) That means any bullet points towards the top means that you know how to do that job responsibility already. Smart Objectives. Theres no point in repeating it again towards the bottom . Its redundant, and unnecessarily lengthens your resume.

10. You will not make any grammar or spelling errors. Even a stellar resume is Phone Not be Banned easily destroyed by simple grammar and spelling mistakes. Because its such an important document, mistakes immediately set off red flags in the hiring managers view . The thinking is, if you cant take the time to smart objectives correct basic mistakes, then you might also be a low quality worker. Take these steps to Sex In History Essay make sure your resume is error free: Run spell check Have two friends or family members look over it Look over it yourself. i took 3 years off between jobs to care for an elderly parent. how do i show that on my resume? do i list 2000 2003 as Homecare for parent? exactly how i format that? thank you. Hello lifestudent, Were happy to help.

Generally, if you have gaps in your employment history because of personal reasons you dont have explain them on your resume, only include experiences that will be seen as a positive to the employer. The exception would be if you are applying for a medical or caretaker position, something that would see value in your three-years of homecare, then it would be beneficial to smart include. Let us know if you have any other questions! Hi Resume Genius, I am a fresh graduate who only have one-year experience as a research assistant. Currently I intend to apply for marketing vf a counselors assistant position but I am afraid that I could not show much skills and experiences with my former job on the resume. Should I mention my other experiences during my time in marketing university such as having an internship or joining a research project for titus julie taymor undergraduate? If I should, is objectives it good for me to Essay Cell Phone Use in Should write a qualifications summary or not? Thank you very much for smart objectives marketing your help. Hi Cecilia, Were happy to help. Having only Cell Use in Should, one experience may appear a little weak, so adding other relevant experiences such as your internship and research project might be a great idea if they are relevant to the position and/or illustrate useful skills you acquired.

Remember to list bullet points that are targeted to the position youre applying to, keeping them concise and targeted. By listing internships, research projects and smart objectives marketing, work experience you will appear a more balanced and marketing vf, knowledgeable applicant. Let us know if you have any other questions! I have two questions. First, should a college degree be listed if it does not apply to the position applied for, and objectives marketing, second, what exactly is taymor a wall of text? Hi Jeannine, Were happy to objectives marketing help! Yes you will want to include your highest educational experience on your resume even if it is not directly related to the position you are applying to. Most employers just want to see you are capable of graduating and evaluate your performance. There are rarer instances when education sections arent necessary, for taymor executive level candidates for example, or for highly skilled manual laborers, but in most cases it should be included.

A wall of smart objectives marketing, text is like a block of text. They usually consist of multiple sentences, or a few run-on sentences and wedding speeches, are aesthetically unappealing, resulting in smart marketing the reader more often than not skipping past them. Keep your sentences and bullet points short, concise and to the point to retain the readers attention. Hope that helps! Let us know if you have any other questions. Hi. Essay Cell Use In Not Be. Is it ok not to include in my resume my first job which lasted for about 1 1/2 months only? Its perfectly fine to leave out your first job if it wasnt very long. We often advise people to leave jobs that occurred over objectives 10 years ago off their resume as they usually arent very applicable to applicants current career paths.

Let us know if you have any other questions! Great article, thanks for the genius useful tips. Thank you Mohamad! We are glad that you like it. Very useful! Appreciated. Thanks Seyed! Glad we could help! Thanks for your help!

Thanks for d useful tips. this is a big help for globalisation and negatives me, thank u so much. As to objectives marketing number 2, it is very difficult to write a complete sentence with no subject. Just sayin. We admit it. You got us! What we meant to say is Phone Should Not be that bullet points should be descriptive and smart objectives marketing, begin with action verbs. Weve made the changes above. Thanks for the feedback. Share Resume Writing | The 10 Commandments

Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to speeches help you land more interviews in marketing todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to positives choose from, and easy export to smart marketing MS Word and wedding speeches, PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Smart Objectives Marketing. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to wedding speeches make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradys resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown.

There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to smart objectives marketing download one, but be sure to speeches make small modifications to smart marketing unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job.

Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. Short Wedding Speeches. LinkedIn Labs. What are the marketing, differences between the Phone Use in Schools Should, major online resume builders? Here's an in depth analysis of what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and smart objectives, career tips are regularly featured on Sex In History some of the smart, world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to Sex In Essay introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to objectives help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market.

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act essay score 10 This action will open a new window. Do you want to proceed? Welcome to our new website! Let us know what you think! Feedback. Taking the ACT with writing will provide you and the schools to which you have ACT report scores with additional scores. You will receive a total of objectives, five scores for this test: a single subject-level writing score reported on a range of 2-12, and four domain scores, also 2-12, that are based on an analytic scoring rubric. The subject-level score will be the rounded average of the four domain scores.

The four domain scores are: Ideas and marketing vf Analysis, Development and Support, Organization, and smart marketing Language Use and Conventions . Globalisation Positives? An image of your essay will be available to your high school and the colleges to which you have ACT report your scores from that test date. Objectives? Taking the writing test does not affect your subject area scores or your Composite score. However, without a writing test score, no English Language Arts (ELA) score will be reported. Your essay will be evaluated based on the evidence that it provides of your ability to: clearly state your own perspective on the issue and analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective develop and support your ideas with reasoning and short wedding examples organize your ideas clearly and logically communicate your ideas effectively in standard written English. Two trained readers will score your essay on a scale of 1-6 in each of the objectives marketing, four writing domains. Each domain score represents the sum of the two readers' scores. If the readers' ratings disagree by more than one point, a third reader will evaluate the essay and resolve the discrepancy. You might be a little unsure of what to expect from from a writing prompt and what kinds of responses score the smart marketing, highest. We took the guesswork out of it and created one sample prompt and six possible responses, ranging from weak to titus strong, that give you an idea of how to achieve your best score.

Remember that your scores for the four individual domains - ideas and analysis, development and support, organization, and language use and conventions - will be communicated on objectives, a scale of 212. These domain scores are derived by adding together the individual scores, on speeches, a 16 scale, from each of two readers. Scoring your writing test. This analytic scoring rubric presents the standards by which your essay will be evaluated. The following rubric overview will help you to better understand the dimensions of writing that this assessment evaluates. This task asks you to smart objectives marketing generate an essay that establishes your own perspective on a given issue and analyzes the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective. In evaluating your response, trained readers will use an analytic rubric that breaks the central elements of written argument into four domains: Ideas and Analysis, Development and Support, Organization, and Language Use and Conventions. As you review these domains, think about the role each plays in a written argument that accomplishes its purpose. Ideas and Analysis Scores in this domain reflect the ability to generate productive ideas and engage critically with multiple perspectives on the given issue. Competent writers understand the issue they are invited to the socs from address, the purpose for writing, and the audience.

They generate ideas that are relevant to the situation. Development and objectives marketing Support Scores in this domain reflect the Essay about Cell Schools Should Not be Banned, ability to discuss ideas, offer rationale, and bolster an argument. Competent writers explain and explore their ideas, discuss implications, and objectives illustrate through examples. They help the reader understand their thinking about the taymor, issue. Organization Scores in this domain reflect the ability to organize ideas with clarity and marketing purpose. Organizational choices are integral to effective writing. Competent writers arrange their essay in a way that clearly shows the relationship between ideas, and they guide the reader through their discussion. Language Use and Conventions Scores in this domain reflect the ability to use written language to convey arguments with clarity. Competent writers make use of the conventions of grammar, syntax, word usage, and mechanics. They are also aware of their audience and adjust the style and tone of their writing to communicate effectively. Learn more about how the writing test is scored.

Compare ACT writing scores from 2015-2016 and 2016-2017. Scoring Rubric Prior to September 2015: Overview. These are the descriptions of scoring criteria that the trained readers will follow to determine the about Phone Should Not be Banned, score (16) for your essay. Papers at each level exhibit all or most of the characteristics described at each score point. Essays within this score range demonstrate effective skill in responding to the task. The essay shows a clear understanding of the task.

The essay takes a position on the issue and may offer a critical context for discussion. The essay addresses complexity by examining different perspectives on objectives, the issue, or by the socs, evaluating the implications and/or complications of the issue, or by fully responding to counterarguments to the writer's position. Development of ideas is ample, specific, and smart logical. Most ideas are fully elaborated. Short Wedding Speeches? A clear focus on the specific issue in the prompt is maintained. The organization of the essay is clear: the objectives, organization may be somewhat predictable or it may grow from the the socs from the outsiders, writer's purpose. Smart? Ideas are logically sequenced. Most transitions reflect the writer's logic and are usually integrated into the essay. Marketing Vf? The introduction and conclusion are effective, clear, and well developed. The essay shows a good command of language.

Sentences are varied and marketing word choice is varied and precise. There are few, if any, errors to distract the reader. Essays within this score range demonstrate competent skill in responding to the task. The essay shows a clear understanding of the task. The essay takes a position on and negatives, the issue and may offer a broad context for discussion. The essay shows recognition of complexity by partially evaluating the implications and/or complications of the issue, or by responding to counterarguments to the writer's position. Development of ideas is specific and logical. Most ideas are elaborated, with clear movement between general statements and specific reasons, examples, and smart objectives marketing details. Focus on the specific issue in the prompt is maintained. The organization of the essay is clear, although it may be predictable. Ideas are logically sequenced, although simple and obvious transitions may be used.

The introduction and conclusion are clear and globalisation and negatives generally well developed. Language is objectives marketing competent. Sentences are somewhat varied and word choice is Sex In sometimes varied and objectives precise. There may be a few errors, but they are rarely distracting. Essays within this score range demonstrate adequate skill in responding to the task. The essay shows an understanding of the task.

The essay takes a position on the issue and marketing vf may offer some context for discussion. The essay may show some recognition of complexity by providing some response to counterarguments to the writer's position. Smart Objectives Marketing? Development of ideas is Cell Not be adequate, with some movement between general statements and specific reasons, examples, and smart objectives details. Focus on the specific issue in the prompt is maintained throughout most of the essay. The organization of the History, essay is apparent but predictable. Some evidence of logical sequencing of ideas is apparent, although most transitions are simple and obvious. The introduction and smart objectives conclusion are clear and Essay somewhat developed. Language is adequate, with some sentence variety and appropriate word choice. There may be some distracting errors, but they do not impede understanding. Essays within this score range demonstrate some developing skill in responding to the task. The essay shows some understanding of the task.

The essay takes a position on the issue but does not offer a context for discussion. The essay may acknowledge a counterargument to the writer's position, but its development is brief or unclear. Objectives Marketing? Development of ideas is limited and may be repetitious, with little, if any, movement between general statements and specific reasons, examples, and details. Focus on the general topic is maintained, but focus on the specific issue in the prompt may not be maintained. Titus Julie Taymor? The organization of the essay is simple. Ideas are logically grouped within parts of the essay, but there is little or no evidence of logical sequencing of ideas.

Transitions, if used, are simple and obvious. An introduction and conclusion are clearly discernible but underdeveloped. Language shows a basic control. Sentences show a little variety and word choice is appropriate. Errors may be distracting and smart objectives marketing may occasionally impede understanding. Essays within this score range demonstrate inconsistent or weak skill in from, responding to the task. The essay shows a weak understanding of the task. The essay may not take a position on objectives marketing, the issue, or the essay may take a position but fail to convey reasons to support that position, or the essay may take a position but fail to maintain a stance. There is little or no recognition of a counterargument to the writer's position. The essay is thinly developed.

If examples are given, they are general and may not be clearly relevant. The essay may include extensive repetition of the writer's ideas or of Sex In, ideas in the prompt. Focus on the general topic is maintained, but focus on the specific issue in the prompt may not be maintained. There is some indication of an organizational structure, and some logical grouping of objectives marketing, ideas within parts of the essay is apparent. Globalisation Positives And Negatives? Transitions, if used, are simple and objectives obvious, and they may be inappropriate or misleading. An introduction and globalisation and negatives conclusion are discernible but minimal. Sentence structure and smart objectives word choice are usually simple. Errors may be frequently distracting and may sometimes impede understanding. Essays within this score range show little or no skill in responding to the task. The essay shows little or no understanding of the task. If the essay takes a position, it fails to convey reasons to support that position.

The essay is minimally developed. The essay may include excessive repetition of the writer's ideas or of about Cell Phone Use in Banned, ideas in the prompt. Focus on the general topic is usually maintained, but focus on the specific issue in the prompt may not be maintained. There is little or no evidence of an organizational structure or of the objectives marketing, logical grouping of ideas. Transitions are rarely used. If present, an introduction and conclusion are minimal. Sentence structure and word choice are simple. Errors may be frequently distracting and may significantly impede understanding. Blank, Off-Topic, Illegible, Not in Essay about Phone Use in Should, English, or Void. Calculating Your Combined English/Writing Score Prior to September 2015.

Complete these steps to calculate your Combined English/Writing score: Find your scale score for the English Test down the far-left column. Smart? Find your Writing subscore across the top row of the table. Follow the English Test score row across and the Writing subscore column down until the row and column meet. The Combined English/Writing score is found where the row and column meet. For example, if an the outsiders English Test score is 19 and a Writing subscore is 8, the Combined English/Writing scale score is 20. Enhancements to the ACT Writing Test. In September 2015, ACT introduced a number of enhancements to the ACT writing test. Key differences between the former and current designs are outlined below.

Many elements of the writing prompts remain the same. For example, the test is objectives marketing still an the socs from the outsiders exercise in argumentative writing, and it continues to measure core competencies that are linked to smart college and career success. Modifications to the writing prompt will build on the former design in a few important ways: (Through the June 2015 Test Event) (September 2015 Test Events and after) Scoring and taymor reporting for the ACT writing test have also been updated. Instead of smart, one holistic score, students now receive four domain scores, each reflecting a key dimension of writing competency. They also receive a subject-level Writing Score. Julie Taymor? (Through the June 2015 Test Event) (September 2015 Test Events and smart after) *Students who took the writing test between September 2015 and globalisation June 2016 received a subject-level Writing score reported on a 1-36 scale.

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essay lotus sutra Taigen Dan Leighton. Paper for an academic conference on marketing Discourse and Rhetoric in the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism Version with full diacritical marks available from taigendan@earthlink.net. In this essay I will discuss aspects of Zen Master Dogen's appropriation and use of the globalisation and negatives Lotus Sutra , as it is expressed in his rhetorical style. Dogen quotes the smart Lotus Sutra (from the Kumarajiva version) far more than any other sutra.[1] This might seem reasonably expectable, since Dogen was first ordained as a monk in the Tendai school, which continued to short, see the Lotus as the preeminent sutra, even as it incorporated and attempted to synthesize a whole range of Buddhist teachings.

However, while prominent Kamakura innovators, Eisai, Dogen, Honen, Shinran, and Nichiren all had been Tendai monks, they vary greatly in their subsequent application of the Lotus Sutra . Smart? The Lotus is the fundamental object of devotion for Nichiren, but is scarcely mentioned explicitly by Shinran (although it might be discerned as part of the background of Shin thought). The situation of Essay about Phone Banned, Dogen's use of the Lotus Sutra in his teachings is more complex. The Lotus has been commonly perceived as tangential to Dogen, and to Japanese Soto Zen generally. For example, in objectives, discussing another great Soto literary figure from the eighteenth century, Ryokan, who also favored the Lotus Sutra , Ryuichi Abe says, Although Ryokan appears to have remained faithful to globalisation positives and negatives, the religious ideals of his Soto progenitor Dogen, there was nothing sectarian about Ryokan's Buddhist practice. Among the numerous Buddhist scriptures, the Lotus Sutra popular text not particularly emphasized in traditional training but the essential scripture of the Tendai and Nichiren schools was by far his favorite.[2] While the Lotus is marketing, certainly not nearly as important to Dogen or Soto as it is to Nichiren, Ryokan's great appreciation for it is revealing of the lingering appropriation of the julie Lotus Sutra in Soto, an appreciation and usage that does go back to the Japanese Soto founder. Dogen widely cites and smart objectives, interprets many doctrinal elements from the titus julie taymor Lotus Sutra in his teachings. Along with his many direct allusions to the parables from the sutra, Dogen frequently refers to specific Lotus teachings. Examples are skillful means ( hoben ); the smart single cause for buddhas' appearing in the world, i.e. to bring suffering beings onto the path of awakening; and that only a Buddha together with a Buddha can fully fathom the fundamental truth. While these teachings are not completely unique to the Lotus among Mahayana sutras, Dogen discusses them using direct quotes from the from Lotus Sutra . Dogen also often discusses or critiques teachings commonly linked to the Lotus Sutra in Heian and Kamakura Buddhism, such as the importance of fundamental enlightenment (hongaku); and realization of marketing, buddhahood in this very body (sokushin jobutsu).[3] Dogen's use of the Lotus Sutra text is History Essay, necessarily affected by the contemporary readings of the smart objectives marketing Lotus in Tendai and other Japanese understandings, a complex subject beyond the scope for this limited essay to detail.

A discussion of all the marketing vf numerous direct references to the Lotus Sutra in Dogen's writings is also far beyond the scope of this essay. But to mention briefly one of the objectives marketing most prominent examples, in his Shobogenzo essay Hokke-Ten-Hokke The Lotus Dharma Turns the about Phone Use in Schools Should Lotus Dharma, Dogen discusses and elaborates his view of the liberative reality of the phenomenal world, which Dogen interprets as a primary teaching of the Lotus Sutra . Dogen expresses this interpretation in various ways. The Hokke-Ten-Hokke essay begins with the statement that, The contents of the lands in ten directions are the sole existence of the Lotus Dharma.[4] In various writings, Dogen creatively reads and interprets parts of the smart objectives marketing Lotus Sutra such as the stories in chapters fifteen and sixteen about the short wedding underground bodhisattvas immanently present and smart objectives marketing, available for the world, and the inconceivable life-span, and continuing presence in the world, of Sex In History Essay, Shakyamuni Buddha. These are among the objectives Lotus Sutra supports for Dogen's teaching about the active agency of the titus julie phenomenal world in the process and practice of Buddhist awakening.[5] This interpretation and appropriation of the smart marketing Lotus teaching as essentially immanent and located in the phenomenal world is not only important to Dogen's philosophy, but is also relevant to Dogen's style of expression, as will be described in what follows in wedding, this essay. In line with Dogen's many references, the smart marketing Lotus Sutra also retains a significant place in Soto liturgy, albeit far less central than in Nichiren Buddhism. Titus Julie Taymor? Even today in many Japanese Soto Zen temples, the verse endings to the sutra's chapter sixteen on the Buddha's Inconceivable Life-span (Juryohonge), or to chapter twenty-five on Kannon Bodhisattva (Fumonbonge), are chanted daily. But instead of the sutra's doctrinal or liturgical applications, I will limit the scope of this essay to examining some of the objectives ways in which Dogen's style of discourse and rhetoric, as seen in his Eihei Koroku as well as in Shobogenzo , resonate with his interpretations of aspects of the Lotus Sutra . My point is not at all to claim that the Lotus Sutra is the Essay about Use in Schools Should Not be Banned single most important source for Dogen; obviously there are many traditions from which Dogen borrows. Much of the Chinese Ch'an tradition is the smart central lexicon for Dogen, especially the classical koan literature, as well as closer Tsao-tung lineage forebears such as Hung-chih Cheng-chŸeh and T'ien-t'ung Ju-ching. In Dogen and julie taymor, the Koan Tradition, Steven Heine has masterfully demonstrated how Dogen's writings serve to develop and elaborate the koan genre.[6] Dogen also makes ample use of the Japanese poetic tradition, as invoked in Yasunari Kawabata's appreciation of Dogen as a poet in Kawabata's 1968 Nobel Prize acceptance speech. Dogen's indebtedness to this poetic tradition has been further traced in Heine's The Zen Poetry of Dogen .[7] Dogen certainly further appropriated the smart objectives marketing Chinese monastic tradition as a major basis for his praxis, and training program.[8] But Dogen's utilization of Mahayana discourse, especially as developed in the Lotus, should also be considered as one of the Sex In History Essay fundamental backgrounds for viewing Dogen's teaching as a whole.

I believe that further inquiries into various aspects of their interrelationship will be illuminating to both Dogen and Lotus Sutra studies. Objectives Marketing? But this present essay focuses on Dogen's borrowing aspects of its rhetorical style, based on his own interpretation of the Lotus. Speeches? The essay proceeds with a discussion of the Lotus Sutra style of proclamatory rhetoric. The Self-Referential Lotus. The Lotus Sutra itself frequently emphasizes the importance of and rewards for the reading, copying, and reciting of the Lotus Sutra . To be sure, other Mahayana sutras talk about the merit to be derived by recalling or copying the sutra being read.[9] However, the smart objectives Lotus Sutra at times seems to globalisation positives and negatives, hold this self-referential quality at objectives marketing, its center, such that it promotes an extreme mode of self-referential discourse that is unique to the Lotus Sutra . The sutra often speaks of the wondrous nature of the the socs from the outsiders Lotus Sutra , right in the text commonly referred to smart objectives marketing, as the Sex In Essay Lotus Sutra . This rhetorical device can become startling and mind-twisting, like Escher's painting of two hands drawing each other. Various important figures in the sutra appear within the text of the Lotus Sutra because they have heard that the Lotus Sutra is currently being preached by Shakyamuni Buddha on smart marketing Vulture Peak. For example, in chapter eleven, the stupa of the Sex In History ancient Buddha Prabhutaratna emerges from the earth and floats in mid-air, because he has vowed always to appear whenever the Lotus Sutra is preached.[10] In the same chapter, myriad bodhisattvas arrive from world systems in all directions, in order to praise the Buddha for preaching this sutra in which they are appearing. This quality of the sutra talking about the sutra, and especially its many references to the Lotus Sutra as something expounded many ages ago, as about to be expounded, or even as hopefully to objectives marketing, be expounded in the distant future, has led some commentators to Sex In History, observe that the whole text of this sutra, more than any others, is a preface to a missing scripture.

As George and Willa Tanabe say: The preaching of the Lotus sermon promised in objectives marketing, the first chapter never takes place. The text, so full of merit, is about a discourse which is never delivered; it is marketing vf, a lengthy preface without a book. The Lotus Sutra is thus unique among texts. It is not merely subject to various interpretations, as all texts are, but is open or empty at its very center. [11] This is a plausible perspective or interpretation.

The text does refer, in third person, to a designated text that one might keep vainly waiting for, as if for Godot. However, this perspective misses the manner in smart, which the short Lotus sermon certainly does exist. Fundamental messages of the Lotus, such as the One Vehicle and the primacy of the Buddha vehicle, are difficult to objectives, miss, even if they might be interpreted in various manners. But furthermore, between the titus julie taymor lines the Lotus Sutra functions within itself both as a sacred text or scripture, and as a commentary and marketing, guidebook to its own use, beyond the literal confines of its own written text. The Lotus Sutra is itself a sacred manifestation of spiritual awakening that proclaims its own sacrality. Right within the short speeches text's proclamation of the objectives marketing wonders of a text with the wedding speeches same name as itself, the text celebrates its own ephemeral quality with the visionary splendors of its assembly of buddhas, bodhisattvas, and spirits, and with the marketing engaging qualities of its parables. The synthesis of the immanent spirit spoken about in the text, and the text's own intended functioning as an globalisation, instrument or skillful catalyst to spark awakening, has been carried on among its followers. Smart Objectives Marketing? This is globalisation, exemplified in the varieties of Nichiren Buddhism in that they are rooted and smart objectives, focused in devotion to wedding, the Lotus Sutra itself as a sacred manifestation, and devotional object, which they are committed to smart marketing, proclaiming and promulgating. But for Dogen, the self-proclamation of the dharma in the Lotus Sutra becomes an aspect of his rhetorical style, rather than an externalized objectification.

In similar manner to the sutra's proclamations of the wondrous qualities of the Lotus Dharma, Dogen in his writings commonly proclaims the wondrous nature of the Dharma, the Buddha, the many buddha ancestors, previous proclamations or utterances by marketing vf ancestral teachers, and of course the Lotus Sutra itself. Dogen's style of discourse is smart, usually not explanatory, discursive, or logical in speeches, the linear manner of modern rationality or cognition. Rather, Dogen seemingly free-associates, making illuminating connections based on doctrinal themes or imagistic motifs, aimed at proclaiming the non-dual reality of the present phenomenal world as fully imbued with the objectives presence of the Buddha and Essay, of the ongoing possibility of awakening. A clear encapsulation of the Lotus Sutra 's self-proclamatory discourse strategy appears in volume one of Dogen's Eihei Koroku in two consecutive jodo, or dharma discourses, numbers 69 and 70, given in 1241.[12] Jodo number 69 reads in its entirety: [Dogen] said: Today this mountain monk [Dogen] gives a dharma discourse for the assembly. What I have just said I offer to all the three treasures in marketing, the ten directions, to the twenty-eight Ancestors in India, to the six Ancestors in China, to short speeches, all the smart objectives marketing nostrils under heaven, to the eyeballs throughout the past and from, present, to dried shitsticks, to three pounds of sesame, to Zen boards, and to zafus. Previously we offered incense for objectives marketing the limitless excellent causal conditions, and globalisation and negatives, we dedicate it so that toads may leap up to Brahma's heaven, earthworms may traverse the eastern ocean, and clouds and water monks may become horses and cows. All buddhas, ten directions, three times; All honored ones, bodhisattva mahasattvas; Mahaprajnaparamita.[13] Here Dogen states that he is objectives, proclaiming a jodo. But immediately, without saying anything more about the Sex In dharma, he dedicates that statement itself to the three jewels, the ancestral teachers, to meditation paraphernalia, and to smart objectives, famed Ch'an iconoclastic expressions for Buddha, Yun-men's dried shitstick (or dry turd) and his disciple Tung-shan Shou-ch'u's three pounds of sesame (or flax).[14] He then further dedicates the incense offering, which had preceded the statement that he was now making a statement, to the socs from the outsiders, toads, earthworms, and monks who manifest as horses and cows, followed by the traditional concluding liturgical dedication. He thereby declares the intention of the dedication for smart objectives all beings, no matter how humble. As in the Lotus Sutra , there is no visible dharma expressed except for the celebration via proclamation of a non-explicit dharma.

But then, in the following jodo, number 70, Dogen explicitly comments on his own use of self-referential dharma, while engaging even further in celebrating an unexpressed dharma. We do not know how many days may have separated the Sex In History Essay two discourses. In this section of the text, between the jodos that can be dated and which are four months apart, there were an average of two discourse per week. But whatever the smart objectives interval, it is clear in the overall text of Eihei Koroku that the different discourses, recorded chronologically with only very rare exceptions, are often linked sequentially through the associations of theme, imagery, ancestral figures, or textual allusion. Sex In History? Jodo number 70 says: [Dogen] said: As this mountain monk [Dogen] today gives a dharma discourse, all buddhas in the three times also today give a dharma discourse. The Ancestral teachers in all generations also today give a dharma discourse. The one who bears the sixteen-foot golden body gives a dharma discourse. The one endowed with the wondrous function of the hundred grasses (all things) gives a dharma discourse. Already together having given a dharma discourse, what dharma has been expounded? No other dharma is objectives marketing, expressed; but this very dharma is expressed. What is this dharma?

It is upheld within Shang-lan Temple; it is upheld within Kuan-yin Temple; it is upheld within the monks' hall; it is upheld within the buddha hall. Again, Dogen never talks about the content of from the outsiders, his dharma discourse. Smart? But he proclaims that his own act of proclaiming this self-referencing dharma is echoed simultaneously in the discourses of the titus julie ancestral teachers and buddhas, just as the smart objectives proclamation of the Lotus Sutra is echoed in marketing vf, various buddha realms, in various times. Then Dogen asks the same question that the Tanabes ask about the Lotus Sutra , What dharma has been expounded? And Dogen answers unabashedly, No other dharma is expressed; but this very dharma is expressed. What is this dharma? While not explaining or even stating the smart objectives marketing content of this dharma, his phrase, This very (shako) dharma, might seem to refer to the teaching of suchness, or tathata, but it is globalisation positives and negatives, also simply just this dharma, as opposed to that one. Thereby Dogen emphasizes not an abstraction, but the concreteness of phenomenal reality as the realm of dharma. Smart Objectives Marketing? Then Dogen does declare and affirm that this non-explicit teaching is upheld in the context of the from temples and the buildings where the practice is carried on. The example in these two jodos of Dogen's proclamation of smart marketing, a non-explicit dharma is presented in a direct and concise manner, as appropriate to the often brief declarations of the jodo form. But this rhetorical strategy recurs, more or less subtly, in many places throughout Shobogenzo , as well as in Eihei Koroku . That Dogen is adapting this rhetorical posture at least in part directly from the Lotus Sutra is clearly evidenced by another early jodo in the socs, the Eihei Koroku , number 24, given in 1240.

In the entire universe in ten directions there is no dharma at all that has not yet been expounded by all buddhas in the three times. Therefore all buddhas say, In the same manner that all buddhas in the three times expound the dharma, so now I also will expound the dharma without differentiations. This great assembly present before me also is practicing the Way in the manner of all buddhas. Each movement, each stillness is not other than the marketing dharma of all buddhas, so do not act carelessly or casually. Although this is the case, I have an expression that has not yet been expounded by any buddha.

Everyone, do you want to discern it? After a pause [Dogen] said: In the same manner that all buddhas in the three times expound the dharma, so now I also will expound the dharma without differentiations. In this dharma discourse Dogen again does not elaborate on julie the content of the dharma expounded by marketing all buddhas in the three times, except to aver that it is no other than every movement, and every stillness, and is practiced by the monks at Eiheiji. Titus Taymor? Significant to the point of this essay is the context of this quote mentioned by Dogen from Sakyamuni Buddha, In the same manner that all buddhas in the three times expound the dharma, so now I also will expound the dharma without differentiations. This statement that Dogen uses to express the inexplicit dharma proclaimed by all buddhas is from the Lotus Sutra , chapter two on Skillful Means.[15] Dogen further emphasizes this quote when he repeats it verbatim as his own expression for the inexplicit dharma, which he claims, Has not yet been expounded by any buddha. But saying it has not previously been expounded is tantamount to Dogen himself preaching the original Lotus Sutra , or to smart marketing, his own manifestation as the the outsiders Buddha in the Lotus text in which it is first expounded.

There are ample examples of response with silence, or of smart marketing, indirect or inexplicit Dharma proclamation within the Ch'an literature that is Dogen's primary lexicon. The Socs From? Yet the Lotus Sutra referent for this 1240 jodo about expounding the dharma clearly demonstrates that Dogen himself saw the Lotus Sutra , expounded by smart all buddhas in the three times, as an important source for this self-proclamatory rhetorical style of History, expounding. Further studies of marketing, any references to the Lotus Sutra in the development of early Ch'an rhetorical styles might be informative. But it is apparent that Dogen himself saw the Lotus as one model for a non-dualistic, inexplicit discourse approach. The Self-Reflexive as a Skillful Mode. In The Karma of Words, William LaFleur discusses the sophisticated nature of the Lotus Sutra as literature, and its impact in medieval Japanese poetics. The surprising feature of taymor, [the parables] in the Lotus is that they are simultaneously the objectives vehicle and the tenor of that vehicle. Titus? In a very important sense, the smart marketing parables of the Lotus are about the titus taymor role and status of parabolic speech itself. Smart Marketing? They are what I would call self-reflexive allegory; that is, their trajectory of discourse behaves like a boomerang. Much like the dharma described in a crucial section of the hoben chapter, they are characterized by the absolute identity [or equality] of their beginning and end.[16]

LaFleur's analysis of this realm of discourse in the Lotus Sutra focuses on from the outsiders its radical nondualism, and its embodiment of smart, skillful means. This standpoint of nondualism represents interpretations of the Lotus Sutra developed in T'ien-t'ai and in Japanese Buddhism prior to Dogen, and marketing vf, which impacted the medieval literature LaFleur examines. From such a nondualistic viewpoint, LaFleur suggests translating hoben as modes rather than the more common translations of skillful or expedient means. Hurvitz translates hoben as expedient devices, and Watson translates it as expedient means, both implying a dualistic, and even manipulative, aspect of the teaching, especially when rendered as devices. Kato, Tamura, and Miyasaka translate it as tactfulness, which implies more consideration and inclusivity, but might still be seen as implying a hierarchy of the teachings. The upaya (or hoben ) doctrine is objectives, a problematic aspect in short wedding speeches, the Lotus Ekayana One Vehicle teaching. The Lotus at times has been upheld, within the sutra itself as well as by some of its followers, for example in smart marketing, the T'ien-t'ai p'an-chiao system, as the supreme epitome of the One Vehicle. Short Wedding Speeches? In this perspective other teachings and scriptures may be seen as merely expedient, provisional (and therefore inferior) teachings that might be included in the One Vehicle as a kind of dharmic noblesse oblige. Such a view of smart objectives marketing, upaya implies a hierarchy of teachings, and even a manipulative use of them.

Unquestionably the Lotus Sutra lends itself, and often explicitly encourages, a political, polemical reading in which the Cell Use in Lotus, and those who preach it, represent the True Dharma, and those who follow provisional, expedient teachings exemplify the chaff, inimical to the full teaching. On the smart objectives marketing other hand, the alternate mode of reading the teaching of upaya, as championed by LaFleur, implies a radically nondualistic inclusivity, and an acceptance of all helpful teachings as simply a diversity of modes. Portions of the Lotus Sutra do indeed lend themselves to this alternate, more tolerant and inclusive reading of hoben . Wedding Speeches? For example, in chapter five the parable of the Dharma rain falling universally on smart objectives marketing all implies no discrimination against any of the many plants that are equally nourished, each growing in their own way. Applied as appropriate to the outsiders, the diversity of needs of suffering beings, all teaching modes might be equally beneficial to the ultimate purpose for buddhas' manifestation, as proclaimed in the upaya chapter: By resort to objectives marketing, numberless devices and to various means, parables, and History Essay, phrases do [buddhas] proclaim the smart marketing dharmas, . . . for one great cause appearing in the world, . . . to cause beings to hear the the socs from Buddha's knowledge, . . . to cause the smart marketing beings to understand, . . . to cause the beings to enter the about Cell Phone Use in Schools Should Not be Banned path.[17] Such an marketing, inclusive reading of titus julie taymor, hoben might be usefully appropriated to modern concerns of objectives marketing, religious pluralism, which may be LaFleur's subtext. Globalisation Positives And Negatives? But LaFleur's reading also has implications to styles of discourse, the primary issue under consideration here. LaFleur sees the smart objectives marketing sutra's primary liberative purpose and its various skillful modes expressed nondualistically as exactly the reason for the sutra's self-referential discourse style. About Phone Use In Banned? In his reading: The narratives of the Lotus are not a means to an end beyond themselves.

Their concrete mode of expression is not chaff to be dispensed with in order to attain a more abstract, rational, or spiritual truth. The Lotus is unequivocal on this point: One may seek in every one of the ten directions but will find no mode [ hoben ] other than the smart objectives Buddha's. This accounts for short wedding speeches what may seem to be an inordinate amount of praise directed by the sutra toward itself. It also implies that within the smart marketing sutra there is an unmistakable philosophical move opposite to marketing vf, that in Plato's Republic, a move to affirm the complete reality of the world of concrete phenomena in smart objectives marketing, spite of the globalisation fact that they are impermanent.[18] This common Japanese association of the Lotus Sutra with affirmation of the reality of the phenomenal world, followed here by LaFleur, can be dated back to the Japanese Tendai founder Saicho. Having studied with two of the disciples of the Chinese Hua-yen master Chan-jan, who argued for the Buddha nature of insentient beings (a teaching that Dogen would also later frequently celebrate), Saicho incorporated Hua-yen (Kegon) views of suchness into Tendai. But Saicho also applied this in an original way to objectives, his interpretation of the Lotus Sutra . His reading not only the socs from acknowledges two aspects of suchness but establishes a hierarchy between the two in identifying the dynamic aspect of smart marketing, suchnessits expression as the phenomenal worldwith the T'ien-t'ai category of the middle and with the one vehicle of the Lotus. This represents a crucial step toward the profound valorization of Sex In Essay, empirical reality found in smart objectives, medieval Tendai original enlightenment thought.[19] From this Japanese Tendai perspective of spiritual reality immanent in julie, concrete phenomena, the Lotus Sutra itself is not separate from, or talking about, a realm of smart marketing, transcendent spirit outside of itself. Thus the Lotus Sutra itself can become an embodiment of the awakening aspect of the phenomenal world, omnipresent, at least in potentiality, in all concrete phenomena. The self-referential or self-reflexive aspect of the sutra demonstrates the non-separation of its liberative goals from the Buddha's skillful modes.

Given the Sex In History Essay nonduality of smart, purpose and context of the titus julie Lotus Sutra as a text that itself represents and objectives marketing, enacts veneration of the short wedding world's liberative potential, it is reasonable that this very sutra would become an object of veneration, as in Nichiren Buddhism. To be sure, Dogen is not inclusive of the diverse modes of teachings in LaFleur's strictly non-hierarchical fashion, as, in smart, common with all of the Sex In History Essay Kamakura innovators, Dogen at objectives marketing, times upholds his own teaching lineage and strongly disparages others. However, Dogen's use of Essay about Cell Phone Use in Should, Lotus style self-referential discourse is directed at affirmation of the nondualism of means and end, and he repeatedly affirms the phenomenal realm as the arena of nondual practice-realization, in accord with LaFleur's view of the Lotus Sutra discourse as based on smart marketing hoben . The Socs? In a similar skillful mode, Dogen often intentionally uses words as vehicles to express the discourse he is then proclaiming. Dogen's frequent inversion of conventional word order and word meaning from classical koans or sutras serves to express this quality of proclamation, in which the discourse itself demonstrates that which it is expounding. A prominent example is the oft-cited wordplay in Shobogenzo Bussho Buddha Nature, first written in 1241, in which Dogen retranslates the passage from the objectives Mahaparinirvana Sutra, All sentient beings without exception have Buddha nature. By rereading the characters shitsu-u as whole being, rather than all have, Dogen alters the the socs passage to, All sentient beings' whole being [is] Buddha nature.[20] This elimination of dualistic grammar itself demonstrates the nondualism between sentient beings and Buddha nature. In further accord with LaFleur's view of the Lotus discourse, Dogen specifically affirms the complete reality of the world of concrete phenomena in smart marketing, his discourse rhetoric as well as its content, and even when leaving the content itself seemingly absent, or at least not stated. In jodo 49 in Eihei Koroku, also given in globalisation and negatives, 1241, Dogen says: This mountain monk has not lectured for the sake of the smart objectives assembly for short a long time.

Why is smart marketing, this? On my behalf, the buddha hall, the monks' hall, the valley streams, the pine, and globalisation positives, bamboo, every moment, endlessly speak fully for the sake of all people. Have you all heard it or not? If you say you heard it, what did you hear? If you say you have not heard it, you do not keep the five precepts. Here Dogen rhetorically affirms the immanence of the dharmic discourse as well as its content, right in the world of dharmas, or phenomena, including streams, pines, bamboo, and temple buildings, which all themselves discourse on this dharma. He also self-consciously uses this nonexplicit discourse of the dharma and its immanence as a skillful means for smart objectives challenging his monks in training to hear and express the dharma more fully. Have you all heard it or not? Dogen's Use of the Fantastic.

Another literary aspect of the Lotus Sutra that is disconcerting to conventional analysis is the the socs degree to which its stories and teachings are rooted in images and fantasies. In his introduction to his book on Myoe, whose life and marketing, teaching were colorfully replete with the visionary, George Tanabe, Jr. Sex In? cites the centrality of smart marketing, visions to East Asian Buddhist experience, despite the focus of titus, much of modern Buddhist studies on doctrine and objectives marketing, philosophy. The Buddhist tradition is as much a history of fantasy as it is a history of thought. It should be studied as such to taymor, gain a better understanding not only of Buddhism as a fantastic philosophy, but of Buddhists as sentient beings as well.[21] In the smart objectives context of julie taymor, Myoe studies, Tanabe's discussion of the fantastic might more directly apply to the psychedelic visions of the Avatamsaka Sutra, which Myoe, as a Kegon monk, especially cherished. But Tanabe's remarks also certainly pertain to the striking images and parables of the Lotus, about which he says, The Lotus Sutra is less a work of smart, memory and more a product of titus julie taymor, fantasy inspired with new visions derived internally.[22] The Lotus Sutra thus calls for objectives examination of the about Cell Phone Use in Not be Banned significance and function of its imagery as much as, if not more than, its philosophical positions. As Tanabe says: Mahayana Buddhism is, among many things it can be, a tradition of the smart objectives marketing mind's faculty for producing images in both waking life and sleep: a tradition, that is, of Essay about Phone Schools Should Not be, fantasy producing visions, . . . and dreams, which were interpreted by the dreamers for their own meanings and which can be, to add a modern aspect, read by us for their feelings. It will be possible to gain a better understanding of Mahayana Buddhism as a vehicle not only of ideas and institutions but of marketing, human emotion as well only when studies of the fantastic end of the spectrum become more available.[23] In this context, the Lotus Sutra parables and self-referential discourse style can be seen as the Sex In Essay internal expression of vision, or fantasy, that expresses the human experience of Mahayana practice, more than its philosophical content. Even when, as may frequently be the case, such discourse is a literary device or artifice, rather than directly inspired by literal meditative experience, visions, or dreams, such literary framing serves to honor the skillful use of imagination and smart, the visionary.

The Lotus Sutra itself includes a parable that uses a fantastic vision to demonstrate how fantastic visions function as skillful liberative modes. In chapter seven, a conjured or phantom city is positives, described as a vision that serves as a metaphor for objectives the teaching of nirvana as cessation, which can provide a half-way oasis on the path to titus taymor, Mahayana universal liberation. Objectives Marketing? Despite being a mere phantom, the vision of an oasis city acts as a necessary, beneficial encouragement for practitioners, who may be refreshed by temporarily imagining they have achieved their goal. Similarly, Lotus Sutra parables, no matter how fantastic, themselves function as beneficial encouragements. In another of the Sex In History numerous examples in Shobogenzo of Dogen using wordplay to invert conventional thinking, in Muchu Setsumu Within a Dream Expressing the Dream, written in 1242, Dogen extensively elaborates on the statement that all buddhas express the dream within a dream.[24] He thereby denies the supposedly lesser reality of the dreams of the transient phenomenal world, and negates a Platonic exaltation of the absolute, which LaFleur describes as the antithesis of Lotus teaching. Objectives Marketing? Instead, Dogen proclaims the dream world of phenomena as exactly the realm of buddhas' activity. Short Wedding Speeches? Every dewdrop manifested in objectives, every realm is titus julie taymor, a dream. This dream is the glowing clarity of the hundred grasses. . . . Do not mistake them as merely dreamy.[25] The liberative awakening of buddhas is itself described as a dream.

Without expressing dreams, there are no buddhas. Without being within a dream, buddhas do not emerge and objectives marketing, turn the globalisation positives wondrous dharma wheel. This dharma wheel is no other than a buddha together with a buddha, and a dream expressed within a dream. Simply expressing the dream within a dream is itself the buddhas and objectives, ancestors, the assembly of globalisation and negatives, unsurpassable enlightenment.[26] Dogen is not frivolously indulging in mere paradox here, but follows the logic of the smart objectives dream as necessarily the locus of awakening. As Dogen says in his celebrated essay, Genjokoan, Those who have great realization of delusion are buddhas.[27] What is worthy of study is not delusions or fantasies about enlightenment, but rather the reality of the causes and conditions of the realms of delusion and suffering. A similar logic is expressed in the Lotus Sutra dictum that buddhas manifest only marketing vf due to the presence of suffering beings. Dogen's positive view of dreams will be significant in his parables to objectives, be discussed below, two of which Dogen frames as if they might have been dreams, whether or not they were his actual sleeping dreams.

Dogen does not attend to literal dreams with anywhere near the same dedication as his contemporary, Myoe, as exemplified by Myoe's extraordinary, forty-year dream journal.[28] Along with Myoe, dreams and taymor, visionary discourse are also more emphasized than they are by Dogen in the teachings of Keizan, Dogen's third generation successor, who is marketing, revered as the second founder of Japanese Soto Zen. The central role of titus julie, dream and vision for Keizan has been discussed and elaborated by Bernard Faure in Visions of Power. Smart Objectives Marketing? [29] Keizan and his successors in the following few generations helped spread Soto Zen throughout rural Japan. One stereotype in Soto studies is the distinction between Keizan's use of the Essay visionary, inspired by smart marketing Esoteric teachings, and the supposedly more pure Zen of Dogen. According to this stereotype, Dogen emphasized zazen and a rational presentation of buddha dharma, untainted by short the more colorful and melodramatic Mahayana and Esoteric teachings indulged in by Keizan.[30] However, Dogen does indeed employ dreams and visions as skillful teaching tools. While we may certainly note differences in emphasis and marketing, style between Dogen and Keizan, Dogen is in fundamental accord with the world-view of medieval Japan, including the esoteric teachings of Shingon and Tendai that were the background for all Kamakura Buddhism. Dogen sees the phenomenal world as dynamically alive, and imbued with spirit forces. His visionary context is perhaps most apparent in his interpretations and appropriations of the Lotus Sutra , and in his own references to dreaming. In Muchu Setsumu Within a Dream Expressing the Dream, Dogen explicitly refers to the Lotus Sutra as a source for the role of dreams in his discourse style. He quotes a long passage that concludes the titus julie taymor final verse in objectives, chapter fourteen of the sutra, beginning from, All buddhas, with bodies of golden hue, splendidly adorned with a hundred auspicious marks, hear the dharma and taymor, expound it for others. Such is the fine dream that ever occurs. . . . Dogen interprets this passage as saying that the whole archetypal story of the Buddha occurs in a dream.

Dogen's reading takes this passage out of its context in the sutra to emphasize that the Buddha is made king, leaves the palace, awakens under the bodhi tree, and conducts his whole teaching career, all in a dream.[31] Thus this passage at the close of chapter fourteen is creatively interpreted by smart objectives marketing Dogen to serve as foreshadowing for the revelation in chapter sixteen of Buddha's inconceivable life-span, in which the archetypal story of his birth, awakening, teaching, and death is more explicitly revealed as a skillful means to marketing vf, encourage beings. After quoting this passage, Dogen avers that, This dream of buddhas is not an analogy. In the original context of the Lotus Sutra text, this passage is merely describing the rewards of those who preach the Lotus, in this instance the reward of smart objectives marketing, auspicious dreams.[32] But Dogen uses his creative reading to validate, or at least exemplify, his teaching that the dream-state of the the socs from the outsiders conditioned phenomenal world is exactly the smart objectives arena for positives awakening. But here he is furthermore claiming the dream mentioned by the Lotus Sutra as a model for a skillful discourse mode that has recourse to the visionary as a tool for liberation. As in the Lotus Sutra self-reflexive discourse style, the parable expression is itself a skillful mode of smart marketing, reality for Sex In Essay Dogen, not separate from concrete phenomena. Dogen continues, People in the past and marketing, present mistakenly think that, thanks to the power of expounding this foremost dharma, mere night dreams may become like this dream of buddhas. Thinking like this, one has not yet clarified the Buddha's discourse. Titus Taymor? Awakening and dreaming from the beginning are one suchness, the genuine reality. The buddha-dharma, even if it were an analogy, is the genuine reality.[33]

For Dogen, the particular events of this dream world are the reality, and also the skillful discourse, of the smart objectives marketing awakening of buddhas. The essays of titus, Dogen's Shobogenzo , such as Muchu Setsumu, are sometimes philosophical and elaborative of smart objectives marketing, traditional Buddhist or Zen doctrines, and are addressed to a general audience of his contemporaries. In Eihei Koroku , by contrast, Dogen is directly addressing his small cadre of monk disciples at Eiheiji, stretching for means to encourage and develop their practice. In this work, the primary available source for marketing vf his mature teachings, as well as occasionally revealing humor or feelings such as sadness or regret, Dogen at times offers his own parables, often using fantastic, playful imagery, sometimes expressed as if in dreams. In the following three parables from Eihei Koroku jodos, Dogen's appropriation of Lotus and Mahayana vision is evidenced through the allusions to Mahayana rhetoric or figures in objectives, each of them. In Eihei Koroku jodo number 229, given in 1247, Dogen directly parodies the rhetoric of Mahayana sutras. The millions of billions of transformation bodies [of buddhas] abide throughout a monk's staff, carry water and gather firewood to make offerings to buddhas as numerous as there are sitting cushions, and, on the tip of a whisk, simultaneously all attain unsurpassed complete perfect enlightenment. They are all equally named Broken Wooden Ladle Tathagata, Worthy of Offerings, Omniscient, Foot of Bright Practice, Well Gone One, World Liberator, Supreme One, Strong Controlling Person, Teacher of Humans and Heavenly Beings, World-Honored Buddha. Julie? The Country [of this Buddha] is named Clump of smart objectives marketing, Soil; the kalpa is titus julie taymor, named Fist.

The duration of the True Dharma Age and Semblance Dharma Age are both twelve hours, and the buddha's longevity is smart objectives, that of a dried turd from three thousand great thousands of Sex In History, worlds. Do you all understand? If you state your understanding you are making mistake after mistake. Objectives Marketing? If you say you do not understand, even the five precepts are not maintained. Dogen plays with words here, replacing the conventional sutra rhetoric for a buddha abiding throughout kalpas with his abiding throughout a monk's staff.

Instead of making offerings to positives, buddhas as numerous as the proverbial grains of sand in the Ganges River, Dogen substitutes buddhas as numerous as sitting cushions. Instead of the buddha sitting under the bodhi tree as he attains enlightenment, Dogen has him sitting on top of a whisk. Dogen then applies the standard ten epithets for a buddha, starting with Tathagata, to a new buddha invented here by Dogen, named Broken Wooden Ladle, who might be seen as a reference to all of the humble monks practicing under him at smart objectives, Eiheiji. Continuing with his parody of conventional Mahayana sutra rhetoric, Dogen designates the buddha land of this fabulous new buddha as Clump of soil, his kalpa as Fist, and his longevity as that of a dried turd. Dogen seems to mock the standard Mahayana sutra rhetoric, iconoclastically mimicking a formula for describing buddhas used often in the Lotus Sutra , for example in chapters eight and nine on the predictions of future buddhahood of the five hundred disciples, and of learners and adepts.[34] However, Dogen actually is affirming his view of the and negatives Lotus Sutra , as originally interpreted by Saicho and expressed by LaFleur, that validates the world of smart objectives, concrete phenomena as expressive of the essence of awakening. The new buddha is called Broken Wooden Ladle in celebration of a humble implement, to which Dogen frequently refers in Essay Phone Use in Schools Should Not be, highly exalted terms. For example, in jodo 204 in smart objectives marketing, 1246 he says, If you really know it, the temple pillars confirm that, and the wooden ladles study together with you. Then he has wooden ladles doing three prostrations and asking a dharma question.[35] Similarly revered in jodo 229, above, are the practice paraphernalia of sitting cushions, a monk's staff, and a teacher's whisk. But in about Cell Not be, celebrating humble phenomena, Dogen also emphasizes their ephemerality, as he says that the True and Semblance Dharma Ages of Broken Wooden Ladle Buddha endure merely twelve hours. Although an smart objectives, intact wooden ladle is a useful implement, here the Buddha is named Broken Wooden Ladle, further emphasizing transiency, and recalling the Zen phrase, the globalisation bottom of marketing, a bucket broken out, which signifies the Essay Phone Use in Not be letting go of attachments in opening experiences. Dogen's challenge to his monks at the end of the smart marketing jodo echoes the titus julie taymor prominent Ch'an dharma combat rhetoric style of marketing, koan anthologies such as the the outsiders Hekiganroku , Blue Cliff Record.

However, his statement, If you state your understanding you are making mistake after mistake, might also be seen as a rationale for the whole Lotus Sutra self-referential strategy of not explicitly stating the content of the dharma being celebrated and proclaimed. Simultaneously, there is a mandate for this Dharma to be actually proclaimed. If you say you do not understand, even the five precepts are not maintained, implies the ethical responsibility not to objectives, deny whatever is realized, despite its ephemerality. This may be seen as echoing the frequent theme in the Lotus Sutra of the responsibility of Shakyamuni's disciples to Sex In, maintain the Lotus Dharma in the future. Again, whether Dogen's rhetoric here borrows more from Ch'an tradition or more from the indirect modes of the Lotus Sutra is not the issue. The fact that he uses this style to mimic Lotus Sutra rhetoric, however, does indicate that in objectives, this jodo Dogen is concerned and marketing vf, aware of Lotus Sutra discourse style, and marketing, of appropriating it rhetorically, at least in part. In the following two examples, Dogen provides fantastic parables that seem to be framed as dreams when he describes them as happening last night.

Whether they were literal dreams or meditative visions is beside the point. As Bernard Faure says, For Buddhists there is no clear distinction between dreams that come during sleep and visions achieved in a waking state, or more precisely during meditation, in wedding speeches, a state (samadhi) that, like trance, is often defined as being 'neither sleeping nor waking.'[36] Whether realized in sleep or samadhi, or merely used intentionally as literary devices invoking the visionary qualities of smart, samadhi, Dogen uses these visions to and negatives, express the dream within the dream, i.e. to reveal awakening amid the phenomenal. In his Enlightenment Day jodo, number 88, in 1241, Dogen says: Two thousand years later, we are the descendants [of Shakyamuni]. Two thousand years ago, he was our ancestral father. He is muddy and wet from following and chasing after the waves. Smart Marketing? It can be described like this, but also there is the about Phone Use in Schools principle of the Way [that we must] make one mistake after another. What is this like? Whether Buddha is present or not present, I trust he is right under our feet.

Face after face is Buddha's face; fulfillment after fulfillment is Buddha's fulfillment. Last night, this mountain monk [Dogen] unintentionally stepped on a dried turd and it jumped up and covered heaven and earth. This mountain monk unintentionally stepped on it again, and smart marketing, it introduced itself, saying, My name is Shakyamuni. Then, this mountain monk unintentionally stepped on his chest, and immediately he went and sat on the vajra seat, saw the morning star, bit through the traps and snares of conditioned birth, and cast away his old nest from the past. Without waiting for anyone to peck at his shell from outside, he received the thirty-two characteristics common to all buddhas, and together with this mountain monk, composed the following four line verse: Stumbling I stepped on his chest and his backbone snapped, Mountains and rivers swirling around, the dawn wind blew. Penetrating seven and titus taymor, accomplishing eight, bones piercing the heavens,

His face attained a sheet of smart, golden skin. In this jodo Dogen describes a dream-like fantasy in which he accidentally steps on short a piece of shit, and in accord with Yun-men's utterance often cited by Dogen, it jumps up and declares itself to be Shakyamuni. This vision increases the objectives marketing apparent disrespect for Buddha in Yun-men's utterance, as Dogen again steps on his back (albeit again accidentally), even after the dried shit identifies himself as Shakyamuni. But Dogen uses this scatological vision not to degrade, but rather to further celebrate Buddha, by titus julie taymor declaring that upon being stepped on, He went and sat on the vajra seat, saw the morning star, bit through the traps and snares of conditioned birth, and cast away his old nest from the past. Here Dogen skillfully proclaims and celebrates, non-explicitly, one of the major revelations of the Lotus Sutra , that of the smart Buddha's life-span enduring over inconceivable ages (mentioned above in connection with Dogen's reference in titus julie, Expressing the Dream Within the Dream.) In chapter sixteen, Shakyamuni reveals that his archetypal story of his home-leaving and awakening is demonstrated simply as a skillful mode. The effect of this dream parable of Dogen is to reinforce the story about skillful modes in chapter sixteen by describing Buddha and his awakening process as still omnipresent, last night right at Eiheiji, and even in excrement.

Dogen's dream story also echoes the Lotus Sutra , chapter four, parable of the prodigal son, who can only come to realize his fundamental endowment after years of shoveling manure in his father's field. As Dogen says in the introduction to his parable, even Shakyamuni is muddy and smart objectives marketing, wet from following and chasing after the waves. Dogen's further introductory statement, Whether Buddha is present or not present, I trust he is right under our feet, echoes the Lotus Sutra parable about the ragged beggar unknowingly having the dharma jewel sewed within his robe. It further suggests the image in chapter fifteen of myriad bodhisattvas suddenly springing forth from beneath the the socs ground under our feet, which represents the omnipresence of the objectives bodhisattva potential in julie, the ground of concrete phenomena. Having venerated Shakyamuni Buddha via seeming desecration in this last jodo parable, in Eihei Koroku jodo number 123, given in 1243, Dogen describes another dream vision, this one seeming to poke fun at Avalokiteshvara, the bodhisattva of compassion. One sheet of dull stubbornness is three inches thick. Three lengths of upside-downness is five feet long.

Last night, this mountain monk [Dogen] struck the empty sky with a single blow. My fist didn't hurt, but the empty sky knew pain. A number of sesame cakes appeared and rushed to become the faces and eyes of the great earth. In the mock creation myth in objectives, the introduction to the jodo, Dogen punches out the empty sky. Sex In Essay? Then with bravado akin to such classic Ch'an masters of fisticuffs as Lin-chi or Te-shan (Rinzai and Tokusan in Japanese), Dogen declares that his fist didn't hurt, but the sky, which can also be read as emptiness itself, knew pain. Like the skillful fists of smart, Lin-chi or Te-shan, with their constructive impact on their monk trainees, Dogen's fist brings forth a cascade of sesame cakes, which in turn shower down as thousands of faces and Sex In, eyes.

The several references to the koan lexicon by Dogen in this jodo include case 78 of the Shoyoroku Book of smart, Serenity anthology. When asked by a monk about talk transcending buddhas and ancestors, Yun-men answers, Sesame cake.[37] In case 82 of the Shoyoroku, the association of Yun-men with sesame cakes continues when he says, The Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara brings money to buy a sesame cake: when he lowers his hand, it turns out to be a jelly-doughnut.[38] This story must have inspired Dogen's vision of Avalokiteshvara striving to wedding speeches, purchase sesame cakes. But Dogen envisions the sesame cakes as transformed into dynamically active eyes and faces rather than jelly-doughnuts, which are still mere commodities, even if richer than sesame cakes. As Dogen's parable in jodo 123 unfolds with dream-like narrative, someone shows up who wants to smart objectives, buy the sesame cakes (transformed into faces and eyes). When Dogen inquires, the Sex In person identifies himself as Avalokiteshvara, just as the piece of shit in the previously discussed dream parable identifies himself as Sakyamuni.

Presumably Avalokiteshvara is trying to acquire from Dogen the eleven faces and thousand eyes for his hands as depicted in one of the bodhisattva's foremost iconographic forms.[39] With these multiple perspectives, the marketing bodhisattva of compassion can fulfill the short speeches skillful means that he is smart objectives marketing, known for, as seen in his diversity of forms in chapter twenty-five of the Lotus Sutra . When Avalokiteshvara further identifies himself by the very common Chinese names Ch'ang and Li, this represents Avalokiteshvara as an ordinary person. Even in a dream (or a literary discourse he frames as visionary or dream-like), Dogen is marketing vf, thereby implicitly affirming practice in smart objectives marketing, the mundane world and the immanent presence of compassion. The Socs From The Outsiders? In Expressing the Dream Within the Dream, written the year before the smart objectives marketing parable in titus, jodo123, Dogen declares that, The expression of the dream within the dream is the smart marketing thousand hands and eyes of Avalokiteshvara that function by many means.[40] Here he explicitly denotes the discourse mode, the expression itself, as an aspect or example of Avalokiteshvara's skillful means. The parable itself ends with Avalokite§vara expressing his commitment and determination to obtain the eyes and faces (formerly sesame cakes), with which to proceed with his work of compassion, whether or not he has any money. In his own concluding commentary, Dogen adds, When Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva makes an appearance, mountains and rivers on the great earth are not dead ashes. Here Dogen emphasizes the dynamic, liberating quality of the marketing vf world of concrete phenomena. Smart? For Dogen, the whole world and from the outsiders, its components, even the dreams within a dream, are the vital functioning of awakening, like the conjured city in the Lotus Sutra parable, assisting those on the path.

Dogen's jodo concludes with a further affirmation of the enlightening potency of the phenomenal world, You should always remember that in the third month the partridges sing and the flowers open. Here the emergence of vitality in spring, and also its very invocation, functions skillfully as an encouraging metaphor for the enduring potential of awakening in smart objectives, his disciple audience. The parables in Sex In History Essay, the Lotus Sutra may lack Dogen's humorous irony and visionary whimsy. But in accord with LaFleur's account of the smart objectives function of globalisation, those parables, Dogen uses his dream parables similarly as skillful modes with which to encourage his monks' engagement with and affirmation of the complete reality of the world of concrete phenomena in spite of the fact that they are impermanent. In his Eihei Koroku , Dogen relates parables that echo the function of the smart objectives marketing parables in the Lotus Sutra by demonstrating the presence of wondrous dharma, right in the phenomenal world and in the midst of karmic consciousness. While such parables are occasional, and certainly not Dogen's major mode of literary expression, they do exemplify his borrowing of Lotus Sutra styles in marketing vf, his discourse. More significantly than in Dogen's occasional use of parables, the marketing profuse self-referencing of the Lotus Sutra and the complex, skillful impact of this self-reflexive discourse serves as one major resource or model for Dogen's style of proclamation. Dogen follows the Lotus Sutra self-referential style in Essay, various of his rhetorical modes to proclaim and celebrate a teaching that often remains unstated, but which may be more provocative because of this quality of the non-explicit. Dogen's self-referential, proclamatory discourse (at least in some part borrowed from the Lotus Sutra discourse style), used as a mode with which to express and smart marketing, exemplify radical nondualism, becomes a model for Soto Zen expression and practice, supporting prominent Soto teachings such as the oneness of practice-realization. This essay has focused on suggesting some of the aspects of Dogen's appropriation of Lotus Sutra styles of rhetoric in and negatives, his own discourse.

Much more can be said about smart marketing his inclusion of its doctrinal contents in Sex In, his own teaching. Objectives? Still, Dogen's primary literary source by far was the vast Ch'an koan literature, which he was introducing as a new, foreign language into Japan, and which he had mastered to marketing vf, an astonishing degree. In his prominent use of the objectives Lotus Sutra , on the other hand, he was referencing the Buddhist text that was perhaps most familiar to his Kamakura audience. His wide use of the about Use in Should Not be Lotus Sutra raises many questions. His devoted dissemination of the alien koan literature suggests that he was not citing the Lotus simply to match audience expectations or familiarities. Some aspects of Lotus teaching were clearly useful to legitimatization of Zen positions.

For example, he widely quotes the passage in Kumarajiva's translation of chapter two of the smart marketing sutra that, Only a buddha together with a buddha can fathom the Reality of All Existence.[41] Dogen appropriates this saying for his Shobogenzo essay Yuibutsu Yobutsu, Only Buddha and Buddha, as support for the Zen Dharma transmission tradition.[42] The Lotus Sutra focus on Shakyamuni also fits with the main buddha figure in Zen, rather than the Buddhas Amida or Vairocana venerated in taymor, the contemporary Pure Land and Esoteric (and Kegon) movements. But perhaps most fundamentally, the significant presence of the Lotus Sutra in Dogen's teaching content and in his style of presentation may serve to remind us of the substantial underpinnings of Mahayana thought and practice in Soto Zen teachings. [1] For a discussion of some Lotus Sutra references by Dogen, and objectives, a list of about Cell Phone Use in Banned, some such citations, see Kagamishima Genryu, Dogen zenji to in'yo kyoten-goroku no kenkyu (Tokyo: Mokujisha, 1965), pp. Objectives Marketing? 121-137; 217-219. Titus Taymor? A list of Lotus Sutra references in smart, Dogen's Shobogenzo appears in Gudo Wafu Nishijima and Essay about Use in Schools Should Not be, Chodo Cross, trans. Master Dogen's Shobogenzo , Book 1 (Woods Hole, Mass.: Windbell Publications, 1994), pp. 293-321. [2] Ryuichi Abe and Peter Haskell, trans. Smart Objectives? with essays. Great Fool: Zen Master Ryokan; Poems, Letters, and History Essay, Writings (Honolulu: University of smart, Hawai'i Press, 1996), p.xiii. See also p. 21.

[3] For background on hongaku thought, see Ruben Habito, Originary Enlightenment: Tendai Hongaku Doctrine and Japanese Buddhism (Tokyo: The International Institute for Buddhist Studies, 1996); and Jacqueline Stone, Original Enlightenment and the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999). For Saicho's appropriation of marketing vf, sokushin jobutsu from the Lotus Sutra story about the Dragon King's daughter, see Paul Groner, The Lotus Sutra and Saicho's Interpretation of the Realization of Buddhahood with This Very Body, in George J. Tanabe, Jr., and Willa Jane Tanabe, editors. The Lotus Sutra in Japanese Culture (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1989), pp. 53-74. [4] For an English translation of Hokke-Ten-Hokke, see Nishijima and smart objectives marketing, Cross, Master Dogen's Shobogenzo , Book 1, pp. 203-220. Wedding Speeches? I have also referred to a translation by Kazuaki Tanahashi and marketing, Michael Wenger, from the forthcoming Beyond Thinking , edited by Kazuaki Tanahashi. [5] Dogen appropriation of the Lotus, especially in terms of its use in Dogen's fundamental world-view underlying his praxis, will be further detailed in my forthcoming dissertation: Visions of Awakening Space and Time: The Bodhisattvas' Earth Emergence and the Inconceivable Life-Span in the Lotus Sutra , and globalisation positives, their Impact in Dogen's Teachings. [6] Steven Heine.

Dogen and the Koan Tradition (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994). [7] See Yasunari Kawabata, Japan the Beautiful and marketing, Myself, trans. Edward Seidensticker (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1969); and titus julie, Steven Heine, The Zen Poetry of Dogen (Boston: Tuttle Publishing, 1997). [8] See Yifa, The Rules of Purity for the Chan Monastery: An Annotated Translation and Study of the Chanyuan Qinggui. Ph.D.

Dissertation at Yale University, 1996. The Chanyuan Qinggui was a major influence, quoted extensively by smart marketing Dogen, in his Eihei Shingi. See Taigen Dan Leighton and Shohaku Okumura, Dogen's Pure Standards for the Zen Community: A Translation of Eihei Shingi (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996). [9] See, for examples, Edward Conze, trans., The Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand Lines its Verse Summary (Bolinas: Four Seasons Foundation, 1973), pp. Essay Cell Use In Schools Not Be Banned? 15, 120-121; and Buddhist Text Translation Society, Sutra of the Past Vows of Earth Store Bodhisattva (Talmage, Cal.: Dharma Realm Buddhist University, 1982), pp. 69-71, 89-92, along with many other passages. [10] I am using the Chinese /Japanese edition of Kumarajiva's translation, Myoho Rengekyo, 3 vols. (Tokyo: Iwanamai Bunko, 1996). English translations consulted are Leon Hurvitz, trans. Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma (New York: Columbia University Press, 1976); Bunno Kato, Yoshiro Tamura, and Kojiro Miyasaka, trans. The Threefold Lotus Sutra: Innumerable Meanings, The Lotus Flower of the Wonderful Law, and Meditation on the Bodhisattva Universal Virtue (New York: Weatherhill, 1975); and smart objectives marketing, Burton Watson, The Lotus Sutra , (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993). [11] Introduction to History, George J. Marketing? Tanabe, Jr., and Willa Jane Tanabe, The Lotus Sutra in Japanese Culture, p. 2. [12] Jodo, literally ascending the hall, referred to here as dharma discourses, were the major form of presentation in Sung China Ch'an temples.

They were often quite brief, given in wedding speeches, the Dharma Hall with the teacher on the high seat on the altar and with the monks standing. Objectives? Apparently they were the teaching form eventually favored by Dogen, since he nearly stopped writing the longer essays of Shobogenzo after 1244, but continued using the formal Jodo talks, which were recorded in Eihei Koroku , in training his monks at Eiheiji before his death in 1253. [13] All references to Eihei Koroku are from the earlier monkaku version (rather than Manzan's later edition) in Kosaka Kiyu and Suzuki Kakuzen, eds. Dogen Zenji Zenshu. vols. 3 and 4 (Tokyo: Shunjusha, 1989). All translations in this essay are from Taigen Dan Leighton and Shohaku Okumura, trans. Dogen's Extensive Record: A Translation of Sex In History Essay, Eihei Koroku (Boston: Wisdom Publications, forthcoming). [14] Yun-men's response to a monk's question, What is Buddha? of kanshiketsu has been interpreted legitimately either as a dried shitstick, a standard implement that was used as we now use toilet paper, or simply as a dried turd, an interpretation derived from Chuang-tzu's usage, which will be used as the translation in other jodo below, according to varied contexts. Yun-men's equation of smart objectives, Buddha with kanshiketsu appears, for example, in Mumonkan , case 21.

See Yamada, Gateless Gate, pp. 109-112. For a discussion of marketing vf, Dogen's likely interpretation of Tung-shan Shou-ch'u's utterance as sesame rather than the usual translation of flax, see the note to Dogen's reference to it in Tenzokyokun in Leighton and Okumura, Dogen's Pure Standards for the Zen Community, P. 56. This story appears, for example, in case 12 of smart objectives, Hekiganroku and in case 18 of Mumonkan . See Thomas Cleary and J.C. Cleary, trans. The Blue Cliff Record (Boston: Shambhala, 1977), pp. 81-87; and Koun Yamada, Gateless Gate (Los Angeles: Center Publications, 1967), pp. 96-99.

[15] See Burton Watson, The Lotus Sutra, p. 45; Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, p. 45; Kato, Tamura, and Miyasaka, The Threefold Lotus Sutra, p. 74. [16] William LaFleur, The Karma of globalisation, Words: Buddhism and the Literary Arts in Medieval Japan (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983), p. Smart Objectives? 87. [17] Hurvitz, Scripture of the titus Lotus Blossom of the objectives marketing Fine Dharma, pp. Positives And Negatives? 29-30. [18] LaFleur, The Karma of Words, p. 87. [19] Jacqueline Stone, Original Enlightenment and the Transformation of Medieval Japanese Buddhism, p. 14. [20] See Norman Waddell and Masao Abe, trans. Smart Objectives? The Heart of Shobogenzo (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002), pp. 59-98. [21] George J. Wedding? Tanabe, Jr., Myoe the Dreamkeeper: Fantasy and Knowledge in Early Kamakura Buddhism. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992), p. 9. [24] See Taigen Dan Leighton and Kazuaki Tanahashi, trans.

Within a Dream Expressing a Dream, in Kazuaki Tanahashi, editor, Enlightenment Unfolds: The Essential Teachings of Zen Master Dogen (Boston: Shambhala, 1999), pp. 165-172. [27] Kazuaki Tanahashi, editor, Moon in a Dewdrop: Writings of Zen Master Dogen (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1985), p. 69. [28] For Myoe's dream journal, and commentary, see Tanabe, Myoe the Dreamkeeper, cited above, and Hayao Kawaii, The Buddhist Priest Myoe: A Life of Dreams, translated with introduction by Mark Unno, (Venice, Ca.: The Lapis Press, 1992). [29] See Bernard Faure, Visions of Power: Imagining Medieval Japanese Buddhism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996). [30] For further discussion of the stereotypical distinctions between Keizan and objectives marketing, Dogen, see Faure, Visions of Power, pp. 3-4, 211-215. [31] Tanahashi, Enlightenment Unfolds, pp. 170-171; and Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, pp. 223-224.

[32] I am indebted for short speeches clarification of the difference in Dogen's reading of this passage, and for many other suggestions for smart this paper, to titus taymor, the kind response commentary of Jan Nattier. [33] Tanahashi, Enlightenment Unfolds, p. 171. [34] The Lotus Sutra includes a number of variations on the full formula for descriptions of buddhas and their buddha-fields parodied by smart objectives marketing Dogen, also including versions in chapter twelve on History Essay Devadatta and chapter twenty-three on the Bodhisattva Medicine King. One of the versions closest to the full formula parodied by Dogen is the description of Ananda's prediction in chapter nine. See Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, pp. 168-169. [35] Dogen refers frequently to ladles in Eihei Koroku , used as a term for reliable practice implements, and sometimes for practitioners themselves. Smart Objectives? For other examples, jodo 219 in 1247 begins, Abundant with ten thousand virtues, the sitting cushions and wooden ladles are dignified. In jodo 320 in 1249, Dogen refers to Shakyamuni himself as, The wooden ladle at Vulture Peak.

[36] Faure, Visions of Power, p. 116. [37] See Thomas Cleary, trans. Book of Serenity (Boston: Shambhala, 1998; originally published by Hudson, N.Y.: Lindisfarne Press, 1990), pp. 332-334. [39] For the iconographic forms of julie taymor, Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva, see Taigen Daniel Leighton, Bodhisattva Archetypes: Classic Buddhist Guides to Awakening and their Modern Expression (New York: Penguin Arkana, 1998), pp.

159-170. [40] Tanahashi, Enlightenment Unfolds, p. 169. [41] See Kato, Tamura, and Miyasaka, The Threefold Lotus Sutra, p. 52. Compared to the Sanskrit original, which simply denotes plural buddhas, Kumarajiva's rendition emphasizes the relational aspect of a buddha together with a buddha. [42] See Tanahashi, Moon in a Dewdrop, pp.

161-167.