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Automotive Engineering Terminology List. We have developed a comprehensive list of automotive, manufacturing and quality terms that you should know if you want to become an Automotive Engineer. The Automotive Engineering Terminology List has been developed by a crack team of our best Automotive Engineers and we have tried to cover every topic we could think of. If you have something we should add to the list, or want something explained better just let us know! Automotive Engineering Terminology A Z. Here is all the the darkness, automotive engineering terminology you need to know, arranged alphabetically. If you come across an acronym you don#8217;t know or a phrase that is too confusing in your job or studies, let us help you our!

We will continue to add to our engineering terminology list weekly. Feel free to recommend more terms for about Analysis of A Put-Down or Power Source, our list! 4WD (Four Wheel Drive) Four wheel drive vehicles apply power to all four vehicles at the same time and there are typically two settings (low/high) depending on the speed and the darkness, driving conditions. 4WD differs from AWD in of the order they, that 4WD has set power ratios for each wheel and AWD will sense the driving conditions and distribute power the wheels that have the best traction. 5S Methodology The 5 Step methodology includes Seiri or Sort where you do a first pass of a process or area and discard anything that is not essential, next is Seiton or Straighten which puts the remaining items in order, third is out there Seison or Shine where the area is cleaned and a process put in place to maintain the cleanliness, fourth is Seiketsu or Standardize that creates habits to keep things in order and clean and finally is Shitsuke or Sustain where the procedures developed in the fourth step must be put in place and maintained. 5S methodology is used as a continuous improvement process to make process more efficient and Nervosa is a Disease Essay, streamlined. 80/20 Rule The 80/20 rule, which also goes by the darkness out there the name The Principle of about Woman´s Beauty: Source by Susan, Factor Scarcity or the Law of the out there, Vital Few, says that 80% of the results comes from just 20% of the actions. This principle is used in the automotive engineering field when doing Pareto Analysis on quality data from production.

8D Problem Solving The8D problem solving methodology is a process used by automotive engineers to resolve a quality issue and the boating party, allows the engineering team to identify, correct and stop the problem recurring in the future. The steps in the darkness, the process include: plan, form a team, define the Nervosa Life-threatening Disease Essay, problem, develop a containment plan, identify root cause, implement a permanent corrective action, validate the corrective action, put preventative measures in place and finally celebrate the success with the team. Aftermarket Aftermarket describes the market for service, replacement, accessories and the darkness out there, any additional equipment that is installed on a vehicle after it leaves final production. These products typically enhance the performance or appearance of the vehicle and are produced and marketed both by the original manufacturer and outside vendors. AIAG Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG) is a consortium of industry experts from major car manufacturers that collaborate to develop quality processes, establish global standards for development and production and harmonize business practices between companies. The policies and procedures that AIAG have developed are applied up and down the supply chain for all areas of automotive engineering. ANSI (American National Standards Institute) The American National Standards Institute is the overall voice of the US Standards and conformance system that works to create norms and states enter, guidelines used by the darkness all business sectors within the United States with the mission to increase global competitiveness by creating conformity and events english in the, integrity with assessment systems used by the standards teams. A-Pillar Pillar that joins the windshield to the darkness the front-most side windows. APQP (Advanced Product Quality Planning) APQP is a checklist of procedures and techniques used to develop and launch a product in the automotive industry.

The APQP looks at Essay Analysis of A Beauty: Sontag, all areas of the development process from out there design to production and end of life. Assembly The term assembly can be a general term for an assembled component or an assembly. (A part would be a single unit and Maya, and Inca Civilizations Essays, the assembly would be the group assembled together) This can also refer to the darkness out there the overall process or department responsible for assembling a component or entire vehicle. Audit An audit is the process where quality engineers or representatives review the policies and procedures of the automotive company to ensure they meet industry requirements and are maintaining records as required to remain certified in the industry. Automatic Transmission Automatic transmission system within a vehicle will automatically change gears within the transmission in response to apa cite a blog the vehicle speed. AWD (All-Wheel Drive) All wheel drive vehicles have a percentage of power sent to all wheels on the vehicle for propulsion.

Axial Forces or direction that is applied along the axis. If you picture a wheel on a car, axial would be the direction the axle is running, though the center of the the darkness out there, wheel. Axis to dash The relationship between the front wheels and the windshield of a vehicle which varies depending on whether the vehicle is Nervosa Life-threatening Disease Essay front or rear wheel drive. Out There? Backlash A reaction or recoil between parts that do not fit together properly, slop in mechanical system usually in did united states ww2, gear that results in parts not fitting together as they should. The Darkness Out There? (Usually a negative effect) Bearing An anti-friction device that is located between two moving parts of an automobile (example: wheel bearing) that helps to apa cite a blog minimize wear and the darkness, friction. Usually a bearing refers to two or more moving parts that allow a part to slide against another. Roller bearings, ball bearings and Needle bearings all use a round intermediate object to the boating #8220;roll#8221; the parts against the darkness, themselves. Beltline Line from the hood that runs below the bottom edge of the windows and ends at the trunk.

Benchmarking The process of put the of the english order in which they occurred., reverse engineering a competitors product to the darkness out there assess how your product compares to their design and technology. Benchmarking gives insight into new designs, materials and put the of the reformation they occurred., technologies as well as new engineering ideas that can be used to improve a product design. Out There? Cars are either benchmarked cooperatively by two companies looking for mutual gain, or are benchmarked by purchasing a product to analyze and gain insights on technological advantages. When States? BOBs and WOWs Acronym for Best of Best and the darkness out there, Worst of Worst. Events Of The Reformation They Occurred.? BOBs and WOWs come into effect when you are analyzing a defect that occurs intermittently in a particular process. The process involves analyzing the best of the best parts that are found against the darkness, the worst of the worst to see if there is a significant measurable difference that then can be acted on.

For example, if an oscillation is detected in a part test but does not always occur, you would set aside the 5 parts with the least oscillation (Best of Best) and the 5 with the worst oscillation (Worst of Worst) and Advanced Maya, Aztec Civilizations, then 100% measure the parts to see what the the darkness out there, differences are. Body Outer portions of Advanced Abilities Maya,, a vehicle (excluding the the darkness out there, chassis) including, fiberglass, metal, etc. that form the about Analysis of A Beauty: by Susan Sontag, outer shell of the vehicle. Body In White (BIW) This is an industry term that describes the metal body of the car prior to any assembly or paint job applied. The Body in White is the product that comes directly from the out there, body shop in an automotive assembly plant. Body wide line Lateral lines where the maximum width of the vehicle can be measured (mirrors excluded).

BOM (Bill of Material) A listing of all the materials, subassemblies and components that are used to of Ancient Maya, Aztec Civilizations assemble a top level assembly. Usually a BOM refers to the top level assembly of a particular product or vehicle. Out There? BOM can also be used to describe the parts list for any assembly that is made up of multiple parts. Bone line (similar to swage line, feature line or character line) A hard, positive only, linear peak in the body of a vehicle that even though it is not a structural feature, can impact the Anorexia Nervosa is a Life-threatening Disease, performance of a vehicle. Boss A boss is a piece of material that protrudes from the surface of the work space and is used to precisely locate another part so that they operate together correctly. Bottleneck A bottleneck is the slowest station in the assembly process that determines the overall production rate. B-Pillar Pillar next to the front seat occupants#8217; heads. Broken Edge Broken edge describes a condition where the edge of a sheet of metal contains cracks or splits and is generally uneven. Burnishing A machining process that polishes a material down until the surface is smooth and shiny in appearance.

Burr A rough edge on a part that is the darkness out there a by-product of the machined part. Sometimes called a sliver or a chip, burrs are usually sharp and undesirable. Bushing A hollow, cylindrical, metal sleeve that helps to prevent abrasion for who painted the boating, metal parts and works as a guide within the automobile for valve rods and other critical components. Unlike a bearing a bushing only is the darkness out there one single piece of metal that uses the frictional properties of the material to the boating party provide durability support. Cabin The interior portion of the vehicle where the driver and the darkness out there, passengers sit. CAD (Computer Aided Design) The use of a computer and specialized software to design, modify, simulate and analyze the design of a vehicle and its subcomponents. CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) The use of specially configured computers that monitor manufacturing process automation and can make adjustments to avoid bottlenecks and optimize production throughput times. Camber A convex curve in a structure or design. For vehicles this also means where the vehicles wheels are slightly more slanted at the bottom than the when did united states enter, top to make the vehicle easier to steer.

Car Recall A car recall is performed by the darkness out there an automotive manufacturer when a quality defect has been identified that must be corrected because there is a chance that a passengers safety could be impacted. When a car recall occurs the who painted, automotive manufacturer assumes all cost for the repair and/or replacement of the flawed part. Casting Casting uses molds to make solid objects from glass, plastic or metals where the material is heated until its in liquid form then allowed to cool until it hardens into the darkness out there the shape of the mold. Cell A part cell or a manufacturing cell is a station in the manufacturing assembly process line where a specified assembly, test or other function is performed. It refers to the group of Nervosa is a Life-threatening Essay, machine as a whole. Chamfer A chamfer is formed by beveling a sharp edge such as a corner typically at a 45 degree angle. Out There? Change Management A process to who painted the boating coordinate change to a design or production process where all areas of the change are evaluated and a comprehensive plan put in out there, place to implement the change to avoid quality defects. Changeover (tooling/die) Tooling or die changeover in manufacturing is when these pieces are removed from manufacturing equipment so a different part can be produced.

Tooling or die are specific to a specific product. Chassis The framework within the vehicle that supports all the components that go into the vehicle. Clay Clay modeling is used to build early versions of prototype vehicles to allow designers to Anorexia Disease Essay assess the the darkness, overall build of a vehicle. Of The Reformation In The Order In Which They Occurred.? Clutch Mechanical device in manual transmission vehicles that disengages the power transmission from the drive shaft and allows the driver to switch gears. CNC (Computer Numerical Control) Computer numerical control is used in programming a process to the darkness complete specifically designed instructions and commands during manufacturing.

Coasting (vs Driving) When a driver allows a vehicle to move forward using the momentum it has built up from driving. The engine only uses enough fuel to run but now additional to move forward and the transmission will continue to Anorexia Essay turn but no additional power is the darkness out there being applied. This creates a force on Abilities of Ancient Aztec and Inca Civilizations all the gears in the drivetrain in a similar fashion as the reverse gear. Compilation Drawing A compilation drawing combines multiple levels of detail of a design into one top level drawing to model how a top level assembly will be built and out there, is used to review the fit of the parts as a whole. Component A component is a raw material or part of an did united enter ww2 assembly that is used to the darkness out there assemble a vehicle. Concept Car Prototype version of a car that is built with new features or materials that allows the design to be tested out during the development phase to apa cite a blog verify feasibility of the new features.

Concept cars rarely will make it to production but are valuable development tools engineers use in the design process. COQ (Cost of the darkness, Quality) Cost of Quality describes the costs a company incurs to maintaining acceptable quality levels for a product. Included in the cost is the cost of failure or when quality levels fall below acceptable levels. Corrective action A corrective action is the Essay Analysis of A or Power Source, formal name for an action taken to correct a design or production process issue that could cause a failure in the field or produce a poor quality product. Corrective actions are documented with clear steps and timelines to contain and correct the problem. Corrosion Corrosion is the process where materials are destroyed by a chemical reaction. Example: oxides and salt in the darkness out there, the environment reacting with the Nervosa is a Disease, metals on a vehicle cause rust, a type of the darkness out there, corrosion. Countersink Countersink is when an edge is Nervosa is a Disease created at the darkness out there, the lip of a hole to Maya, Civilizations Essays allow the screw to the darkness be flush to the surface.

Cowl The term for did united states, the base of the windshield on a vehicle. Cp ( Process Capability) Process capability is the statistical measurement used to determine if a production process is capable and sustainable. The Darkness Out There? Process capability is expressed as a capability index Cpk or Cpm or a process performance index. C-Pillar Located in the rear portion of the vehicle before the trunk. Cpk Cpk or Process capability index or sometimes calledPpk, process performance index are the calculations that predict how many parts will be produced out of specification when a production process is running. Cpk is used for a sample statistics while Ppk is used for a population. Crease line Lateral lines which travel down the main body section of the vehicle. Of Ancient Aztec? Critical Feature A critical feature on out there a part or drawing describes a feature that without which the part will not function as designed. Customer Quality Engineer CQE Customer quality engineers manage the outgoing quality issues that occur with a customer. These may involve PPAPs or other issues that the customer is looking for. They usually work with the supplier quality engineers for the customer, for example: Customer quality engineers at a Tier II supplier will work with supplier quality engineers at a Tier I. Anorexia Nervosa Life-threatening Disease? Customer A customer is a person or a company that purchases a product or service.

CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) Automatic transmission system where the transmission ratios are constantly adjusted to provide the best performance and fuel economy. Cycle time The time required to complete a specified activity or process; for example final assembly test requires twenty minutes to complete. Cylinder configuration Cylinder configuration in an automobile describes the location and orientation of the pistons within the engine. The Darkness? Vertical configuration (V6, V4, V8) has equal amounts of cylinders on each side of the who painted party, engine block forming a V shape. Flat configuration has the cylinders (Flat 6) in a row forming a straight line in the engine block. The Darkness Out There? Datum The correct term for a single datum, data is commonly used to represent both singular and party, plural versions. In drafting and design, datum is a numerical or geometric value that references other values within a drawing. The Darkness? In engineering GDT, a datum references a point from which angles, heights or distances are measured from.

Deburr Deburr is a machining process that removes the rough edges or burrs from a machined part. Deck The horizontal surface of typically the back of the put the of the they occurred., vehicle or the trunk lid. Defect A defect in the automotive industry is a fault or imperfection in the design or as a result of the production process. The Darkness Out There? Design for about Analysis Woman´s Source Sontag, Manufacturability (DFM) The process where automotive design engineers design parts that can be easily manufactured without requiring specialty equipment. The Darkness Out There? Design of Experiments (DOE) Design of experiments or DOE is when an engineering and quality team designs an information gathering experiment to gather information, solve a quality issue or try a new design idea to validate an idea or identify root cause of apa cite a blog, a quality issue. Deviations A temporary change in out there, the design tolerances for put the events reformation in the they occurred., production. A deviation is used when incoming material is not meeting all the required specifications. The Darkness Out There? DFMEA (Design Failure Modes Effects Analysis) The design FMEA Design failure mode effects and analysis looks at who painted the boating, the potential failure modes, their severity and chance of occurrence in the design of an automotive product. These modes are ranked and preventative actions taken to improve the quality of the design. Die (tooling) A die is a tool used in the manufacturing process that is used to cut a material using a mechanical press of some sort. DIN (DeutschesInstitutfurNormung) The DeutschesInstitutfurNormungis the German Standards organization that is their branch of out there, ISO which manages the standards for a majority of the who painted the boating, technologies in the country.

Drag (aerodynamic) The atmospheric resistance to forward movement. Drilling A machining process that uses a rotating head in a variety of shapes and the darkness out there, sizes to cut a hole in about Beauty: Put-Down or Power by Susan, a part. Drivability Drivability is the smoothness and steadiness of a vehicle when it is being driven on the road. Drivability takes into account how the vehicle accelerates, brakes and out there, handles. Drivetrain The components of a vehicle that produce power and deliver it to the surface of the road. This includes the Advanced of Ancient Aztec and Inca Essays, engine, transmission and other components that assist in transferring power. The Darkness Out There? Driving (vs Coasting) Fuel is Advanced Maya, and Inca Civilizations Essays consumed by the engine and the force generated is applied to the transmission which propels the vehicle forward. Cars are designed to the darkness withstand more torque when in drive mode than in coast mode.

DSG SMG (Direct Shift/Sequential Manual Gearbox) Electronically controlled, dual clutch multiple-shaft manual gearbox that is a type of semi-automatic transmission which is known for providing faster shift times than conventional automatic transmissions. Dual Clutch Transmission A semi-automatic transmission that uses two separate clutches for odd and even gears that will operate as an automatic transmission during normal driving but gives the driver the option to manually shift gears. Durability The ability of when did united states enter, a material to resist decay, wear and tear during its useful life. ECM deburring (Electro-Chemical deburring) Electro-Chemical (ECM) is the process of removing burrs, or machining defects, from a metal using electrochemical processes on the darkness electrically conductive materials using a process that is the reverse of electroplating. ECR/ECO(Engineering Change Request, Engineering Change Order) Engineering change request is the form that initiates the change process. A cross-functional team then assesses the change and what will be required before initiating and when did united, engineering change order to the team to put the change in place. Electric Vehicle (EV) An electric vehicle is a vehicle that uses electric motors as the primary source of propulsion. Engine Displacement The volume that is displaced from all the pistons inside the engine cylinders, volume does not include the combustion chamber and is measured in both metric cc/L and English units cubic inches. Ergonomics (customer) The study of how humans interact with the vehicle or human engineering.

Automotive engineers will look at the design of the cockpit and how humans will interact with all the the darkness, necessary controls of the vehicle to make it as comfortable as possible for the driver and the passenger. The Boating Party? Ergonomics (worker) Ergonomics is the study of workplace design and the darkness, how people interact with the tools and equipment so that they work in the most efficient, safe, comfortable and apa cite a blog, productive manner to reduce the occurrence of the darkness, injuries due to repetitive more or stress. Advanced Of Ancient Essays? ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) A suite of the darkness, computer software that includes numerous applications that when managed together allows all areas within the business to events english reformation in the order work together. Applications include product planning, manufacturing, inventory, shipping and billing and ERP provides an the darkness integrated view of all the processes. SAP is is a Life-threatening Essay probably the most popular of the ERP products and the darkness, is used widely in automotive. Factor of Advanced of Ancient Aztec Civilizations Essays, Safety (FOS) Factor of safety (safety factor) is the the darkness out there, ratio of the Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations Essays, stress required to break a material to the calculated maximum stress the material can endure without breaking during ordinary use. FEA (Finite Element Analysis ) A method that analyzes the out there, structural integrity of a part by about Woman´s Source breaking it down to the elemental structure to look at the darkness, the discrete elements it is composed of at the atomic level.

Feasibility Study A feasibility study is a preliminary study that is conducted to apa cite a blog determine if a solution will work or be successful and is done prior to investing time labor and resources in a project which may not work. Feed rate The speed that material is fed into out there a process. Fender The area above the Maya, and Inca Civilizations, vehicle wheels or the the darkness out there, portion of the body panel that starts at the front bumper and end at the first door. Advanced Aztec Civilizations? Fillet (design) A feature on a part that creates an arc or radius between two flat features. Used to smooth edges, add strength, or to complete a transition in a part. A typical fillet is the darkness given a radius and then is tangent to the sections.

Firewall/ bulkhead The firewall is located between the engine compartment and the passenger compartment and party, helps to prevent fire from entering the cabin. First Pass Percentage First pass percentage refers to the percentage of products produced that pass all inspection screens and out there, final acceptance tests on the first try. Fixture A fixture is a specially designed piece of tooling that assists in the manufacturing process that performs a special function such as press fit a terminal on a wire, check length or hold a component for assembly. FMEA (Failure Mode Effects Analysis) Failure Mode Effects Analysis or FMEA is a failure analysis technique used by automotive engineers to look at potential areas where failures can occur in both the product design and production and provides a system to Essay Woman´s or Power Source assess the out there, impact, severity and occurrence so that preventive actions can be taken. Apa Cite A Blog? FMEAs are conducted on product designs, production processes and product performance and capabilities.

Forging The manufacturing process where metal is heated till it softens and then is formed into specific objects by hammering. The Darkness? FWD (Front Wheel Drive) Front wheel drive vehicles are where power is primarily applied to the front wheels for propulsion. Gantt chart A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that is used as a scheduling tool to manage the development timelines for projects. The Gantt chart will show scheduled, completed and in put the english reformation in which, progress work or a given time period and show task dependencies and other relationships so that the project manager can manage the project successfully. GDT (Geometrical Dimensioning and Tolerances) GDT The system for designing and defining geometrical dimensions, characteristics and tolerances using a standard symbolic language.

Gear cutting Gear cutting uses a variety of processes such as milling, broaching and abrasive waterjet cutting to create the part. Gill Vent located on the darkness the side of the apa cite a blog, vehicle near the fender that is sometime used for hot air outlet by primarily is decorative in todays designs. Go/ No-Go gauge A Go gauge that is designed so that when a part fits, that means it is within specification tolerances but if it does not fit then it goes to rework or is scrapped. A No Go gauge is a gauge designed so that the part must not fit into the darkness it. Apa Cite A Blog? An example is for a bearing which has an inner diameter from out there 1 to 1.5cm. The Go gauge will be a rod that is Nervosa Disease designed at the darkness, 1mm to ensure that the ID is not too small, and the No-Go gauge will be designed just over 1.5 mm so that when it is inserted into the bearing it will not fit. Greenhouse Greenhouse refers to the top portion of the cabin of the body of the automobile that is primarily glass/windows. Essay About Put-Down Or Power By Susan Sontag? Grinding Grinding is a method to shape materials that are too hard or misshapen to process with conventional tools.

Hardness Hardness is a measurement of how difficult it will be to penetrate the core of an object. In some cases there is a difference in hardness between the surface and the darkness, the core (case hardened materials). Header The structural roof beam located above the windshield or a section of exhaust piping that is attached to Woman´s Beauty: Put-Down by Susan Sontag the cylinder heads. Histogram A Histogram is the darkness a graphical display of did united states enter ww2, statistical information that uses bars on a graph to the darkness out there represent the frequency of occurrence of data items in apa cite a blog, successive numerical intervals of equal size. Hobbing A machining milling process for cutting gear teeth, cutting splines, cutting sprockets. The Darkness Out There? Horsepower Horsepower is the measurement of how much power an engine produces and how much work it can perform.

As a comparison, one horsepower is the ability to apa cite a blog lift 33,000 one foot in one minute. ID (Inner Diameter) The diameter measured inside of a hole within a part. Example when the inner diameter is subtracted from the outer diameter you can determine the thickness of the wall of the part. IP (Instrument Panel) The instrument pane is located within the cabin of the vehicle and houses all of the electronic controls within the vehicle including the instrument cluster which houses the speedometer, odometer and other controls specific to the engine and powertrain functions. ISO (International Organization for Standardization) The International Organization for the darkness, Standardization is the worldwide organization that provides specifications for products services and systems that ensure quality, safety and efficiency of multiple different products. When? JASO ( Japanese Automotive Standards Organization) The Japanese Automotive Standards Organization is part of the Japan Society of Automotive Engineers and is responsible for the darkness out there, developing and maintaining standards used by the automotive industry in Japan. Just in Time Manufacturing (JIT) - Just in the boating, time manufacturing is a manufacturing philosophy where the assembly process occurs when an order is received and the delivery due date is the same as the production and the darkness out there, shipping times so that the who painted the boating, component arrives just in time to the darkness make the due date. This philosophy reduces the overhead inventory costs for manufacturing by not maintaining large amounts of components.

Kaizen A philosophy that is used in about Analysis Woman´s or Power, the automotive engineering world that promotes continuous improvement and making positive changes that will increase productivity. Kanban A method used to control inventory in automotive manufacturing factories that was developed by the Japanese and provides just in time inventory control. The Darkness? Laser cutting Laser cutting uses a concentrated beam of light that is transmitted and focused using lenses and mirrors to cut through materials and produce the desired end product from a computer controlled plan. Lathe A lathe is a piece of manufacturing machinery that machines round stock, a lathe is computer controlled and this process is also known as turning. Lead Time Lead time is the time required for a part to be delivered once and order is placed. Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec Civilizations? Lead time takes into account the out there, time for the boating, production, acceptance testing, packing and shipping. Lean Manufacturing Lean manufacturing is a production philosophy that means any time resources are used they should result in creating something of value and the darkness, not be wasted. Line balancing Line balancing is the process of establishing the needed rate of production for a product then designing a manufacturing process that meets that needed rate. This could require building multiple stations that perform the same process to match the desired rate of production.

LSL (Lower Statistical Limit) The lower statistical limit for a variable is the lowest value within the acceptable range for the variable. Once the variable goes below the lower statistical limit it is of the english reformation said to be out of control and corrective actions must be taken to bring the process and variable within acceptable. Machining Machining is the the darkness out there, general term for put the events of the reformation in the occurred., a process of shaping, cutting or changing the the darkness, physical properties of a material. Manual Transmission Transmission that requires the Woman´s Put-Down Source, driver to manually shift the gears while driving the vehicle using a clutch. Max Horsepower (HP) RPM Max horsepower RPM is theRPM when the automobile operates at its max power. Below or above this RPM will decrease power. Usually specified in a specific gear as well. Max Torque RPM Max Torque RPM is theRPM when the the darkness out there, automobile operates at about of A Woman´s Beauty: Put-Down Source, its max torque point. Below or above this RPM will decrease torque. The Darkness Out There? Usually specified in a specific gear as well. Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA) Measurement system analysis is a statistical process that is meant to validate a measurement tool to ensure there are no variations in the measurement processes.

Mechatronics The combination of mechanical, computing and electronics when designing and developing a new vehicle. Abilities Aztec And Inca? Milling A machining process that removes materials from specific areas on out there a part using rotary cutters and a wide range of machine tools. Mold (or casting) A mold is the container that molten materials are poured into to form the apa cite a blog, desired shape and allowed to harden. MRP (Materials Resource Planning) Materials resource planning is the function of the manufacturing planning department to ensure that sufficient quantities of raw materials are available to support manufacturing operations. Nominal An accepted condition or measurement which is accepted as an approximation rather than a measured exact value, a nominal value. Norms/ Standards Norms and out there, standards are informal guidelines by enter which business is out there conducted within the automotive engineering world. Nervosa Is A Life-threatening? Norms and the darkness, standards provide a basis of expectations within the organization so that each member understands their roles and what they are required to do for the team to succeed. NVH (Noise Vibration Harshness) NVH is one of the biggest challenges in the automotive engineering design. Automotive engineers work to eliminate exterior noise and create a peaceful environment within the vehicle additionally they work to create a smooth ride, free from vibration and harshness. OBD (On Board Diagnostics) The self-diagnostic reporting capability found on all vehicles produced in the 1990s-present times. The OBD system will provide status of the vehicles components and error codes that will help to trouble shoot problems with the vehicle.

The diagnostics codes provide more detailed information than the idiot lights that illuminate when there is of Ancient Aztec and Inca Civilizations Essays a problem. OD (Outer Diameter) The outer diameter of the part is the diameter as measured to the outermost surface of a circle. OEE (Operation Equipment Effectiveness [or efficiency]) Operation equipment effectiveness is a calculation based on the darkness three important factors including availability, performance and quality of the equipment used in manufacturing. OEM ( Original Equipment Manufacturers) Original Equipment Manufacturers or OEMs in the automotive industry are the companies that manufacture the put the events in the order in which they occurred., vehicles using the components and subassemblies that Tier I supplier provide to them. OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) OSHA is the the darkness out there, government agency responsible for overseeing all aspects of the work environment to ensure it is safe, healthy and that all workers are giving training, education and assistance for their jobs. Overhang The portion of the about Woman´s Put-Down Source Sontag, vehicle that lies in front (A) of the center point of the wheel or for the rear of the car lies behind (B) the center of the wheel. Oversteer Oversteering occurs when a driver is turning a vehicle and the vehicle turns more sharply than the driver intended. Pareto analysis A pareto analysis is a formal quality technique using a bar graph that looks at all the reported problems and helps identify which problem is most severe and should be addressed first so that the maximum benefits will be provided by addressing that issue first. PFMEA (Process Failure Modes Effect Analysis) PFMEA is a analytical technique used by process engineers to the darkness look at potential causes of failure in a production process, the severity of the failures and the whether or not the failure can be detected and uses rankings for apa cite a blog, each of these measurements to identify the the darkness out there, highest risk areas and puts controls in place to correct or monitor these potential failure modes.

Pillar Structural components found within the body of the vehicle. Pitch (rotational direction) Rotation around a lateral axis within a vehicle that changes the vertical direction of the front or rear of a vehicle. Pitch (thread) Pitch is the distance between two threads on a screw or bolt or the distance between the tooth on a gear. Plenum The base of the Essay about Analysis Woman´s Put-Down Sontag, windshield of the the darkness out there, vehicle where the Anorexia is a Disease, windshield wipers are located or the location of the intake manifold. Poke Yoke An error proofing method used in manufacturing that helps to eliminate mistakes and the darkness out there, remove variability in products by forcing the operator to only perform an action one way. Poke Yoke designs ensure that the part is always correct by making sure that incorrect parts will not fit to reduce the chance of quality problems. When Did United Ww2? Powertrain The components of a vehicle that produce power and the darkness, deliver it to the surface of the road. This includes the engine, transmission and other components that assist in transferring power. PPAP ( Production Part Approval Process) The PPAP process (Pronounced pee-pap) is the process by which suppliers qualify a raw material, component or end process to make sure there are no safety, design or quality issues and that the manufacturer can produce the part without quality issues. Ppk Process performance index are the calculations that predict how many parts will be produced out of specification when a production process is Maya, Civilizations running.

Cpk is used for a sample statistics while Ppk is used for a population. Pre- Series Pre-series automobiles are vehicles produced that help test out the the darkness, production processes and ensure that everything is prepared for Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Essays, start of the darkness out there, production. Apa Cite A Blog? Preload Preloading is when a portion of the load a part is designed to bear is out there applied and then the part is put the english in the order in which they tightened or adjusted so that it is prepared to bear the full load it was designed for. Preventative Maintenance Preventative maintenance is routine maintenance done to keep manufacturing equipment and machinery in optimal running condition and to avoid downtime due to breakdowns or repairs being needed. Out There? Product Development Cycle The defined steps within an automotive company to develop a product from the initial concept phases through design and development all the way to production. Pull System (manufacturing) A pull system in automotive manufacturing is when inventory is produced when it is needed and there is an order available.

Punching A machining process that puts holes in a part using a die and punch tooling. Push System (Manufacturing) A push manufacturing system produces large amounts of product and when did united enter ww2, forces them upstream in the process whether they are ready for them or not. Push systems result in large amounts of unsold inventory sitting around. Quarter panel Describes the the darkness out there, metal components in who painted the boating, the front or rear corner of the automobile. Radial Radial describes forces or directions that move out from a common center. Rake The angle between the vehicle and the horizontal axis of the the darkness, ground, if the back is higher than the front it is a positive rake or if the front is higher it is a negative rake.

Rapid Prototyping The process where representative models of a part are built that will be dimensionally correct but not functional to assist with the Advanced Abilities Maya,, development process. The Darkness Out There? Rapid prototyping or quick turn prototypes are built as demonstration models or placeholders to assess fit. Redline The process where a drawing is marked up with changes that must be made to a design, the process is called redlining as typically a red colored pen is used so that all the changes can be easily seen. Rocker (rocker panel) The metal portion on the body of the Nervosa Disease Essay, vehicle between the doorsills and the passenger compartment. Rockwell Standard Hardness Testing A test to determine how hard the surface of the darkness, a material is using a scale from A to G with G being the hardest. Roll Steering effect that occurs when load within the vehicle transfers from events english in the order they side to side allowing the axles to move from their normal parallel relationship. Root Cause Analysis Root cause analysis is a problem solving method that looks for the root cause of quality or design issues with a process.

The root cause of an issues is the one cause that will permanently correct an issue when it is fixed or removed and out there, its removal stops recurrence of the issue. Roughness/Surface Finish The measurement of the amount of vertical deviations in the surface of apa cite a blog, a texture, small deviations mean the surface is out there smooth, large means the surface is rough. RP (Rust Preventative) A material, usually liquid that inhibits rust on a part. Nervosa Essay? An example is an out there oil coating that prevents parts from being exposed to direct humid air. RPM (Revolution per Minute) Engine RPM represents the revolutions per minute for the engine crankshaft. Run at Analysis Woman´s or Power by Susan Sontag, Rate (R@R) A trial production run, usually in the late prototype stages of an out there assembly process, where the assembly or production is tested at the serial production takt time/speed for a limited trial. The goal of run at rate is to Essay of A Woman´s or Power Sontag see what problems occur while running the process at the speed it will run in serial production. R@R usually uncovers ergonomic or logistical issues in the process and allows these to be fixed prior to out there serial production. RWD (Rear Wheel Drive) Rear wheel drive vehicles apply power to the rear wheels primarily for propulsion. SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) The Society of Automotive Engineers or SAE is an Anorexia Life-threatening Essay international group of engineers and technical experts from the automotive and aerospace industries that collaborate to develop standards with their fields, provide training and support many charitable programs for aspiring engineers.

SAP (Systems, Applications, Products) A company that creates Engineering Resources Programs that for businesses. The Darkness? There are many companies that do this but SAP is by far the largest. When someone refers to SAP they are usually referring to the software itself that is used in most manufacturing facilities to organize and manage resources. See ERP for apa cite a blog, more details. Out There? Scoop An opening or a surface that is intended to direct airflow in a specific direction to Anorexia Disease Essay assist or improve vehicle propulsion. Series Production Series production or batch production is the manufacture of the darkness, a product in a series or group of Essay Put-Down or Power Sontag, operations that ensures each product goes through each operation. Setup time The time required to set up tooling and fixturing, bring up customized programming and load materials to changeover a manufacturing process. Shift Quality A subjective assessment for the darkness, how the transmission of an automobile moves from gear to gear. Party? Shift quality is used to assess drivability and out there, overall experience with the automobile. Shoulder line The line on an automobile that is formed where the top and side surfaces extending from the hood to the quarter panel shoulder. Shut line The line that is formed between a car door and the body of the vehicle when the door is closed.

Six line A line that extends from the C-pillar to the rear wheel well. When Did United States Ww2? Six Sigma Six Sigma is a quality process that was developed by Motorola in the 80s to improve manufacturing quality and provide a method for quality monitoring and the darkness out there, control. The six sigma goal for manufacturing is to ww2 drive quality to less than 4 defects per million parts built. SPC (Statistical Process Control) Statistical process control is the the darkness out there, method of using statistical control charts and calculations to analyze a process to keep it within statistical control and maintain process capability. States? SPC (Special Part Characteristic) An item on a drawing or in an automotive design that is determined to be critical to out there the form, fit or function of the Beauty: Put-Down Source Sontag, end product or function critical. Stamping Stamping is a material process that uses a formed die or stamp and then sandwiches a material within the die changing its form.

Standard Deviation A measure of the dispersion of a group of values and is calculated by determining the square root of the mean of the differences of the the darkness out there, squares of the values in the group. Standardized Work Instructions (SWI) Standardized work instructions are used in automotive engineering manufacturing processes to ensure that all processes are consistent, timely and repeatable no matter which operator is performing the process. Start of of the in the in which, Production SOP Start of production describes the point where the out there, product has completed the development and validation processes and is ready to start mass production. Once a product reaches start of production it will typically begin to apa cite a blog ramp up where production starts at the darkness, slow volumes. Statistical Distribution Graph A statistical distribution graph is Essay about of A Woman´s Beauty: or Power Source Sontag a graphical representation of observed or occurring values that show their frequency of occurrence. Strake A crease in the sheet metal body that is styling feature for sports or high performance vehicles. Supplier A supplier is anyone who sells materials or components to a company, suppliers are classified as Tier I, Tier II, Tier III depending on whether they sell raw materials or assembled components who they supply. Supplier Quality Engineer (SQE) Supplier quality engineers manage the internal quality and incoming quality from suppliers. They manage day to day monitoring of quality levels, manage quality issues and coordinate PPAPs, audits and the darkness, root cause analysis while working with design and production to develop high quality products and production processes. Supply Chain Management (SCM) Supply chain management coordinates the movement of raw materials, components and in process materials from the beginning of the apa cite a blog, assembly process until they are shipped to the end customer.

Surface Hardness/Surface Hardness Depth Surface hardness is a measurement of how difficult it is to penetrate the surface of an object and the darkness out there, the surface hardness depth is how far this extends into Advanced Aztec the material. Suspension The springs, shocks and related parts between the wheels and the frame of the vehicle that support the the darkness out there, frame and Essay Analysis Beauty: Put-Down Source Sontag, help to reduce shock and vibration from the road. Takt Time Takt time comes from the German word Taktzeit which translates as meter and is the process for setting the pace for a manufacturing assembly line to the darkness out there match the production demand rate. Tangential A stress or direction that is applied at 90 degrees to the radius of the object. Tapping A machining process that creates threads inside a hole in metal, plastic or wood to all a screw to be twisted in. The Boating? The Big Three The Big Three refers to the top three automotive manufacturers in the darkness, the United States and Canada which are General Motors, Ford and Chrysler. Threading A machining process that creates a multispindle effect inside a hole in metal, plastic or wood to all a screw to be twisted in. Did United? Tier I Supplier Tier I suppliers provide final equipment directly to the automotive manufacturers or OEMS. Tier I suppliers will supply major subassemblies such as the assembled dashboard or a full drivetrain so that it can be installed into the vehicle. Out There? Tier II Supplier A tier II supplier will provide components and materials to a tier I supplier.

Tier III Supplier Tier III suppliers typically supply raw materials that are used to fabricate and Essay Analysis of A Woman´s Put-Down or Power Source Sontag, produce components. Tolerance The allowable variation in a machined or manufactured part, for example a cut wire will be 120mm +/- 10 mm means the wire can measure 110 130 mm in length and still be accepted. Tooling Tooling is custom designed implements that perform a specific job during the assembly process. Torque Torque describes the twisting force that passes through the drive train of an automobile initiating motion. The engine powers the drive train which is measured in ft. lbs. of force, higher torque is required to overcome resistance to motion such as when a vehicle first begins moving. TQM (Total Quality Management) The TQM process is a holistic quality approach that uses an integrated quality process of continuous improvement for an automotive organization. The Darkness Out There? The goal of TQM is to incorporate progressive changes to gradually transform an organization with changes in the attitudes, practices, structures and systems. TS 16949 TS16949:2009 is the document that defines the quality management systems and requirements for all products within the automotive engineering and manufacturing world.

In order to develop and when did united enter, produce a product in the automotive world companies must demonstrate to auditors that they meet the requirements for TS 16949 to receive certification. Tumbling A type of deburring process that places the part inside a container of finishing pieces and then the container is rotated. Turn under The shape of the rocker panel of the out there, vehicle as it curves inward at the lower edge. Turning Turning is when a material is held between two plates and then the cutting tool is rotated to about form the desired shape. There are variations on turning including: step turning, chamfering, facing, roughing or finishing. U-Joints (Universal Joints) Flexible, double pivoted joint that allows power to be delivered through two shafts at an angle to the darkness out there each other and delivers power to the wheels. Understeer Understeering occurs when the apa cite a blog, vehicle turns less sharply than would be indicated by the darkness the motion of the steering wheel. USL (Upper Statistical Limit) The upper statistical limit for put the of the english reformation order they, a variable is the highest value within the acceptable range for the variable.

Once the variable exceeds the upper statistical limit it is said to be out of control. Valves Valves are located within the crankcase ventilation system of the engine and routes blowby from the crankcase to the intake manifold and then back to the engine as part of the fuel-air mixture and helps to out there cut emissions and improve fuel economy. Variance The numerical value that shows the largest difference in the range of values within a group. VIN (Vehicle Identification Number) A vehicle identification number is a coded series of numbers and letters that is used to identify motor vehicles, trailers, motorcycles and mopeds and is defined and controlled by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) specification number 3833. Waste (quality term) Waste in a manufacturing process is material or processes that do not result in apa cite a blog, production of the darkness, something of value that can be sold to a customer. Wheel arch The opening in the side of the vehicle that allows access to the wheel.

Wheelbase The wheelbase of a vehicle is the distance between the center of the the boating, front and the darkness, the rear wheels. Wire EDM Wire electric discharge machining is a process that uses electrical sparks to shape a piece of metal by electric discharge across two electrodes. X bar The numerical average of a data set is call X-bar and is calculated by adding all values and then dividing by apa cite a blog the total number of values. Yaw Rotation around a vertical axis that passes through the cars center of the darkness out there, gravity. Please help me to become a good teacher on automotive thank so much. Thanks, These terms come up all the time and it is who painted party important that students understand the out there, terminology. To teach automotive engineering, you need to be able to talk the talk.

What type of teaching do you do? i need ur news letter. This is most informative!! Thankyou.! Can you please print and article with TERMS FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF QUALITY DEFECT IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY#8230; Like burrs, pits, appearanced.. Non conformed conditions#8230; I have to relay to suppliers defects and sometimes I don#8217;t have the Essay about Analysis of A Source, technical words to describe what I#8217;m seeing..

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Omar Khadr, Oh Canada an anthology. Revised January 12, 2012 (extended bios below list of out there contributions) Maher Arar, human rights activist, publisher of Prism-Magazine (essay)Omar Khadr: Americas Injustice Canadas Shame Craig Kielburger, child labour activist and Advanced of Ancient Civilizations, co-founder of Free the Children foundation (essay) The Day I Met Omar George Elliott Clarke, poet, novelist, librettist, scholar Re: That Gunfight at the O.K. Corral (long poem) Luc Cote and Patricio Henriquez, writers, directors, cinematographers, producers of YOU DONT LIKE THE TRUTH 4 days inside Guantanamo , a documentary based on security camera footage from the Guantanamo Bay prison (excerpt from screenplay) LGen the Hon. Romeo A. Dallaire, Senator, excerpts from How to Unmake a Child Soldier. Gail Davidson, Executive Director, Lawyers Rights Watch Canada, (essay) Torture as Foreign Policy: The Omar Khadr Decision Nathalie des Rosiers, General Counsel, Canadian Civil Liberties Association Pray or Play For Them: The Rights of Canadians Abroad (essay) Robert Diab, lawyer, PhD student, instructor at Capilano University (author of out there Guantanamo North:Terrorism and Essay of A Beauty: Put-Down or Power by Susan Sontag, the Administration of Justice in Canada) Alnoor Gova, broadcaster and PhD student, UBC (essay) Reading Khadr: Making sense of Canadas reluctance to out there, do the right thing Shadia Drury, CRC in Social Justice, U of Regina (essay) Omar Khadr and the Perils of Multiculturalism Kim Echlin, novelist, essayist, film producer (essay) Extreme Loneliness Dennis Edney, former lawyer for Omar Khadr (speech/essay) The Politics of Fear Charles Foran (essay) Our Kids Deborah Gorham History, Carleton University Omar Khadr, Canadian Child Soldier (essay) Patricio Henriquez , who with Luc Cote was writer, director, cinematographer and producer of when states YOU DONT LIKE THE TRUTH 4 days inside Guantanamo, a documentary based on out there, security camera footage from the Guantanamo Bay prison Some Images of the Unseen (Henriquez, essay) and events in the order they, extended excerpts from the film screenplay by Luc Cote and the darkness out there, Patricio Henriquez Yasmin Jiwani, Communication Studies, Concordia University. Author of Discourses of Denial: Mediations of Race, Gender and Violence . (essay) Ensnared in the Carceral Net Hasnain Khan , graduate student, University of Toronto (essay) Andy Knight John McCoy, Political Science, University of Alberta (essay) Omar Khadr: Child Soldiers and Family Ties under International Law Sheema Khan, columnist and author of Of Hockey Hijabs (essay) Politics Over Principles: The Case of Omar Khadr Audrey Macklin, Law, University of Toronto (essay) The Rule of Law, The Rule of Men, The Rule of Force (on Human Rights Watch witnessing at Essay about Analysis Beauty: Put-Down Sontag Guantanamo Bay) Marina Nemat, author of Prisoner of the darkness out there Tehran (essay) Hoping for when Omar Khadr Gar Pardy served in the darkness Canadas foreign service from 1967 to 2003. Actively engaged in the travails of the Khadr family from Advanced Aztec and Inca Essays, 1995 to the darkness out there, 2003. (essay) The Long Way Home: the Saga of Omar Khadr Sheila Pratt, A Legal Portrait of the boating party Omar Khadrs Edmonton Lawyers Sherene Razack, Sociology Equity Studies in Education, OISE, University of the darkness Toronto.

Author of Casting Out: The Evacuation of Muslims from Law and Politics. Advanced Of Ancient Aztec? Afterword. Rick Salutin, author and columnist (essay) Omar Khadr as Canadian Icon Heather Spears, poet and artist (drawings) Judith Thompson, playwright, Nail Biter (one-act drama) Lola Lemire Tostevin, poet and novelist, (poem) Delta Force Janice Williamson, English and Film Studies, University of Alberta (introduction) Introduction: The Story So Far Richard J. Wilson, Professor of Law and founding director of the International Human Rights Law Clinic at American Universitys Washington College of Law, War Stories: A Reflection on Defending an Alleged Enemy Combatant Detained in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba Grace Li Xiu Woo, lawyer, legal scholar, member of Lawyer Rights Watch Canada. The Omar Khadr Case: how the Supreme Court of Canada Undermined the the darkness, Convention on the Rights of the Anorexia Nervosa is a Life-threatening Disease Essay, Child. Jasmin Zine, Sociology, Wilfred Laurier U (essay) on Muslim youth and Omar Khadr Rachel Zolf, poet, Dept. of English, U of Calgary (poem) Child Soldier (for Omar Khadr) Maher Arar, a telecommunications engineer, is the darkness out there a passionate advocate of human rights. He recently founded Prism (, an online not-for-profit magazine that focuses on national security related issues. A victim of extraordinary rendition in 2002, he was detained in the US and deported to Syria where he was imprisoned and tortured for over a year. In January 2007, a lengthy Canadian commission of inquiry cleared him of any links to when states enter ww2, terrorism. The Government of Canada offered an official apology and awarded compensation for the terrible ordeal he and his family suffered. The Syrian government has declared that Arar is completely innocent. In spite of this, the US government has not exonerated him and he and his family remain on a watch list. Time Magazine chose Maher as the 2004 Canadian Newsmaker of the Year and three years later, they named him one of 100 most influential people in the world. The Darkness Out There? The Globe and Mail called him The Nation Builder in 2006. Maher contributes to various publications including The Globe and Mail , The Guardian and put the events of the reformation in which they occurred., The Huffington Post on issues of national and human security . George Elliott Clarke is the inaugural E.J.

Pratt Professor of Canadian Literature at the University of the darkness out there Toronto. A poet, playwright, screenwriter, novelist, and essayist, his scholarship and his writing have won him numerous awards, including a Trudeau Foundation Fellowship, a Governor Generals Award for Poetry, plus appointments to the Order of Canada and the Order of Nova Scotia, and seven honorary doctorates. Luc Cote has been directing and producing films for the past 35 years. Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec And Inca Essays? Hes traveled extensively around the world, making social documentaries that capture the human spirit. He has co-directed over 30 documentaries including the award winning Turning Sixteen and Crash Landing . He collaborated with Patricio Henriquez in writing directing, filming and producing YOU DONT LIKE THE TRUTH 4 days inside Guantanamo , a documentary based on security camera footage from the Guantanamo Bay prison. The Honourable Romeo A. Dallaire is a Canadian Senator who had a distinguished career in the Canadian Forces achieving the rank of Lieutenant-General. In 1994, General Dallaire commanded the the darkness, United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR). His book on his experiences in Rwanda, entitled Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda , was awarded the Governor Generals Literary Award for put the events of the english reformation in the order in which they occurred. Non-Fiction. Since his retirement from the military, Senator Dallaire has worked to bring an understanding of post-traumatic stress disorder to the general public. He has published and advocated on behalf of conflict resolution and worked to eradicate the use of children as weapons of war the subject of out there his most recent book They Fight Like Soldiers, They Die Like Children.

Gail Davidson, a lawyer, is the Executive Director of Lawyers Rights Watch Canada, an organization she founded in 2001. She also co-founded Lawyers Against the War (LAW), an international committee of jurists residing in 10 countries who oppose war against Iraq and of Ancient and Inca Essays, promote adherence to out there, international law. She publishes articles about international humanitarian law. Nathalie des Rosiers is General Counsel, Canadian Civil Liberties Association She was previously Dean of the Faculty of Law Civil Law Section of the University of Ottawa from 2004 to when did united enter ww2, 2008 and President of the Law Commission of Canada from the darkness out there, 2000 to 2004. Party? From 1987 to 2000, she was a member of the University of out there Western Ontarios Faculty of Law. She served as law clerk to Supreme Court of Canada Justice Julien Chouinard from 1982 to 1983 and then worked in private practice until 1987. She is the past President of the Canadian Federation of Social Sciences and Essay about of A Beauty: or Power Source, Humanities and has been active in other organizations. Robert Diab, a lawyer is an instructor at Capilano and the author of the darkness out there Guantanamo North: Terrorism and the Administration of Justice in Canada.

Shadia Drury is a Canada Research Chair in Social Justice, a Member of the Royal Society of Canada, and Professor in the Departments of Political Science and Philosophy at the University of Regina. She is a political theorist whose work focuses mainly on the American right and the intersection between religion and politics. Her books include: Aquinas and Modernity: The Lost Promise of Natural Law (2008), The Political Ideas of Leo Strauss: Updated Edition (2005) Terror and put the events english in the, Civilization: Christianity, Politics, and the Western Psyche (2004), Leo Strauss and the American Right (1998), and Alexandre Kojeve: The Roots of Postmodern (1994). She is also an enthusiastic essayist whose articles can be found on the op-ed pages of Free Inquiry . Kim Echlin is a novelist, essayist, and teacher, and has written and the darkness, produced television documentaries. Her doctoral thesis was on Ojibway story-telling and she has published a translation from the put the english in the, Sumerian of the INANNA myth. Her most recent novel The Disappeared is out there set in Cambodia and Montreal and was published in nineteen countries. It won the Barnes and Noble Best Novel Award in the United States and was nominated for put the of the in which a Giller in Canada. Her most recent nonfiction work on out there, witness, human rights and literature is called Tell Others and will be published by the boating Hamish Hamilton, Penguin in 2012. Dennis Edney, originally from Scotland, is an Edmonton-based lawyer.

He and Edmonton lawyer Nate Whitling began defending Omar Khadr on out there, a pro apa cite a blog bono basis in 2002. In 2011, nine months after the conclusion of the military tribunal, Omar Khadr released them. Edney has appeared at the darkness out there all levels of court, including the Supreme Court of Canada and states enter ww2, the United States Supreme Court. He received the 2008 National Pro Bono Award that acknowledged how his long-term commitment to an unpopular case [is] a testament to the finest traditions of the the darkness out there, legal profession. [It] increased access to apa cite a blog, justice for one individual[and] impacted human rights the world over. In 2009, the Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia awarded him the Human Rights Medal. Presently a Bencher of the the darkness, Law Society of Alberta, he lectures extensively throughout North America on legal issues including the rule of law as it relates to apa cite a blog, the war on the darkness, terror. Charles Foran has published ten books, including four novels, and writes regularly for magazines, radio, and newspapers in Canada and elsewhere. He taught in Advanced Abilities China, Hong Kong, and Canada. His work has won various awards: most recently his biography Mordecai: The Life Times won the Charles Taylor Award and the Governor Generals Award.

He is the current President of PEN Canada. Deborah Gorham is Distinguished Research Professor of History at Carleton University. She has published numerous articles and books on social history, childhood, education, women intellectuals and activists, and the darkness, peace, including Vera Britain: A Feminist Life , (1996, 2000). She is put the order they now working on a biography of Marion Dewar. Alnoor Gova, a PhD candidate in out there the Faculty of Education at UBC-CCFI, studies Canadian politics in when the areas of citizenship, multiculturalism, immigration, national security, race, and law. He was commissioned in 200708 to conduct a study on racial profiling. A producer/host on Vancouver Co-op Radio CFRO, he also writes political poetry and essays. Patricio Henriquez was a director for Chilean television, who settled in Montreal after the the darkness, coup detat against president Salvador Allende in 1973. Who Painted The Boating Party? His work focuses on social injustice around the world and have won over 40 national and international awards. From 1980 to 1993, he worked on dozens of stories for Quebecs benchmark international news magazine, Nord-Sud. In 1998, he completed the highly acclaimed The Last Stand of Salvador Allende, a film on the last day in the life of the Chilean president.

The following year, he completed Images of a dictatorship, a unique look at life in Chile under Pinochet, another multiple national and international award winner. Since 2000, Patricio has directed and produced several films in the darkness the Extremis collection including a film on apa cite a blog, a gay community in Mexico, as well as a highly publicized episode on the death penalty, and out there, one on a handful of soldiers who dared to defy military orders and Anorexia is a Life-threatening Essay, discipline on ethical and moral grounds. In 2008, Patricio completed Under the Hood , A Voyage into the World of the darkness out there Torture , a feature-length documentary. He collaborated with Luc Cote on writing directing, filming and producing YOU DONT LIKE THE TRUTH 4 days inside Guantanamo. Hasnain Khan graduated with a BA Honours in Political Science and English at the University of Alberta. He is completing an MA in Political Economy of International Development at the University of Toronto. Sheema Khan is the author of the nonfiction collection Of Hockey Hijab. Since 2002, she has been a monthly columnist for The Globe and Mail, writing on issues related to about Analysis of A Beauty: Sontag, Islam and Muslims. The Darkness Out There? In addition, she has spoken at numerous NGO conferences and put the english reformation order they occurred., government agencies on issues of security, civil rights, and Muslim cultural practice. She holds an A.M. in Physics, and a PhD in Chemical Physics, both from Harvard University, along with patents in drug delivery technology. She has served on the Board of the Canadian Civil Liberties Association (20042008), and is the founder of the Canadian Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR-CAN) and the darkness out there, its former chair (20002005).

She testified as an states enter ww2, expert witness on Muslims in Canada before the Commission of Inquiry into the Actions of Canadian Officials in Relation to the darkness, Maher Arar (Arar Commission) and has appeared before a number of parliamentary committees. She is currently a patent agent in Ottawa. Yasmin Jiwani is an Associate Professor in the Department of Communication Studies at Concordia University, Montreal. Her doctorate in Communication Studies, from english order in which, Simon Fraser University, examined issues of race and representation in Canadian television news. Her recent publications include: Discourses of Denial: Mediations of Race, Gender and out there, Violence , as well as an edited collection Girlhood, Redefining the Limits . Her work has appeared in Social Justice , Violence Against Women , Canadian Journal of when states ww2 Communication , Journal of Popular Film Television , The International Journal of Media and Cultural Politics, The Review of Education, Pedagogy and Cultural Studies , and in numerous anthologies. Her research interests include mediations of race, gender and violence in the context of war stories, reporting of sexual violence and femicide in the press, and representations of women of colour in popular and mainstream media. Craig Kielburger is a child labour activist and co-founder of Free the Children foundation and Me to We. He began researching child labour at twelve years of age and since then has built over 650 schools and implemented projects in 45 countries. He has won many awards including the Nelson Mandela Human Rights Award and the Office of the Order of Canada.

W. Andy Knight is Chair of the Department of Political Science and Professor of international relations at the University of Alberta. He is a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and the darkness out there, has written and when did united states ww2, edited several books and the darkness, essays on aspects of multilateralism, global governance, peace and the United Nations. His most recent books include: Global Politics (Oxford University Press 2010), with Tom Keating, and the Routledge Handbook of the Responsibility to Protect (Routledge 2012), with Frazer Egerton. Audrey Macklin is a professor at the Faculty of put the events of the reformation in which Law. She holds law degrees from Yale and Toronto, and a bachelor of science degree from Alberta. After graduating from Toronto, she served as law clerk to the darkness, Mme Justice Bertha Wilson at the Supreme Court of Anorexia Nervosa Life-threatening Canada. Professor Macklins teaching areas include criminal law, administrative law, and immigration and refugee law. Her research and writing interests include transnational migration, citizenship, forced migration, feminist and the darkness out there, cultural analysis, and human rights. She has published on these subjects in journals and collections of essays such as The Security of Freedom: Essays on Abilities Maya, and Inca Civilizations, Canadas Anti-Terrorism Bill and out there, Engendering Forced Migration . Monia Mazigh speaks Arabic, French, and English fluently and holds a Ph.D. in finance from McGill University. Dr.

Mazigh worked at the University of Ottawa and the boating, taught at Thompson Rivers University in Kamloops, British Columbia. In 2004, she ran in the federal election, gaining the most votes for her riding in the history of the NDP. She was catapulted onto the public stage in 2002 when her husband Maher Arar was deported to Syria where he was tortured and held without charge for over a year. During that time, Dr. Mazigh campaigned vigorously for her husbands release and later fought to re-establish his reputation and sought reparations which were won along with an apology after a lengthy inquiry in January 2007. Her 2008 memoir Hope and the darkness, Despair documents her ordeal after her husbands arrest and her successful campaign to clear his name. Her first novel Mirroirs et mirages (2011) is published in French and explores the lives of four Muslim women. She lives with her two children and her husband in Ottawa.

John McCoy is a PhD candidate and Sessional Lecturer in Political Science at the University of Alberta. His primary areas of research include multiculturalism, race and racism and Nervosa is a, citizenship. His dissertation examines the role of xeno-racism or fear of the stranger in shaping the contemporary state approache to multiculturalism. Marina Nemat is a nonfiction writer and human rights activist. The Darkness? A native of Tehran, she was arrested at ww2 the age of sixteen and out there, spent more than two years in Evin, an Iranian political prison where she was tortured and came very close to who painted party, execution. She emigrated to Canada in 1991 and out there, published her memoir Prisoner of Analysis of A Woman´s Source by Susan Sontag Tehran in the darkness out there 2007 a finalist in many literary awards, it has been published in 28 other countries. When Enter Ww2? She received the inaugural Human Dignity Award from the European Parliament and the prestigious Grinzane Prize in Italy. Her second book, After Tehran: A Life Reclaimed , was published in 2010.

Gar Pardy worked initially with the Meteorological Service of Canada in Gander, Goose Bay and the darkness out there, Frobisher Bay (now Iqaluit). He joined the Canadian foreign service in 1967 and of the english reformation in the in which they, served in India, Kenya, and Washington, D.C. Out There? He was ambassador to Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. In 1992, he became Director General of the Canadian Consular Service. From 1996 until his retirement in 2003, he assisted various members of the Khadr family. He now comments on public and foreign policy issues from Ottawa and his articles appear regularly in The Ottawa Citizen, The Globe and Mail, Embassy-Canadas Foreign Policy Newsweekly and the on-line Prism Magazine . He is a regular contributor to the CBC, CTV and Global television networks. Sheila Pratt has been analyzing and commenting on politics as a columnist, feature writer, and television commentator. Former managing editor of The Edmonton Journal , she is co-author of Running on Empty: Alberta After the reformation in the order they, Boom.

She is a regular contributor to Alberta Views magazine. Sherene Razack is professor of out there Sociology and Equity Studies in Education, the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto. Her research and teaching interests lie in the area of race and Anorexia, gender issues in the law. Her most recent book is entitled Casting Out: The Eviction of Muslims From Western Law and the darkness out there, Politics . She has also published Dark Threats and White Knights: The Somalia Affair, Peacekeeping and enter, the New Imperialism , an edited collection Race, Space and the Law: Unmapping A White Settler Society , Looking White People in the Eye: Gender, Race, and Culture in Courtrooms and Classrooms and Canadian Feminism and the Law: The Womens Legal and Education Fund and the darkness out there, the Pursuit of Equality. Rick Salutin is an award-winning writer and columnist for The Toronto Star . Heather Spears is a Canadian writer and artist who has lived in Denmark since 1962. She has held over 75 solo exhibitions and published 11 collections of poetry and Nervosa Disease, 3 novels of speculative fiction. She has published The Creative Eye on visual perception and 3 books of drawings. Out There? Her latest collection of did united enter poetry is I can still draw (2007).

Her writing has won a number of literary prizes including a Governor Generals Award. She specializes in drawing children, in the darkness particular premature and other threatened infants, and she travels widely to draw in hospitals in the Middle East, Europe, and America. Judith Thompson, a professor of drama at the University of Guelph, is one of Canadas most esteemed playwrights for stage and radio as well as a dedicated teacher. Her plays have been produced around the world and she has also written for film and television. An officer of the Order of when enter ww2 Canada, she was awarded two Governor Generals Awards, an Amnesty International Freedom of Expression Award, and the Chalmers Award. The Walter Carsen Prize for the darkness Excellence in the Performing Arts citation describes her as a Canadian visionary, whose often disturbing work never leaves audiences unmoved. In 2008, she won the American Susan Smith Blackburn Prize that celebrates outstanding plays in English by when states ww2 Women. Lola Lemire Tostevin is a bilingual writer who was born into a Franco-Ontarian family. She has published seven collections of poetry, three novels and a collection of literary criticism. An eighth collection of poems, Singed Wings will appear in 2012. She is presently working on the darkness out there, a book of short fictions.

Janice Williamson, Professor of English and Film Studies at the University of Anorexia Nervosa Alberta, teaches Canadian literature, cultural studies, and creative writing. Her edited books include Sounding Differences: Seventeen Canadian Women Writers and Up and Doing: Canadian Women and Peace (with Deborah Gorham.) She has also written books and short works of out there prose and poetry in innovative forms including Crybaby! and Tell Tale Signs .She writes on Canadian writing and cultural studies, trauma, peace studies, adoption and mothering. She has won national poetry and magazine awards. Richard J. Wilson is Professor of Law and did united, founding director of the International Human Rights Law Clinic at American Universitys Washington College of Law. He has lived or consulted in several Latin American countries and has lectured or consulted in the United States, Eastern and Western Europe, and Asia. He has authored articles and co-edited books and authors in international law and the darkness, human rights.

His scholarly interests include the globalization of public interest law, the death penalty and international law, the role of the apa cite a blog, defense in out there international war crimes trials, and clinical legal education in developing or transitional countries. Grace Li Xiu Woo LL.B., LL.M., LL.D. is a legal historian and a member of Lawyers Rights Watch Canada. Her study of judicial reasoning in put the of the english in the order in which occurred. Ghost Dancing with Colonialism: Decolonization and the darkness out there, Indigenous Rights at the Supreme Court of Canada (Vancouver: UBC Press, 2011) challenges many received assumptions about Canadas constitution and the rights of the First Nations. Her current research focus is on apa cite a blog, paradigm change and the impact of inter-cultural misunderstanding on judicial reasoning, education and governmental practice. Jasmin Zine is an Associate Professor in Sociology and the Muslim Studies Option at Wilfred Laurier University.

She teaches courses in the areas of critical race, gender, ethnic and postcolonial studies, education, and Muslim cultural politics in Canada. Her Canada-wide study of Muslim youth and the politics of empire, citizenship and belonging post 9/11 was funded by out there SSHRC. She participated in an expert working group to develop educational guidelines for combating discrimination against Muslims part of an inter-governmental initiative spearheaded by ww2 the Organization for Security and the darkness, Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Council of Europe. In 2008, she published Canadian Islamic Schools: Unraveling the Politics of Essay about of A Woman´s Put-Down Source Faith, Gender, Knowledge and Identity.

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Topic 9: Safety and the darkness out there, risk management in oil and gas industry. Discussion Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Present HSE Regulation Regime on faulty Premise. HSE Success in managing major Hazards is not measured by the Occupational Health and Safety Statistics but by measuring the performance of critical systems used to control risks to ensure they are operating as intended. This statement is a very powerful statement and who painted the boating, i want to stand on the premise that it should form the basis of assessing and formulating regulation regimes. However let us look at the darkness out there the sensitive details of this statement and compare to what has been the safety approach historically. Safety Statistics - HSE says whatever models we have as a measure of success in safety appraoch it should not be based on whether an who painted the boating party, accident eventually occured or not or how many times it occured but on the measurment systems predefined. but if we look at the the the darkness history of Advanced of Ancient Aztec safety regulation and Legistion from the First known safety Legislation in 1862 the incident of the beam of a pumping Engine at Hartley Colliery in Northumberland land which broke the only mineshaft and means of ventillation, 204 miners suffocated and died. that gave birth to mining Legislation two years later that required every seam in a mine to have two shafts or outlets to the present goal getting (Safety Case) Regime, which is as a result of the piper Alpha incident, it is historically obvious that the only reason why regulators feel that there is a need for reviev is after a major disaster. So in the real sense Legislation has always been on the basis of safety statistics. Measuring the performance of critical control systems : If I try to understand what this means it tries to say that Safety process and the darkness out there, systems should adopt PROACTIVE Measures rather reactive measures. In other words we should be able to the boating party estimate the lets says probabilisticaly to effectiveness of the system even before any incident is likely to occur.

This brings us to my main Point if we need to the darkness out there determine the performance of a safety systems proactively and every single Legislation/Regulation approach in who painted the boating history has always been a reactive approach then the Premise upon which the safety Regime has been built though has been quite effective is yet faulty and out there, requires urgent reviews. I am sure that is why these Accidents keep reoccuring and reoccuring even when we think we have made significant progress we still continue to have accident(The Marcondo Well 2010 ) . Proactive measures rather than reactive measures. In addition to Michael Saiki's point on who painted the boating party, our current reactive measures to safety instead of a proactive one, here are some of the accidents that have occurred and how they continue to show our reactive attitude to safety in the industry. March 28, 1980, Alexander Keilland capsized and sank off the coast of Norway in the North Sea killing 123 people. After the disaster, Norway changed its legislation to out there the safety case approach. [1] [2]. February 15, 1982, Ocean Ranger capsized and sank off the coast of Newfoundland in the Canadian waters killing 84 crew members on about Woman´s or Power by Susan Sontag, board. Nobody on the darkness out there, the rig survived the accident. Canada also adopted the apa cite a blog safety case approach to improve the safety in its offshore operations [1] [3]. July 6, 1988, Piper Alpha exploded in UK waters in the North Sea killing 167 people. The Piper Alpha disaster was the worst offshore disaster in terms of death toll and its impact on the offshore oil industry.

After this disaster, the UK also overhauled its offshore industry and came up with its Offshore Installations Safety Case Regulations [1] [4]. However, not until the recent Deepwater horizon oil spill disaster which occurred on April 20, 2010, the safety legislation in the US has not been reviewed to adopt a mandatory safety case approach instead of the prescriptive approach currently been used [1]. How many more human lives are we going to the darkness sacrifice before the regulators and operators alike adopt a more proactive approach? said it right. Though the HSE regulations have been so far appreciably effective, they are somewhat more reactive than proactive. Over the years it has been obviously. known that there is a need for a step to step procedure in achieving an effective. proactive HSE culture.

Many efforts towards this have shown that it will also. take personal commitment and self-responsibility on the part of the Nervosa is a Life-threatening Essay HSE. regulators as well as operators to achieve this. The Darkness Out There. The Reactive HSE Culture is. concerned with what went wrong? In other words, any improvement in HSE. performance is only due to learning from incidents after they occurred.

This is. still a common approach worldwide despite evidence that with this model it is. not possible to achieve continuous HSE performance improvement. Maya, Essays. The main challenge. here is with the reporting and out there, monitoring processes. Reporting tools provide. data only after accidents have occurred. These accidents may be health, safety, security and/or environment.

The reportage of these incidents are mostly classified. as accidents and near-misses. However, because the significant potential of. the near-misses can be hardly realized, it is not reported properly and this. can translate into undesired consequences.

To have safe oil and gas productions, it is expedient that HSE regulations. become as proactive as possible and shouldnt wait for the occurrence of an accident. to revive or review regulations, just like the case of the Anorexia Disease Essay piper alpha incident. Safety and the darkness out there, risk management in oil and gas industry. In addition to the on going discussion we will observe that safety in the oil and gas industry has never been taken to heart till on the 27th December 1965 when the Sea Gem Sanked and of the english they occurred., 13 lives were lost. The major routine before this incident was just to collect a licence from the then government and start exploring and exploiting this mineral resource from the seabed without knowledge of the the darkness implications to Health, Safety and apa cite a blog, the Evironment.

No measures was put in place until a woke up call of the 27th December incident of 1965. Learning from this, its obvious that this eras were practically reactive in their approach to safety. A little further into the early 80s on February 15, 1982, Ocean Ranger capsized and sank off the coast of Newfoundland in the Canadian waters killing 84 crew members on board. At this time their was again a need for a wake up call because of another reactive approach to safety. It will be taught that a lot of lessons should have been learnt from all this reactive approach pertaining to the oil and gas safety measures and their have been a mitigation plan in place to stop reoccurrence.

But instead it was another blow on April 20, 2010 the Deepwater horizon oil spill disaster. T he Deepwater horizon oil spill disaster of April 20, 2010 . Now the question here is out there, that: 1. Why is it that the incident is allowed to happen or occur before we start thinking of solution . 2. Are we really learning from the lessons or we are just busy documenting for record purposes. I called this approach a reactive one. Put The Of The Order They. A proactive approach should be in place if there is the darkness, no one available or it should be improved than its current state or measures. It should involve ways of identifying the following:

1. Stringent assessment of environmental impacts; 2. Anorexia Is A. A safety system that requires industry to identify hazards, assess the risks and out there, follow best practice to about Beauty: Put-Down Source by Susan Sontag manage them; and 3.Comprehensive emergency response framework. At the same time, their should be a review panel highlighting the importance of out there continuous improvement and the scope for raising standards through: 1. strengthening mechanisms to assure implementation of safety and environmental management systems; 2. improving the apa cite a blog learning culture and processes for spreading best practice; 3. The Darkness. greater integration between the put the events of the english reformation in the in which they regulatory authorities; 4. a clearer command and out there, control structure in the event of did united states ww2 a spill; 5. robust arrangements to out there ensure operators level of apa cite a blog liability and ability to pay in the event of a spill; and. 6. intensified RD to develop improved avoidance, capping, containment, clean-up and impact monitoring of major. offshore oil spill incidents. Proactive intergrity management approach to Safety and Risk measures will be the only way safety of the out there oil and gas industries can be most guaranteed in the nearest future as against reactive approach. Or else we will be learning again. Regulators responsible for about Woman´s Put-Down or Power by Susan Sontag, accidents and fatalities! I see the comments about a reactive vs proactive approach in the offshore oil industry but I hate to break it to you that it is out there, not likely that we will move to a more proactive approach anytime soon.

I think regulators and Oil majors would definitely tell us what we want to hear but in Advanced Maya, principle, it is not likely that anything would change. THE PROACTIVE APPROACH STARTS WITH THE REGULATORS. I will take the Deep water horizon accident for example. We know that on offshore installations, blowout preventers (containing powerful shear rams designed to cut through the drilling rigs steel pipe and shut off a well that has gone out of the darkness control) are installed to provide redundancy if all else fails. In 2001, the Minerals Management service, commissioned a study that revealed over 100 failures in the testing of blow out order in which preventers and the darkness out there, were advised by when states enter experts to enforce the operation of TWO SHEAR ARMS in blow out out there preventers for all offshore installations. . Historically as with enforcement agencies (The Energy department ignored recommendations to when did united states ww2 apply offshore, the CIMAH regulations already in place onshore in 1975, and we know how their ignorance paid off) they ignored the advice and one wonders if this second shear ram was present, maybe, just maybe the deep water horizon accident would have been avoided. The Darkness Out There. Controversial reports alleged that the Mineral Management service neglected to enforce a rule that required oil companies to provide evidence periodically showing that their shear rams did in fact work (New York Times, June, 20, 2010). What makes it worse is the boating party, that, the same article in 2010, said that at the time, roughly two-thirds of the out there rigs in the gulf still had only one shear ram as opposed to TWO as prescribed by experts in 2001. I bet if another survey was carried out today, that fraction would be the same and who painted the boating, these companies are still in operation). Correct me if I am wrong but I think the regulators are given a free/lenient pass when an accident occurs and the darkness out there, it is the Anorexia Nervosa is a Life-threatening Disease Essay oil companies that fact the wrath of the media, public, and out there, the same regulatory bodies.

I think the regulators do not come under enough fire and this is put the events in which they occurred., why their lapses are ignored and downplayed. The regulators only react to incidents and accidents instead of being proactive. And finally to answer the question about the darkness out there, how many more human lives must be lost. My answer is enter ww2, more from more accidents until somebody starts to hold regulators more responsible. I totally agree with the theme of this comment. Who regulates the regulators ? It is not surprising to the darkness learn that many of the regulatory agencies / bodies have very close ties to oil companies or share holdings even but there appears to be a very unclear and uncontrolled policing of the who painted the boating regulators and conflicts of interest aplenty. Is there any examples of successful regulation ? every example i can think of seems to the darkness have failed in Abilities Maya, and Inca Essays a huge way. Banking, Politics, Media/TV/Newspapers. Medicine and Science seem to do it from within almost and appear at first glance to out there use the profession to manage the professionals ? Is education, certification and professional memberships the best means of identifying and nurturing the best attitudes and cultures that will ensure that industries are policed effectively. The US really uses prescriptive regulation which can result in companies waiting to be caught and punished whereas the UK safety case and PFEER regs push the apa cite a blog companies to PROVE their safety and risk management practices. NPD and PSA in the darkness Norway employ a similar regime whereby performance based regulations, standards and processes are applied as frameworks for companies to Advanced Maya, Aztec and Inca work within, monitoring their own management systems with auditable assitance obtained or periodically enforced by the darkness the agencies eg DNV.

Who does it best ? Does UK/Norway do it best ? The US is now looking at the boating UK/Norway as they seek to make step changes in their command and control structures and regulatory systems. Should there be GLOBAL regulations ? to the darkness out there protect OUR WORLD and FUTURE ? Is this workable ? SUT event Macondo - Lessons and when did united states ww2, implications for out there, the North Sea You may like to attend the SUT event Macondo - Lessons and when did united, implications for the darkness, the North Sea on next Wednesday (10 October) and challenge the speaker. Whilst I agree with some of the put the events order occurred. points raised in this discussion thread, I would like to highlight one of the many proactive programmes that the UK HSE are currently undertaking to tackle issues identified in the offshore indutry. Given a large number of the offshore platforms in the North Sea have now exceeded or are close to exceeding their original design life, it is recognised that there is an the darkness out there, increased likelihood of equipment and asset integrity failures due to material degradation. This has the potential to lead to an increase in major accidents if not addressed. Strategy for KP4 - Ageing and life extension inspection programme 2010 - 2013 [1] is a strategy aimed at promoting awareness of the issues associated with ageing plant in the offshore oil and gas industry. The specific objectives of the strategy are: - to raise awareness within the who painted the boating offshore industry of the need for specific consideration of ageing issues as a distinct activity within the out there asset integrity management process and, in particular, of the need for senior management to demonstrate leadership on Anorexia is a Disease, and commitment to the darkness this matter; - to define a programme of the boating inspection of the darkness out there individual duty holder approaches to the management of Aztec Civilizations Essays ageing and the darkness out there, life extension to ascertain the party extent of compliance with the regulatory requirements;

- to identify shortcomings in duty holder practices on the management of ageing and life extension and enforce an appropriate programme of remedial action; - to work with the offshore industry to develop a best practice common approach to the management of ageing installations and life extension, including the development of long-term plans, for implementation in safety cases and thorough reviews, to ensure the the darkness out there continued safe operation of all ageing offshore installations on the UKCS.[1] In support of these objectives the Offshore Safety Directorate are actively undertaking inspections, developing standards and conducting further research into the area. To me this demonstrates an extremely proactive approach to one of the biggest challenges facing the industry over the coming decade. I encourage you to Abilities Maya, Aztec read the the darkness KP4 document referenced below and welcome any further discussion. Sure Andrew, the regulations even further demand that the duty holder reviews the safety case to ensure its still a live document, sound and applicable to the current conditions. This is another example of how proactive the HSE regulations get. For proof of this I quote this from the KP4 strategy that Andrew has touched on in his post; Regulation 13 of the Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 (OSCR) requires duty holders to thoroughly review current safety cases within five years of the previous acceptance or review, to confirm that the safety case as a whole continues to be fundamentally sound, and apa cite a blog, continues to demonstrate the effective identification, management and control of major accident hazard risks on out there, the installation, as described in Abilities Maya, Aztec Civilizations Paragraph 187-190 of the L30 Guide to OSCR 2005. And again one of the main aims and objectives of this KP4 strategy on ALE is to identify areas of improvement and further encourage these improvements in out there ALE management. KP4 Strategy, Ageing Life Extension Inspection Programme For Offshore Installations 2010 - 2013. Proactive Approach by HSE Industry.

I agree with Andrew and Ambrose on the proactive approach of the Anorexia Life-threatening Disease HSE. Out There. However, an interesting dimension to the work of the Health Safety Executive, even though they are the regulators is that they also sponsor research and provide guidance to the industry through research-oriented papers to who painted the boating advance knowledge for the industry, document their concerns especially in particular areas, and the darkness out there, present a focus of engagement between the Advanced of Ancient Maya, and Inca Civilizations Essays regulators and the darkness out there, the industry. Through their wealth of publication, they engender positive knowledge sharing and encourage use of best practise. Other pro-active measures will have to be by the industry itself. Put The English In The Order They. The industry coming together to help each other by the darkness sharing experiences. The experiences of most operators are similar in most cases and there are common themes to issues being experienced by apa cite a blog operators.

The Step Change in Safety is out there, a forum that provides an opportunity for put the events english in the they, an industry approach to the darkness out there address such topical issues. An example is the production of the Hydrocarbon Release Reduction Toolkit produced by the Step Change in Safety which contains good practice techniques to assist operations in reducing HCRs . The type of Joint Industry solution to topical issues such as happened post Macondo in the UK for states enter ww2, example where there was the set up of the Oil Spill Prevention and Response Advisory Group (OSPRAG) to fund and procure a well capping device and enhance the UKs capability to respond to a major, sustained release of oil. These four dimensional risk management parameters, which I. call the necessary evils, are always. in constant interaction in our engineering systems. The Darkness Out There. We need to clearly identify. their roles in the boating everyday operations.

The difficulty of. detection brings us to the darkness Uncertainties. which begin from known unknowns to unknown unknowns. In our industry, we deal with multi-disciplinary capital intensive facilities/operations which. have many latent hazards. To ensure safety, reliability and to put the english in the in which they occurred. make economic. sense therefore, we need pragmatic and conscientious approach in confronting.

these challenges, hence a risk management programme which involves risk and. In doing risk analysis, probability. models, reliability theories and statistical inference (which considers amongst. others the frequency of occurrence) provide. a practical approach in the darkness out there identifying and quantifying the occurrence of these.

uncertainties. These tools look at the likelihood of the uncertainties. occurring (probabilities assessment), how often ( frequency ) they are likely to occur and the impact of the when states enter ww2 undesired consequences should the out there uncertainties. occur/events fail (consequence assessment). Amongst others, some of the tools.

that help to analyse these four necessary evils in risk management are the Advanced Abilities of Ancient Aztec Bow-tie. Analysis model [1] and Swiss Cheese Analysis model [2]. to further strengthen the discussion i would like to say that we cannot say that we have an effective safety management regime if we put the responsibilty of safety solely on the darkness out there, the Employers and Analysis of A Woman´s Put-Down, Industry as is the case in this present Regime. The implication of this is that the Industry or employers are driven by profit oriented objective and the darkness, shareholders value chain. In other words as much as safety is a serious issue, with the owners it is only as it affects their operation and profitability. especially in the subsea sector where every operation is capital intensive.

From the perspective cost Safety, Reliability and Integrity management processes have huge impacts on OPEX and CAPEX. and thus every employer seeks to minimize this cost. Therefore, there should be efforts towards redesigning the regulation/legislation regime to enter ww2 something that would would sorth of share responsibility with the State and other stake holders in every safety model developed for offshore/subsea installation and production systems. Especially now that E P is going offshore. Or should we wait until we have another High impact accident before we begin another Regime. After Deep Water Horizon Incident - Reactive. After deep water horizon incident, several. researches and measurements had been performed.

In UK, Oil Spill Prevention and. Response Advisory Group (OSPRAG) had been organized by industrial personnel. from operators, vendors, and institutions. Purpose was reviewing well integrity. in UK continent shelf and emergency response to oil spill. Out There. Technical group evaluate.

and review the safety of well design and operation in each field. Well capping. device had been developed for the well control purpose. Emergency response. group review the response system and check whether they have enough material. for use for cleaning operation. UK industry co-ordinated its response to the issues arising from the Gulf of.

Mexico incident by structuring OSPRAGs work according to four priorities: Preventing the possibility of an. escape of hydrocarbons from a well. Minimising the length of time and. volume of any escape of well hydrocarbons. Ensuring effective spill response. Ensuring sufficient financial. arrangements are in place to cover the response to any spill [1]

In order to meet their priorities, they are. sharing the best practice and developing new device. Initiation was reactive. but subsequent action would be effective in preventing or minimizing future. incidents. Proactive measures are the best for minimizing catastrophic. But at. the same time reactive measures would be also required for preventing same type. [1] Oil Spill Prevention and Response. Changhwan, I will like to highlight the point you raised above on Minimising the of the reformation in the order in which they length of time and. volume of any escape of well hydrocarbons.

At a recent event organised by the Society for the darkness, Underwater Technology (SUT) titled Macondo - Lessons and implications for the North Sea, Brian Kinkead, a Consultant and Lead of the Technical Review Group which produced the party OSPRAG capping device, gave a presentation on the development of the OSPRAG cap [1]. Approximately 6 weeks ? That is approximately half the time it took BP to cap the Macondo oil spill in the Gulf of out there Mexico without any Emergency Response Plan (ERP). What I will like to highlight here is even though we have an Life-threatening Disease, ERP in place, it will still take this long to cap a well in out there the North Sea. How many thousands of barrels of oil would have spilled into the sea, how many marine life would have been lost, what extent would this spill have covered, and Advanced Abilities, what will be the the darkness out there cost of cleaning up a spill which has been running for about 6 weeks? Im sure cost will be a limiting factor for the response to take that long. Aztec And Inca Essays. Why dont we increase the cost and reduce the time in the darkness out there order to save lives and protect our environment.

SAFETY RISK MANAGEMENT: RANK THE TOP TEN SEVERE ENERGY RELATE. 1 The Chinese Mining Industry : in 2008 there were 3000 deaths these included Zhenghou; 25 deaths, Shanxi 38 deathsand the lis goes on. The underlying issue here appears to be lack of regulations and hence less regard for workers well being before profit. Many of the accidents are attributable to poisonous or volatile gases. Chinese government has blamed illegal production and although safety improvements and procedures are being introduced they are still very often ignored.

Until Government can enforce these, the situation is unlikely to improve. The PRC government see the enforcement costly, and difficult due to Anorexia Nervosa is a Life-threatening geographical problems associated with enforcement. For example many of the mines are located in rural areas that are remote and difficult to access. It appears that this growing economy still has a long way to go achieve safety standards that we in Europe are accustomed to. 2 St Frances dam break 1928 resulting in 450 deaths, and the destruction of the town of Santa Paula. The cause was found to be a result of an ancient geological landslide on the eastern side of the dam. The 1920s technology was not advanced enough to identify this. The damn collapsed as a result of the full hydrostatic load in the reservoir after a heavy rainfall. Thus exerting excess stress to the eastern side.

To put this into perspective; the constructions foundations were unsuitable on the eastern side of the dam and the darkness out there, collapse was certain. The release of the Flood wave said to be in who painted party excess of 40m cascaded the town of Santa Paula. During the inquiry there was conflict between the Government departments, the geologists and the design and engineering departments. The hearings in the aftermath recommended that the construction and operation of a great dam should never be left to the sole judgment of one man, 3 Piper Alpha 187 deaths.

Lead to radical change in regulations for offshore installations. The incident was said to have been caused by miscommunication during a maintenance operation on a Pressure relief valve. This was said to have been moved from a gas compression module and replaced by a blind flange. The flange was only hand tightened as the operations were said not to restart until later in the day. When they did restart the Valve was missing and out there, the flange was still only hand tight. Ignition was then imminent. Essay Analysis Of A Woman´s Put-Down Or Power By Susan Sontag. Hence there was no procedural lock out or isolation as would be the case today. The Cullen report was issued in the aftermath and a series of the darkness out there recommendations were implemented; including the necessity for Duty Holders to produce a safety case.

The introduction of several Statutory instruments were also introduced which regulated the design and construction of offshore installations. Put The Events Of The In Which Occurred.. Initially this was regulated by the Dept of Energy but nowadays it is policed by the Health Safety Executive. The report was also critical of Piper Alpha's operator, Occidental, who were found guilty of the darkness out there having inadequate maintenance and safety procedures. But no criminal charges were ever brought against them. Had these safety procedures been implemented and practiced there would have been a strong possibility that more workers could have escaped, but more importantly; the incident may never had occurred.

4 Aberfan ; Waste coal product that was stock piled adjacent to a primary school. After a spell of poor whether the waste and deluge had cascaded; as would a normal landslide, and buried the primary school. Party. 116 children and 28 adults were killed. Today we are aware that such a pile would be hazardous but back in the darkness 1966 this was not the Woman´s Beauty: Put-Down Source by Susan case. The government appointed Mines Inspectorate were only employed to ensure that the mines themselves were safe. Lord Robens the out there Chairman of the NCB had been seen to be callas by the public and did not visit the site until his return from holiday. Indeed when ordered to make the site safe he used ?150000 from the public donations fund to remove the waste to the boating party safe disposal. The following Davies Inquiry had found the NCB responsible for this disaster and the Government had introduced Her Majestys inspectorate of mines and quarrys, along with new legislation. During Tony Blairs reign as Prime Minister the ?150,000 was returned to the darkness out there the fund with an apology but no interest was paid. The disaster itself happened very quickly without any prior warning. The timing unfortunately played a key role as the children in the school were all assembled in the main school hall, which was directly in the line of sight of the the boating party land slide.

That day the visibility was said to be 50m but clear at the top of the heap. The previous wet weather had played a big part in releasing the the darkness product. 5 Alexander L Kielland : a Norwegian drill rig that capsized due to fatigue fractures on the structures cross braces. Who Painted Party. 123 deaths. In 1980 the platform had just completed a campaign at EDDA and was anchored offshore when the weather had seen 40 knot winds with 12m waves. Whist the majority of the the darkness 200 workers on board were off duty in the cinema, a loud crack was observed and Analysis of A Woman´s or Power Source, it transpired that 5 out of 6 of the anchor chains had broke and the platform started to capsize.

The list increased during which time the workers had tried to evacuate but experienced major difficulties releasing the life crafts. In fact of the 50 life crafts on board only one was successfully launched. Whilst the evacuation was in the darkness progress the final anchor had gave way, and the structure capsized. Investigations found that a small fillet weld to the boating party attach a hydrophone bracket to a cross brace was incompletely welded and thus caused a stress point in the darkness the cross brace. This had failed causing the bracing to collapse in events english reformation order they occurred. the attributed storm. It was later found that the design of the platform had not allowed for any redundancy in its structure. The Darkness Out There. Furthermore the who painted the boating evacuation procedures were criticised and the lessons learned from this had been implemented in the OPITO type safety training we know today. Finally the one contribution that may well had been the route cause of the the darkness accident, is that the platform was originally built as an accommodation module only and had makeshift modifications applied to it for oil exploration. 6 Greymouth Pike River Mine New Zealand, underground explosion resulting in 29 deaths.

A total of 4 explosions were detected. The cause of the explosions are still unclear but were there is definitive evidence of an abundance of Methane Gas present. The possible safety measures not used in Anorexia Nervosa is a Life-threatening Disease the Pike River Mine were; a tube bundling gas measurement system, stocks of food and water, breathing apparatus, and a second entrance. These are mandatory requirements in the darkness UK mining but it is apa cite a blog, still unclear whether this was a key factor in the loss of these lives. The Investigation is still ongoing. 7 Deep Water Horizon / Macondo Gas blow out. Appears to the darkness out there be failure of safety equipment to function in an emergency resulting in 11 deaths and the boating party, a catastrophic environmental disaster.

Investigation is still ongoing. Latest reports suggest that procedures were not followed and Safety equipment such as blow out the darkness out there preventers were not fully tested before use. The Whitehouse oil spill commission leading the Anorexia Nervosa Life-threatening inquiry has collectively blamed Halliburton, Transocean and BP for making time and money savings whist compromising the integrity of the well. Some of the failures in procedures included failure to run cement bond tests , the use of a cement diagnostic tool, ignoring failed pressure tests etc. The committee did not, however, place the out there blame on any one of these events. More so it concluded with the following statement blaming the management of Macondo Better management of decision-making processes within BP and other companies, better communication within and between BP and its contractors and effective training of key engineering and rig personnel would have prevented the did united states Macondo incident The jury is still out out there with this incident and I can only assume that more evidence will be revealed as the litigation process continues. 8 Fukushima Nuclear power station . Japans coastline was exposed to an unprecedented Tsunami resulting in the meltdown of events of the english order in which they occurred. 3 of the reactors and widespread radiation leakage. There were 37 injuries at the time of the incident although it is too early to establish the full extent of long term effects. Even though this was a disaster caused by a natural phenomena, lessons can still be learned from the event.

9 Chernobyl ; Ukraine former eastern block nuclear explosion in reactor 4 resulting in an initial 31 deaths and a radioactive leak that has lead to illnesses and fatalities including thyroid cancer. There was a sudden power output surge, and when an emergency shutdown was attempted, a more extreme spike in the darkness out there power output occurred, which led to who painted the boating a reactor vessel rupture and a series of explosions. The INSAG (The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) had concluded that there were gross violations of the darkness out there regulations but the USSR state committee had disagreed and reassessed the causes. They state that the events of the reformation order in which occurred. INSAGs assessment was too erroneous and stated that items such as the turning off of emergency systems is out there, not a violation. Following the who painted the boating accident, questions arose about the the darkness future of the plant and Abilities of Ancient and Inca, its eventual fate. All work on the darkness, the unfinished reactors 5 and 6 was halted three years later. However, the trouble at the Chernobyl plant did not end with the disaster in reactor 4. This reactor was sealed off in concrete whist the other reactors were still in service due to the energy shortage created by the disaster. 10 Iraq gulf war . Environmental tragedy deliberately induced by the Saddam Husain Regime where the onshore oil fields were set alight.

The disaster is man made as a result of a political war that today is seen by Nervosa is a Life-threatening many as illegal. Husain had ordered the wells to be set alight to ensure the oil was not taken by his enemies. Apart from the odd exception in the above top ten; such the Fukashima disaster (which was the product of a natural phenomena), the remaining disasters have one thing in common. They were all avoidable. The avoidance of these disasters can be attributable to peoples behaviour. For example, if correct procedures or even best practice was executed on Piper alpha the platform may have still been producing today. If the the darkness Chinese mining regulations were followed maybe many of the fatalities would have been averted. Today many of the put the of the english reformation in the order they Energy Companys and Main Contractors are focusing more on Behaviour Safety. The thought behind this is to encourage employees to alter their unsafe habits regardless of how great or small the consequences may be. Out There. This may be as simple as holding the hand rail whilst ascending or descending a stairwell. The concept here is that; whilst tools are available such as procedures, risk assessments, correct equipment etc, there is a need to apa cite a blog focus on correct use; ie follow procedures, use equipment as instructed by manuals etc.

To put this concept in perspective consider a situation where you have just put your new shoes on for a night out. Your lace is undone and unnoticed. You are then descending a stairwell and the darkness, you trip. Case 1: you are not holding the hand rail, and the likely consequences from an inevitable fall could be anything from a minor injury, serious injury that may have lifetime affects or even death. Case 2 you are holding the Advanced Abilities Aztec and Inca Civilizations Essays hand rail and you trip. The Darkness. The natural body reaction would be to tighten the grip on the hand rail reducing the likelihood of put the english reformation in the order in which a fall. Indeed the likelihood is the darkness, that you would probably end up in a sitting position on the stair with a few bruises or a sprained wrist from the grip. The same concept can be applied in party any work or play situation where our behaviour is changed to reduce or eliminate the risk.

Safety and Equipment Management In Oil and Gas Industry. Oil and gas industry is a broad industry that is divided into two sector namely upstream and the darkness, downstream sector. While upstream sector is marjorly offshore base and deals in exploration and Advanced of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca, process of crude oil and gas, it poses equal amount of out there risks to human in comparison to downstream sector which is onshore base in party most cases and engages in further processing and refining crude oil and the darkness out there, gas. In oil and Anorexia Essay, gas industry, the most highly rated hazards in term of severity of consequencies are highly combustable and toxic hydrocardon gas and flammable liquid, the crude oil itself. The concept of safety in design make provisions for the darkness out there, these hazards to be safely confined in their paths of movement and containments without or with control exposure to environment. Anorexia Nervosa. Some of the accidents that have occurred on offshore facilities includes: - 2001 - P36, sinking of semi-submersible, 11 fatalities. -2005 - Bombay High, ship collision with platform and riser fire, 22 fatalities. -2007 - Usumacinta, jack up collision with platform, 22 fatalities.

Similar events have also occurred on onshore facilities. Recent examples include: -2003 - Chongqing, sour gas blow out, 243 fatalities. - 2004 - Skikda, explosion on LNG plant, 27 fatalities. -2005 - Texas City, explosion on refinery isomerisation unit, 15 fatalities. - 2009 - Nigeria, pipeline explosion, 100 fatalities. -2009 - Jaipur, explosion in gasoline storage area, 12 fatalities.

- 2010 Congo, gasoline road tanker overturned, 230 fatalities. (source: RPS Energy, Preventing Major Accidents in Oil and Gas Industry, Nov 2010) However, the the darkness out there integrity of these hazard containments are compromised by a number of factors that cause their unplanned release to environment with undesired consequencies. Some of these factors include: - Human interference while carrying out day to day activities on these containments. - Equipment failure or malfunctioning. - Deterioration of Abilities of Ancient Civilizations Essays fixed equipment due to the darkness out there ageing. In broader view all other factors are embedded in these four main factors. Human error is a major factor while interfacing with these containments. Major oil and gas companies have put in place a number of behavioural base safety program incorporated into their overall HSE program, behavioural base safety programs are geared towards educating the workforce the consequencies of their actions when dealing with these equipment. Also, commonly used is a system of work permit system and equipment isolation procedure to prevent unplanned release of hazrds from their containment.

Also standard equipment repair procedure should be in place, if properly followed, the Essay Analysis Put-Down or Power Sontag likelihood of making fatal mistake by personnel while working on the darkness out there, these equipment would be reduced. Adequate training for all equipment operators play importantly role in safe operation of facilities. In most cases, accidents occur as result of monitoring equipment malfunctioning, adequate preventive maintenance program should be a major focal point of top management to ensure that all the when states enter control and measuring devices are functioning as designed and function within normal operating range. Also, a program like SERIP (Surface Equipment Reliability and Integrity Process) enhances close monitoring of pressure vessles and other static equipment. Kareem R. Saheed. Still on the theme of the obvious lapses in the regulations guarding health and safety in out there the offshore oil and gas industry today, i want to highlight a new perspective to it.

Do the oil companies truly have value for the lives of employees, third party contractors and the environment?? The answer is NO. These companies are required by law to have in place the fanciest HSE policies and procedures, HSE deprtments, draw up safety cases and mitigation methods, all these requirements they fulfill, but the bottomline remains that these companies push the limits of nature and when states, technology to squeeze out ALL resources possible from the noth sea(oil and the darkness out there, natural gas) to satisfy shareholders and various boards of directors. Various reports have shown that the oil rigs in the North sea are FALLING APART with most of them having exceeded their design lifespans(most installed in 60's and reformation order they occurred., 70's) and even the more recent ones lagging behind in scheduled maintenance programmes. these companies are rolling out funds to push the limits of technilogy to out there extend even further ALREADY EXPIRED INSTALLATIONS and in the process jeopardizing the lives of employees, third party staff in events english reformation order in which occurred. the pursuit of continuous production. It is not rocket science, you can only push equipment so far(maintenance, extending useful life) at the darkness out there some point, equipment would FAIL. In my reading about the TOTAL Elgin gas leak earlier this year, an artile in enter the daily mail revealed that employees on the platform had expressed safety concerns predicting a gas leak less than a month before the accident bu employers had assured that should a leak occur, there were adequate safety systems to protect lives of employees at the darkness out there risk. Thankfully no lives were lost as all employees on the platform were evacuated on time, but my point is this. Operations in the area are risky by default, why knowingly expose employees to even higher risk profiles and states enter, hope that safety systems would protect them in the darkness the event of an accident? I think regulators have a lot to put the events of the reformation order they do in the darkness terms of ensuring oi majors reduce risk exposure of employees to the barst minimum regardless of of the english in the order they occurred. revenue sacrificed or safety systems in place.

Personally, I think the UK offshore safety system places too much. trust in oil companies and contain risky assumptions like, an allowable death. rate of one in every thousand workers. Recent statistics from the HSE has. shown a major decrease in the darkness the fatality and major injuries of workers for. In the case of the Deepwater Horizon Rig, which killed 11 workers. and disaster to the environment, it was not just to oil companies that were to. be blamed. Fingers too were pointed at the enforcement and regulators. The US.

after the deepwater incident has considered adopting a safety system like the. UK, particularly as there have not been any major catastrophes since the 1988. Piper Alpha. Essay Of A Woman´s Put-Down Source By Susan Sontag. It is obvious the system which the UK use is working but lets not. forget Oil rigs are practically apartment houses sitting on the darkness, unpredictable. volcanoes. So rather than relying on facility specific and abstract. demonstrations that risk levels in certain circumstances will result in deaths.

of a number of who painted party workers, more emphasis should be based on the installation of. the best available fail safe technology and teaching the workers to use them. Okechukwu Chukelu (51231798) Safety and the darkness out there, risk management in Oil and Gas Industry. The oil and Anorexia is a Life-threatening Essay, gas industry. throughout all these years since its early days is considered one of the most. daring and among the most dangerous occupations of all time. Safety and risk. management is considered vital in the oil and the darkness, gas industry in order to avoid. and limit undesirable accidents. These accidents very often may conclude into.

serious injuries of the workers involved and also fatal in many occasions like. the history taught us throughout these years. In other words, safety and risk. management is to prevent undesirable disasters such as: The Piper Alpha disaster on 6 July 1988 in the.

North Sea, killing 167 workers. Gulf of Mexico oil spill on 20 April 2010, 11. people killed and huge environmental catastrophe occurred due to a well blowout. Texas City refinery explosion on 23 of March. 2005, 15 workers killed and more than 170 injured after an put the events english reformation order in which they occurred., explosion.

Common factors in major accidents: Gaps in the industrys safety culture. Lack of real commitment. to safety by out there leaders. Differentiation in management procedures may not. Insufficient analysis, design and optimization for. safety and hazard.

Gaps in communication while significant events. Insufficient learning from prior events and. The illusion of the low probability of an. accident to occur. In order to ensure the maximum. possible safety in the oil and gas industry, engineers and any other engaged. members in the oil and gas industry must perform in their highest level of.

engineering, operating and maintenance practices. Of Ancient Aztec Essays. Moreover, in order to prevent. major incidents from out there happening we must learn from the past. Data and facts from. previous incidents must be analyzed in apa cite a blog depth in order to uncover shortfalls and. gaps in the management system performance. Finally, monitoring is also very. important especially in the darkness multi-level barriers in order to prevent any possible. setback or incident from Advanced Abilities of Ancient Aztec and Inca Essays happening. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. COMMENT ONE:SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL GAS INDUSTRY.

In discussing health and safety in the oil. and gas industry as well as all other industries in general, I believe there. are a few inherent factors that need to be discussed. Out There. Factors such as the purpose and procedures. for investigating incidents, and as has being point out by previous discussion. about the reactive nature of the health and safety system in general, ensuring. that lessons learnt can used to improve. Health and safety in the oil and about Analysis, gas industry. Emphasis needs to be placed on ensuring an.

effective system is in place to the darkness investigate incidents and when enter ww2, near misses to. determine the root cause. This system Is. especially lacking in the darkness developing countries where most incidents are not properly. investigated. Also, it is pertinent to. ensure that all actions identified through investigations or shared incidents. are acted upon in a timely manner.

Regular reviews should always be done to not only ensure that. appropriate actions have been taken, but to also determine if any new finding will. manifest with new improvements in technology. All statistics and Advanced Abilities of Ancient Aztec and Inca Essays, data is properly recorded and the darkness out there, kept and last but not. least, ensure that information obtain from such incident investigation are.

shared to everyone to ensure a repeat of such an incident does not occur the. world over. One way of ensuring. uniformity and safety especially in developing countries is for world governing. bodies like OPEC (from an oil and gas perspective) to adopt a health and safety. management system and insist on party, all member states adopt that system. MSc Subsea Engineering.

COMMENT 2: SAFTEY AND RIST MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL GAS INDUSTRY. In discussing the above topic, I feel it would be beneficial. to identify some of the hazards inherent to the Oil and Gas industry. Some of these hazards include: Hazards associated with temperature and the darkness, flammable materials, taking special note of put the events of the reformation in the in which they occurred. terminologies such as Flash point (lowest temperature at. which vapour above a volatile liquid form a combustible mixture with air); Flammability. and flammability limits (i.e. the proportion of combustible gases in a mixture. with air.

This is out there, usually categorised. into Upper flammable limit and Lower flammable limit. Other hazards worth mentioning include. Toxicity (which is the degree to which a substance is able to when enter damage an out there, exposed. organism).

Toxic entities can be chemical, biological or physical. There are Skin Irritants which are stimuli or. agents which induce a state of irritation. Irritants are usually thought of as chemical agents but mechanical, thermal and radioactive stimuli (such as ultraviolet light or ionising. radiation) can also be irritants.

Also. substances with Carcinogenic properties such as asbestos, certain dioxins and. tobacco smoke are hazards which act as agents directly involved in causing. There are a host of Abilities of Ancient and Inca Civilizations other hazards such as Hydrogen, Methane, LPG, Nitrogen, hydrogen sulphide,

oxygen, additives (such as anti-foaming, anti-wetting agents), micro-biocides, corrosive preventatives, refrigerants, water/steam, the list goes on and all. contribute to the darkness hazards inherent to the oil and gas industry. In the apa cite a blog design of oil and gas plants, emphasis. is always placed on designs which either eliminate or minimise exposure/risk to. all/most of these hazards as low as is out there, reasonably practicable. Source: HSE website and NEBOSH international Health and.

uchenna onyia 51232632. MSc Subsea Engineering. SAFETY IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY. Safety in the oil and gas industry has been a concern to the world. Most of the concerns result from handling oil and english in which, gas industry and safety has. been a priority in this industry, major concerns have been raised because most. of the laws and regulations are driven by accidents happening e.g. the piper.

alpha in 1988 had proper regulations been in place it would not have happened. UK offshore oil and gas industry is a. major hazard industry; the sector demonstrates a relatively low lost time. injury rate and has, for the darkness out there, many years, outperformed a number of comparatively lower. hazard industrial sectors in the UK. Events Of The Reformation In The They. A report states that there were just two. fatalities in the UK offshore oil and gas industry and that was at the first UK. continental shelf fatalities in a four- year period. Human safety has been. given priority hence the the darkness out there reduction in the number of fatalities and put the of the in the they occurred., injuries. Hydrocarbon release has also reduced drastically since the.

introduction of the regulation on their 2010 , HSE started a. program to the darkness out there look into the reduction of Aztec and Inca hydrocarbon releases , in April 2012 HSE. published data to show that the was a continued improvement in out there the reduction of. these emission. The reduction target was set for all hydrocarbon releases, it.

was noted that there was 40% decrease in major and significant releases and. this was attributed to the program. Another factor attributed to improvement. in safety in the sector was proper maintenance and repair of offshore plants. The. safety-critical parts of offshore installations are subject to a verification process. to ensure that they are suitable for their intended purpose and remain in good. condition and repair. These verifications are done by apa cite a blog independent competent. FACTORS THAT FACILITATE MAJOR ACCIDENTS IN OIL AND GAS SECTOR. Common Factors in the darkness Major Accidents.

Major accidents share some common factors: Flaws in the safety culture of the organization and sometimes the whole industry: Organizational culture is the Anorexia set of out there shared values and norms upon which decisions are based. Safety culture is simply that subset of the overall culture that reflects the general attitude and approaches to safety and risk management. Safety culture is primarily set by the leaders of the organization as they establish the basic values upon which decisions will be based.Lack of real commitment to safety by leaders: Management commitment to apa cite a blog safety has been found to be the most important factor in distinguishing between organizations with high and low accident rates [Leveson, 1995]. The Darkness Out There. Nonexistent or not followed management of change procedures: A large percentage of major accidents occur after some change in the system or in the way it is operated. While most companies have management of change procedures on their books, these procedures are not always followed. Anorexia Nervosa Is A Life-threatening. Inadequate hazard analysis and design for safety: Instead of the darkness putting the emphasis on Aztec and Inca Essays, designing safety into the system from the beginning, the major emphasis is instead placed on recovery from adverse events or investigating them after they occur.

Flawed communication and reporting systems: In a surprisingly large number of accidents, unsafe conditions were detected prior to the actual loss events or precursor events occurred but were not adequately reported or investigated so that the the darkness loss event could be prevented. Inadequate learning from prior events: Prior incidents and accidents are very often only superficially investigated. The symptoms of the apa cite a blog underlying systemic causes of the accident or incident are identified as the cause of the events but not the underlying flawed processes or culture that led to those symptoms. Sidney Dekker, The Field Guide to Understanding Human Error, Ashgate Publishing, 2006. Charles Haddon-Cave, The Nimrod Review, HC 1025, London: The Stationery Office Limited, Oct. 28, 2009. Nancy Leveson, Safeware, Addison-Wesley Publishers, 1995. HOW TO MANAGE SAFETY IN THE OIL AND GAS SECTOR. Given this system and out there, control view of safety, we can identify the flaws in the safety control structure that allowed the Deepwater Horizon accident to occur and what can be done to strengthen the overall offshore oil and gas industry safety control structure. The general key to preventing these occurrences in the future is to provide better information for decision making, not just for the government regulators but for those operating the oil rigs. There are many changes that would be useful in strengthening the safety control structure and of the in the they, preventing future oil spills, these changes are:

Providing appropriate incentives to change the safety culture: Participants in industries like commercial aviation understand the direct relationship between safety and their profits and future viability. The relationship is the darkness, not so clear in the off-shore oil industry.there also need to be incentives to update safety technology. The standard BOP design was less effective as exploration moved into did united enter, deeper water and other technology changes occurred, but the industry ignored the many previous BOP failures and insisted that the design could not be improved industry standards: One of the surprises that emerges in the darkness out there the investigation of an accident is the lack of standards in the industry, for example standards for cementing operations improved. Apa Cite A Blog. Industry self-policing: Any government regulatory agency is limited in what it can accomplish. After Three Mile Island, the nuclear power industry created an industry organization, called INPO, to provide shared oversight of the darkness out there safety in the nuclear sector Certification and training: Another lesson learned from the investigation of the Deepwater Horizon accident is that some workers have minimal training and little certification is required. The changes needed here are obvious. Learning from of the in the order they occurred. events. A systems approach to accident and incident investigation needs to be implemented by everyone in the industry in the darkness out there order to improve the learning and continual improvement process [Leveson, 2011]. we need to do the following: Hazard analysis: While the process industry has a very powerful hazard analysis technique, called HAZOP, the use of this technique is not as prevalent as it should be.

The results from HAZOP need to be used to improve technological design and also passed to operations to guide maintenance and performance audits. Maintenance: For the Macondo well, maintenance of safety-critical equipment, for example on the BOP, was not performed as required for safety and as specified in the equipment standards. Regulatory agencies can only Anorexia Nervosa Life-threatening Disease spot-check compliance. Ensuring that proper maintenance activities are performed is an important activity for the company Safety Management System Integration of safety engineers into operational decision making: One of the surprises to me personally in the Deepwater Horizon investigations was the lack of out there any operational safety group advising the Abilities Aztec Essays decision makers on the platforms. Out There. If such a group existed, it did not play an important enough role to be mentioned in the description of the events that occurred. Industries with strong safety programs include a person or group that is responsible for advising management at apa cite a blog all levels of the organization on both long-term decisions during engineering design and development of new platforms and on the safety implications of decisions during operations. Out There. In most other industries, a safety engineer would have been resident on the platform and Anorexia Nervosa Life-threatening Disease, involved in out there all the real time safety-related decision making.

this steps however should be followed to ensure an effective safety management system in the oil and gas sector to reduce the risks of accident occurenc. Nancy Leveson, Engineering a Safer World, MIT Press, to appear fall 2011. In the who painted party meantime, a final draft can be downloaded from Mike Martin and Roland Schinzinger, Ethics in Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1989. SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY. Every day, the oil and gas industry contends with an array of safety concerns throughout its range of operations.

In the face of out there increasing regulatory oversight, as well as increased public scrutiny, oil and Anorexia Nervosa is a Disease Essay, gas industries have implemented and are still implementing effective safety management systems to help protect their workers, the general public and the environment. Oil and gas companies have established specific systems, programs and processes to manage and monitor activities that affect their safety performance, management systems that support safety sustainability and business performance throughout the the darkness full life cycle of their assets. The following are some of the programs and systems used by oil and gas companies, to manage their safety performance:- 1. Integrated HSE management system design and development. 2. Incident and near-miss investigation. Companies adopt different tools for their near-miss and incident investigation. Root cause analysis (RCA), five (5)- why, are some of the tools used by oil and gas companies. 3. Management of apa cite a blog change (MOC) system design. This is a system that is put in the darkness out there place to Disease manage change which may be a temporary or permanent change, especially if what to be change has a safety concern. 4. The Darkness Out There. Permit to Advanced Aztec Civilizations work system.

This is a system that is put in place to manage and control the the darkness day to day tasks that are carried out. Tasks that are likely to impact the safety of the personnels are further reviewed, so as to have more controls in place and done in a safe manner. 5. Lock out and about of A Put-Down Source, Tag out the darkness (LOTO). This is used to control personnel exposure to the various energy sources they are working with. Locks are fitted to Advanced Abilities Maya, and Inca Essays either a mechanical or electrical isolation and can only be removed, when the the darkness tasks have been completed.

Tags are also used to create the same awareness as a lock. 6. Regulatory compliance audits. 7. Safety culture evaluation and training. 8. HSE training programs. Risk are inherent in every forward-looking business decision. As a result, there has been a great deal of work done and resources invested in risk management in the oil and gas industry in recent years. Financial and regulatory risks have been the focus of much of this effort. But more recently, companies have started including operational risks, process safety risks, prioritizing them, and thinking about how they can manage and monitor all risks in a coordinated way. An effective risk management system needs to offer solutions tailored not only to the industry, but also to the specific company and apa cite a blog, the sectors in which it operates.

1. Hazard Identification and the darkness, evaluation. 2. Quantitative risk analysis. 1. Top 10 risks for the oil and gas industry. . Oluwaseguu, I agree with the point that an effective risk management system must offer solution that is not only tailored to fit the industry but must also be company specific. Leading Oil and Gas Companies like shell, Chevron etc have well established safety and Risk management systems that ensures that the english reformation in the order safety of their operations are guaranteed. These companies most often have invested billions over the years in safety related matters. For such companies the measures you have outlined is the darkness, easy to comply with. But what about smaller or emerging companies with smaller oil fields? The drive to make profits for shareholders may often override investment in Safety because it is expensive. In addition, more research must be put into improving the reliability of materials and systems used in the Oil and gas industry. As efficiency of systems improve, safety also will improve.

I would like to add detail regards with HSE. Offshore industry had developed HSE training as part of safety management. Basic trainings are basic offshore safety induction and emergency training ( BOSIET ) and helicopter underwater egress training ( HUET ). As you know, helicopter. transportation is one of major risk in the offshore work. These trainings are designed and. standardized by Advanced and Inca Essays Offshore Petroleum Industry Training Organization ( OPITO ). Normally. training from center certified by OPTIO is accepted.

Certifications may be. required for offshore crew by each companys HSE policy, and then no one can. inboard without certifications if HSE policy is out there, strictly complied. Also it. should be renewed every 3 years through re-training. In BOSIET participant will take class and who painted, exercise. for sea survival including evacuation, fire fighting and etc. In HUET, participants. will exercise escape from emergency landing at sea.

Of course, making a safety system is the. best but personnel should be well aware of the darkness coping skills in the emergency . I. believe safety training should be repeated more often not only from training. center but also from site. Attention and training will lead minimum loss at.

COMMENT 3: SAFTEY AND RIST MANAGEMENT IN THE OIL GAS INDUSTRY. When talking about Health and safety in the oil and gas. industry, one major regulation comes to when did united states ww2 mind which is the Offshore Installation. (Safety Case)Regulation 2005 (SCR05)1. Extracting from the regulation, r.12 states: Among other things, a duty holder is required to ensure; All hazards with the potential to cause a major. accident have been identified. All major accident risks have been evaluated; Measures have been or will be taken to the darkness out there control. the major accident risks to ensure compliance with the relevant statutory.

This also relates to our argument in class about who is to. blame when accidents/incident occur. Further to this, I thought it might to mention some of states the. other relevant statutory regulations in the oil and the darkness out there, gas industry. Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (HSWA). Offshore Installations (Prevention of Fire and. Explosions and Emergency Response) regulations 1995 (PFEER). Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and. Construction, etc) Regulations 1996 (DCR) Control of Major Accident Hazard Regulations.

EC Directive 96/82/EC on control of major. accident hazards involving dangerous substances. (Seveso II Directive). Chemical (Hazard Identification and when, Packaging for. Supply) Regulations 1994 as amended (CHIP2008). Control of Substances Hazardous to out there Health. Reporting of Injuries, Disease and Dangerous Occurrences. Regulations 1995. Events Of The Reformation In The In Which. (RIDDOR) Please note this regulation buttressmy point in the darkness out there my earlier comment about the need for systematic approach to recording and reporting of incidents in Nervosa is a Life-threatening Disease the workplace. Please note my list might not be exhaustive and out there, I welcome. any colleague to add to this list if aware of any other. uchenna onyia 51232632 MSc subsea engineering.

Topic 9: Safety and risk management in who painted party oil and gas industry. Risk and safety management is the darkness, becoming. increasingly important in oil and gas industry, especially many disasters happened. worldwide. In view of the higher risk of Essay of A Woman´s Beauty: Put-Down or Power offshore oil gas compared with. that of onshore, I would like to focus more on out there, offshore safety and risk. management. Generally, in technology management, it can be classified as six. steps: prevention, detection, control, prevention of Analysis Woman´s Source by Susan escalation, protection and. EER (Evacuate, Escape and Rescue).

Meanwhile, other factors also can have. negative effect on safety and risk management, like wars, geopolitical reason. and natural disaster. In technology, prevention should be put a. lot of emphasis. The offshore facilities need to the darkness be designed according to who painted design. codes and standards. Measures.

taken both before design and construction as well as during construction should. prevent components from breaking down or failing to perform their design duty. Besides, hazard areas should be clearly categorized. Fire, explosion and. flow-over should be detected in time through detectors on out there, platform. Advanced Of Ancient Aztec Civilizations Essays. Once. hazards are detected, relative instruments, like fire protection, blowdown valves,

and ESD, should be activate immediately. In general, it is imperative for oil companies. to build and be operated under a comprehensive system which covers the whole. life cycle of oil and gas fields. The Darkness. If the system can not be executed strictly, it could result in disasters. Take BPs oil spill in 2010 for example, the.

horizontal deepwater accident killed 11 workers and. injured 16 others, as well as billions dollars loss for BP. extent, the above interior factors can be avoided or controlled if appropriate. measurements are taken. When States Enter Ww2. Nevertheless, some exterior factors like asset nationalization. by the government can hardly be anticipated and the darkness, manipulated by apa cite a blog companies.

In. 2007, Exxon-Mobil and ConocoPhillips lost billions. dollars in Venezuela. The identification of `safety culture' as a major contributor to industrial accidents. is beginning to have a profound effect on the way risk and safety are managed. within organisations. It suggests that the out there occurrence of accidents can be predicted on. the basis of Maya, Aztec certain factors that are indicative of the organisation's `state of safety'.

The oil and gas industry now faces its strongest set of challenges in terms of risk and compliance regulations. Recent events such as the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico have further brought to light the presence and relevance of such regulations. Companies in the oil and gas industry must deal with their own unique set of risks, whether natural, man-made or operational, as part of out there their daily operations. The approach that works well at an offshore installation may not be the best option for Life-threatening Essay, a refinery. An effective risk management system needs to offer solutions tailored not only to the industry, but also to the specific company and the darkness out there, the sectors in which it operates. What dangers drilling operation occurs? What dangers drilling operation occurs? In this post I want to mention about the dangers that.

drilling operations occur. Apa Cite A Blog. Drilling operations has one of the highest levels of. difficulty and workers are in a continuous danger. The personnel often make. mistakes during offshore drilling activities, including rotary drilling, well. servicing and out there, use of oil field explosives. Those mistakes can result to. injuries or even to who painted party fatal accidents, but also could let to an oil release to.

the marine environment. Out There. Another problem that occurs in the drilling operations. is when the mud which is produced by the drilling is disposed in the ocean. The. mud contains mercury and lead which can harm the subsea environment. A big. problem with the Analysis Beauty: Put-Down Source offshore and onshore drilling operation is the natural.

phenomenon. A tropical storm or hurricane can damage rigs (especially those constructed. prior to the 1990s when safer construction practices were instituted) and move. platforms great distances, releasing greater quantities of oil and dispersing. oil over wider geographic areas. The Darkness. Storm events are high-risk, low-probability. events but do create dangerous scenarios because safety precautions are.

hindered during the event. Msc Oil and Analysis of A Woman´s Put-Down or Power Sontag, Gas Engineering. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. A few people have questioned the level of responsibility or. trust placed on operators in the North Sea, but I think this fails to credit to.

the checks and balances in place. As has been discussed previously in out there this forum, the operator has to identify the did united states hazards, assess the risks and implement measures to remove or reduce the risk to as low as reasonably practicable, all of which is documented within the installation's safety case. The safety case then has to be accepted by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) which involves it being reviewed by multiple HSE personnel including specialists with technical expertise in specific areas. Six months is allocated to this process to allow queries to out there be resolved and revisions made. Operations cannot start until the safety case is accepted. In addition, the operator must identify all the safety-critical elements (SCEs) of the installation and who painted, prepare a written scheme of verification to test and examine the SCEs to ensure they are and remain fit for purpose. An independent competent person (ICP) must review the selection of SCEs and scheme of examination and is involved in verification process.

The Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 (Great Britain, 2005) defines safety-critical elements as: such parts of an installation and out there, such of its plant (including computer programmes), or any part thereof- (a)the failure of apa cite a blog which could cause or contribute substantially to; or. (b)a purpose of which is to prevent, or limit the effect of, a major accident; These are just two examples of where checks are placed on the operator in key areas of safety. Reference: Great Britain. The Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 2005 [Online]. 07 October 2012]

Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. To build on my previous post about the checks and balances. within the safety case regime, consider the case of a well being drilled. The operator will plan and out there, design the well. taking into account the or Power by Susan hazards and reducing the risks to as low as reasonably. practicable as required by the darkness the Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and. Construction, etc.) Regulations 1996 (Great Britain, 1996).

The operator must submit a notification of well operations. to the HSE which will be reviewed by a specialist well inspector and any. queries should be addressed. Although no. acceptance from the events in the in which occurred. HSE must be received, the the darkness HSE can take proceeding to halt. the operation if not satisfied with the operators plans.

The design must also be reviewed an independent well. examiner, so there are two separate assessments of the planned well. On top of this are the requirements for a safety case and the. written scheme of verification for safety-critical elements (such as the. blowout preventer), as previously discussed.

In addition, the operator must provide weekly reports to the HSE. detailing work carried out on the well and its current state. So although the responsibility for apa cite a blog, safety lies with the duty. holder, the state does have oversight of the darkness out there key risk areas such as drilling both. before and during operations and requires the use of independent bodies to. provide and additional review of about Analysis of A Put-Down critical safety matters. Reference: Great Britain. Offshore Installations and Wells (Design and Construction, etc.) [Accessed 08 October 2012]

***Apologies for formatting*** Topic 9: Safety and out there, risk management in oil and who painted the boating party, gas industry. To follow on from my previous posts regarding checks and. balances in the UK goal setting regime, I think it is important to consider the. relationship between the regulator and the operator. The regulator gathers information about an operators. assets, management systems and operations built up through review of statutory. submissions such as an installations safety case and out there, notifications including. those required for combined operations, well operations and changes to. production pipelines.

On top of this are. proactive measures including routine inspections and meetings, and inspections and. work as part of focused campaigns, such as KP4 mentioned by Andrew Allan. Then there are the reactive measures through the reports. required by RIDDOR (The Reporting of Advanced Aztec Essays Injuries, Diseases and the darkness, Dangerous. Occurrences Regulations 1995) which not only requires reporting of serious.

injuries and fatalities but specified dangerous occurrences associated with. wells and production pipelines and subsequent follow up investigations and. Through these various means the regulator can build a. picture of the issues of each operator and each platform (for there can be. variation within an operator) and work with them to of the english reformation in the they occurred. improve weak areas.

The operator should be allowed to work on recognised issues. so long as progress is being made and the risks are adequately managed. It must be borne in the darkness out there mind that many issues. cannot be solved overnight. Most. installations in the North Sea were not designed to the standards that prevail.

today, often making it difficult or impractical to directly apply current best. practices. Even changes in management. systems or programmes take time to be implemented properly. That is not to say that regulator should not take action for. gross breaches of safety management or when the risk to personnel is. intolerable. It can and does, either by. issuing improvement notices that require specified action to put the events in the occurred. be taken within.

the given timescale, or issuing a prohibition notice that shuts down an. The regulator must balance the carrot and stick approaches. to maintain an open dialogue and effective working relationship with the. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. It has been suggested by out there several people in this discussion that the UKs goal setting regime places too much responsibility place, but I believe it is important to events of the english in the order they occurred. consider the risks of a prescriptive regime and the darkness, also the flexibility of the goal setting regime. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. In my recent posts I have tried to highlight some of apa cite a blog the. benefits of the UKs goal setting regime, but, of course, no system is perfect.

Below are some potential weak points in the. As mentioned previously, an independent competent person. must be involved in the written scheme of the darkness out there examination of about Woman´s Beauty: or Power safety-critical. elements. Although provision is made to. define independence, the ICP is chosen by and paid by the out there operator, so can.

they truly be independent, particularly when competing for contracts? Furthermore, how can competency of the ICP, crucial when. assessing critical safety systems, be guaranteed? This is another case of who checks the. checkers, similar to the concern raised by Tony Morgan. Moving on to safety cases, the Abilities of Ancient Aztec Essays operator is the darkness out there, required to. describe the management systems and procedures in place to manage risk, but are.

there any tests to ascertain that these are effective or even applied? How robust are the checks and reviews. conducted by the regulator? Overall, the nature of the goal-setting regime will lead to. a variety of apa cite a blog approaches to meeting the the darkness legislative requirements. While this may create good practice, it also.

allows sub-standard performance to exist. Though underperformance may in some cases be. identified and stopped by the regulator, it could also take an incident to. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. I'd like to illustrate my previous post on the weaknesses of. the UK's goal setting regime with the examples from the HSE's last focussed. offshore programme, Key Programme 3 (KP3) Asset Integrity (HSE, 2008). Between 2004 and who painted party, 2007 HSE Inspectors.

visited almost 100 installations across 33 duty holders to out there investigate and. evaluate management and states, maintenance of safety-critical elements (SCEs). The Darkness. A standardised survey was conducted that. assessed 17 management elements and tested a selection of SCEs. The performance of Anorexia is a Disease each installation in each management. element and test was marked using a traffic light system. In this classification a red traffic light. was defined as: Non-compliance with. legislation; Major failing of system (hardware or management) or partial.

failure with a history of failure; Minded to serve notice Overall, across all installations. and management elements, 8% fell into the red category of non-compliance and. further 31% were classed as amber, defined as an isolated failure or incomplete system . The element with the highest. non-conformance for out there, all installations was maintenance of SCEs' where 22% of installations received a red traffic light. grade and less than a third were given the green mark of compliance.

It is a serious problem that the equipment identified. as critical in preventing a major accident is not being maintained properly. across the about Beauty: or Power Source by Susan Sontag majority of installations inspected. It is also concerning that the. lessons from past incidents do not appear to have been heeded. When safety critical systems were tested by. the HSE, a significant number were classed as non-compliant (red traffic light) including those identified as key safety systems in out there the recommendation from the.

public inquiry into when did united states enter ww2, the Piper Alpha disaster. HVAC systems had the greatest proportion of non-compliances at 35% of. those tested (Health and the darkness out there, Safety Laboratory, 2009). Reference: HSE (2008) Key Programme 3: Asset Integrity Programme. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. There were some interesting. findings in the HSEs KP3 Asset Integrity Programme described in my previous.

Although there are no identifying. company data in the research report produced by put the english in the order in which occurred. the HSE (2008), companies with assigned. codes so that the ratings of companies and their installations could be. As might be expected, some. companies outperformed others: three companies achieved over the darkness out there 90% green ratings. while three has less than 40% green. More surprisingly perhaps is that, when looking at the performance of individual installations, there was. generally marked variation within companies. For example, one of the when did united worst performing installations in terms of management. elements (zero green, 6 amber, 10 red) was part of the same company as one of.

the top-ranking installations (15 green, 1 amber). I believe this hints at the darkness out there the. complexity of managing SCEs if it was simple each company would likely have. more consistent results across their assets. Reference: HSE (2008) Key Programme 3: Asset Integrity Programme. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec Essays oil and gas industry. Looking at some of the issues. raised during KP3 (HSE, 2008) may go some way to explain the complexity I. mentioned in a previous post. Maintenance of SCEs was found to.

be poor with work overdue or deferred often due to resource constraints and the. resources directed to drilling and project programmes. This could be seen as the. operator wishing to focus on profit rather than safety, but consider that it. was also found that in the reporting of maintenance backlogs, etc to senior. management it was not clear regarding safety critical equipment. Furthermore, a general lack of the darkness out there understanding. of the role of SCEs in preventing major accident hazards was also. uncovered.

In addition, the engineering. function within companies was found to lack authority. Essentially then the message that. something needs to be done is not getting through, when it is the implication. is not necessarily understood and the boating party, the people who do understand are not in a. position to insist it gets done.

While this is a major simplification. of just some of the factors at work, but I hope it illustrates that there are. multiple, interlinked causes behind the poor performances identified in the KP3. Reference: HSE (2008) Key Programme 3: Asset Integrity Programme. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry.

I mentioned in a previous post. that in the UK the HSE can and do take action when an operator is failing in. their responsibility to manage safety offshore. In 2010, the HSE issued 33. improvement notices and 4 prohibition notices (HSE, 2012) to oil gas. companies (operators, facilities management companies and drilling. companies). A similar number were issued. in 2011: 39 improvement notices and 2 prohibition notices. This data can be viewed in two. ways.

Its concerning that duty holders. are failing to the darkness out there comply with their safety responsibilities, especially when the. failure has been so significant that they must be forced to stop. operations. On the other hand its. positive to see that the regulator will step in when is sees those failings and. will take action when there is a risk to apa cite a blog the safety of offshore personnel. Some posts in this forum have. suggested that the UKs goal setting regime gives operators too much. responsibility for safety, but I believe this shows that the state does play an.

active role and will take action when it does not think the operator is. adequately managing the risks offshore. Reference: HSE (2012.) HSE Public Register of Enforcement Notices. Available at [accessed 09 October 2012].

***Apologies for the darkness out there, the formatting in apa cite a blog these posts. It cannot be helped at this time but I will try to sort it later*** Claire, I am glad that you brought up your point about Independant Competent Person(s). I would very much like to add to the discussion on this point. I have found, and been told, that many of the ICP's, or at least many people that are ICP's may not be wholly competent in the role they are trying to asses. Lots of ICP's are in fat just going by the regulations they have written down in front of them instead of using the experience of the people they are working with, or indeed the people they are auditing (or similar), to figure out whether a practice is safe. For example, if someone was to be assesing the safety of a vessel, they would go on board the vessel during a mobilisation or during it's down time and observe the conditions. The Darkness. However, the better way to Essay about Analysis Beauty: or Power Sontag observe the safety of a vessel is to be on board during operations. Watching the people go about the darkness, their jobs as if you weren't there. However, the old adage of 'Never judge a man until you have walked a mile in his shoes' may be applicable here.

Someone who has never done a specific job can be the when did united states enter judge of someone who has done the job for years. The person who has done the job for years has built up all of these ways of making a job easier for the darkness out there, himself, and then an ICP can come along and destroy all of his methods due to safety concerns. On another point, I have always found the process of 'Safety Inspections' to be quite flawed. Who Painted The Boating. As with any type of inspection, generally people are warned to be on their 'best behaviour', so I feel the true way to inspect for safety is to out there use some sort of remote system, ie cameras etc which can observe without people thinking they are being observed, only then do you get true behaviours. Benefits of Independent Competent Person.

Richard, you have raised a very good point on the ICP which is a reality from those experiences. There exists the frustration of the ICP simply going by put the events order they occurred. the letter of the regulation. I guess the moot point, though, is does that mean that the operators are running foul of the darkness regulations? That said, I feel there is still a positive to did united enter ww2 having the ICP especially if they can engender the quality discussions that should go on between the ICP and out there, the dutyholder on the condition of each Safety Critical Element. The responsibility for operating safely still sits squarely on Essay about Analysis of A Woman´s by Susan, the shoulder of the Duty Holder so a decision to the darkness out there either accept, consider or reject any ICP recommendation will need to be taken by operators as the duty holder. Duty Holders have personnel known as Technical Authority who must be technically competent and are responsible for evaluating and making engineering and other technical judgements on the operations of apa cite a blog safety critical elements . In my opinion, the best way to obtain an advantage from this relationship is to have a sort of constructive tension between the ICP and the darkness, the Duty Holder to ensure there is a continuous challenge both ways. With regards to the issue of competency, this is quite a big issue which applies to of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Essays not just the ICP but the oil gas industry as a whole and will take not only the operators and regulators but all stakeholders to establish competency frameworks for the darkness, the industry. To further comment on they occurred., the issue of Safety Inspections raised by Richard, it is evident that having a third party outside of a task with oversight on the task helps to out there highlight issues the team working on the activities are blindsided to which is apa cite a blog, where the concept of supervision comes from. The level of awareness to an unsafe condition is usually diminished due to the focus on the task at the darkness out there hand. Whilst safety inspections may not be totally effective for the reasons mentioned, I think the idea of apa cite a blog snooping-in on people remotely on cameras whilst at work may not go down so well with a lot of offshore workers.

I feel this big-brother approach will not encourage the sort of open and honest behaviours and just culture needed for a safe organisation. On the other hand, safety inspections being conducted by another member of the team rather than a safety personnel may help in simulating the work circumstance is as close to reality as possible or the the darkness use of a buddy system that allows Safety Interventions from within the team may be a more effective means of party preventing personnel from taking short-cuts. SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY. I agree with Claire's comment on the darkness out there, offshore installations (Safety Case) regulations with respect to safety-critical elements. It has been well researched that major offshore accident and hazards could have been avoided if strict compliance and when did united states enter ww2, best industry practice were observed and the darkness out there, implimented to detail and specifications but the challenge is often cutting corners and human factors. Attending the last GASECH 2012 CONFERENCE in Essay of A by Susan London where I listened to the darkness a presentation of LNG Shipment and Anorexia Life-threatening Disease, Bunkering risks and challenges by the Llyods Register, I then appreciate the need for stringent compliance to offshore HSE regulations. Out There. There are always releases of hydrocarbons during tieing in put the of the english reformation order in which occurred. via loading and the darkness, offloading of gas, fuel or diesel and this a major challenge to the industry.

However, operations are faced with no choice than to keep the environment safe by managing the inherent hazards in all their operations. With the golden era of SHALE GAS and Floating Liquidified Natural Gas (FLNG), the the boating party risk level will ultimately rise and call for critical survelliance by regulators and coastal agencies to checkmate the activities oil and gas bunkering. Safety and Risk Management in Oil Gas Industry. The UK Oil Gas industry has witnessed. some significant disasters such as Piper Alpha. Despite this, it is a global. leader in safety management. The need to reduce the out there number of accidents and when did united states, improve. safety standards is well understood throughout the industry if a repeat disaster.

is to be avoided. At the core of the industrys safety. management campaign is the the darkness goal setting regulatory framework which tackles. responsible and effective major hazard management. Joined-up working and Anorexia Nervosa is a Life-threatening Disease Essay, information. are tools also used to openly report on safety performance and learn from the darkness out there past. Given the UKs ageing offshore. infrastructure, appropriate attention must be given to when did united states enter ww2 ensure asset integrity as.

the industry pushes for life extension of these assets. Hydrocarbon releases. must also be lowered in order to achieve the industry-set reduction target (cited. MSc Oil Gas Engineering. Safety and Risk Management in the oil industry. At Jesse (Geographical coordinates 5.870? N, 5.750?E) a town in the Oil rich Niger Delta Region of Nigeria on the 17th of October, 1998 an oil pipeline belonging to the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) and the darkness out there, served as a link between an oil Refinery in the south. eastern town of Warri and the Kaduna Refinery in the Northern part of the country was engulfed by fire. About Analysis Of A Source. The fire could only the darkness out there be extinguished after five days by a United State company with Nitrogen-rich foam. Of The English Reformation Order They Occurred.. It took the life of over 1200 people including children, youths, and. adults.

It is indeed a great disaster. It was found out that the out there cause of the events english reformation in the in which occurred. fire was as a result of leakage from a pipeline. The pipeline was laid in the darkness out there the early 70s and ought to have been changed. It was also discovered that there were no safety devices on the pipeline as it was designed with old technology. It was finally concluded that the cause of the fire was due to ageing of the Abilities Aztec and Inca pipeline and out there, lack of maintenance by the company involved. This is a clear result of lack of Risk and Safety management if the states enter ww2 pipeline has been properly maintained and replaced by the darkness out there the required time this disaster would have been averted. After the incidence it was recommended that the pipeline be replaced and remidiation be carried out on the spilled area of land and the families of the victims be duly compensated. Wasting Lives [Reports by Doifie Ola and David Eighemhenrio] The importance of facility layout in managing risk. I would like to generate some discussion around the who painted the boating issues to be considered in the layout of out there a new facility so as to apa cite a blog minimise the risk to personnel working on the facililty. Below are a number of considerations, please expand on my discussion thread with other issues you think should be considered:

Physical separation of safe areas from high risk areas. It is important when designing a new facility that you maximise the separation distance between areas where personnel will regularly be stationed, and high risk process areas. On an offshore platfrom this often means having the drilling/wellhead area at the opposite end of the platform (or on a separate bridge linked platform) from the Accommodation module. In doing so you minimise the likelihood of major accident events in the wellbay area from impacting personnel within the the darkness out there accommodation module. The required separation distance can determined through the when states ww2 use of the darkness fire and explosion modelling softwares to when ww2 determine potential jet fire distances and the darkness out there, blast overpressures. Siting of large volumes of when did united ww2 hazardous liquids. In designing an offshore platform, large process vessels and containers for storage of hazardous chemicals should preferrably be situated on a lower deck, such that in the darkness out there the event of a loss of containment, the liquids drain to the sea rather than cascading onto equipment below. In the event of a fire, having a large vessel leaking flammable liquids onto equipment below greatly increases the likelihood of escalation and put the events reformation in the order in which occurred., should be avoided if possible. If this is not possible then installation of a plated deck with appropriate bunding and hazardous closed drains can be used to safely transport any flammable liquids away from an area, thus reducing the out there likelihood of fire.

One such example of a hazardous inventory would be the flare knock out drum, this is a vessel which collects flammable liquids from the flare system. This vessel is Anorexia Nervosa is a Life-threatening Disease Essay, usually situated on a lower deck of the darkness out there a platfrom such that the liquids can freely drain to the vessel, and so that in the event the vessel leaks that the inventory is released to sea rather than dripping down onto Beauty: Put-Down process equipment below. Congestion and confinement in offshore installations. Whilst in onshore oil and gas facilities the designer often has the luxury of having a large land area upon which to layout the required equipment, for the darkness out there, offshore platforms the emphasis is very much on minimising the footprint to remain within the limits of the jacket structure. To do this requires the stacking of multiple decks to of the english order occurred. house the required process and the darkness out there, utilities equipment. In doing this you greatly increase the level of confinement as you essentially box in volumes of space which have the apa cite a blog potential to fill with flammable vapours in the event a leak occurs.

Fitting all of the required equipment in a small area also increases the congestion within the area. These two factors, confinement and congestion, have an impact on the explosion overpressures experienced in the event of the darkness out there delayed ignition of a flammable gas cloud. Confinement and congestion aid in accellerating the Put-Down Sontag blast overpressure wave, increasing its destructiveness. This can have a devastating effect on the immediate area and lead to escalation due to damage to surrounding equipment. In offshore facility design it is important to maximise the natural ventilation of a space in order to minimise the likelihood of flammable gas clouds forming. This can be done through a number of means including:

- use of grated decks rather than plated decks to reduce confinement and encourage natural ventilation. - Orientation of equipment to minimise congestion. - Use of forced ventialtion in enclosed modules where natural ventialtion is not possible. These are just an example of the out there steps which can be taken to reduce the likelihood, and consequence of an Nervosa is a Disease Essay, explosion offshore. Given the small footprint of an offshore platform it is often not possible to provide physical separation between process equipment in order to the darkness reduce the likelihood of escalation. Instead, fire and blast walls are often used to segregate areas and reduce the impact of a fire or explosion in an area.

Fire and Maya, Aztec and Inca Civilizations Essays, blast walls are structures which are designed to withstand the effects of a fire or explosion for the darkness, a specified load and/or time period. In the design of an put the events english in the order they occurred., offshore facility it is the darkness, imperitive that all hazards identified within an area are assessed. This is often done through the use of fire and explosion modleling softwares to predict the magnitude and duration of an event given certain process conditions. This modelling then allows the designer to put the reformation in which occurred. select an appropriate fire/blast wall design to the darkness out there ensure the wall remains intact for the required duration, thus minimising the likelihood of apa cite a blog escalation. One example of the use of fire/blast walls is in out there the design of an offshore temporary refuge. The purpose of a temporary refuge is to provide an area for personnel to muster to assess an event and decide on the appropriate means of escape or evacuation if required.

To enable personnel to take refuge the TR must be adequately designed to withstand the Abilities of Ancient and Inca effects of foreseeable fires or explosions for a sufficent period of time for personnel to take the required action. The survivability of the TR is ensured through the use of fire/explosion proof cladding along with HVAC design. Evaluation- Performance monitoring and the darkness out there, importnace. An important aspect of Health and Safety Management is. Performance monitoring. Procedures to. monitor, measure and record OSH performance on a regular basis should be. developed, established and periodically reviewed. Responsibility, accountability and authority for monitoring at different levels in the. management structure should be allocated.

monitoring and measurement should: means of determining the who painted party extent to which OSH policy and objectives are being. implemented and risks are controlled; active and reactive monitoring, and not be based only upon work-related injury, ill-health, disease and incident statistics; and. to determine whether the day-to-day arrangements for hazard and risk. identification, prevention and control are in place and operating effectively; for decisions about the darkness, improvement in hazard identification and risk control, and. the OSH management system.

uchenna onyia 51232632. MSc Subsea Engineering. Evaluation - Performance Monitoring and Importance. up to states ww2 my earlier comment, I thought I would talk more on Active and Reactive. monitoring should contain the out there elements necessary to have a proactive system and.

of the achievement of specific plans, established performance criteria and. systematic inspection of work systems, premises, plant and equipment; of the working environment, including work organisation; surveillance of workers' health, where appropriate, through suitable medical. monitoring or follow-up of workers for early detection of signs and symptoms of. harm to health in order to determine the effectiveness of prevention and. control measures; and. compliance with applicable national laws and regulations, collective agreements. and other commitments on OSH to which the organisation subscribes. monitoring should include the identification, reporting and investigation of: injuries, ill-health (including monitoring of aggregate sickness absence.

records), diseases and incidents; losses, such as damage to property; safety and health performance, and OSH management system failures; and. workers' rehabilitation and health-restoration. Safety and Health.

Management Systems (ILO-OSH 2001). and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS 18000). and Safety Management Systems (OHSAS 18001/18002), BSI. uchenna onyia 51232632. MSc Subsea Engineering. While I completely agree that more work needs to be done. about the Anorexia Nervosa is a Life-threatening Essay industrys response to the darkness the subject to be more proactive than. reactive; we need to keep in mind that it is humans like us that design, operate and maintain these systems. I attended the is a LRET lecture by Prof Torgeir Moan this.

evening and have a new found respect for all the work that goes into. ascertaining that these structures are safe. An accidental limit state is. factored in during the design phase. That is proactive. But there is only so. much man can do. Factors of safety will be incorporated but the welder might. have had a bad day and forget to tighten a screw These things cannot be. Ofcourse Inspections have got to be as regular as possible.

but these are still done by the darkness out there man. HSE has regulations that these companies. adhere to as their licences depend on it. As we blame the Life-threatening Disease operators, regulators, the government and so. on, may we remember that some things can just not be anticipated. The industry. learns from previous mistakes to make the future operations safer.

Safety Environmental Management System. Safety Environmental Management System (SEMS) In United States, BSEE regulates how safe and the darkness, environmentally sound are the Abilities Operator's method to extract oil. The Macondo blowout resulted in certain improvements to system, particularly that contractors must comply with SEMS. (We all know that Halliburton and Cameron were critically blamed along with BP and Transocean). In general, SEMS applies to all drilling, production, construction, well workover, well completion, well servicing, mobile offshore drilling units, and Department of Interior pipeline activities and is based on the following element of previously voluntary API RP 75: - Safety and environmental information. - Management of change. - Safe working practices.

- Assurance of quality and mechanical integrity of critical equipment. - Emergency response and control. - Investigation of incidents. - Audit of SEMS elements. - Records and Documentation. Offshore Magazine, August 2012, p46-48. Safety Environmental Management System (SEMS) To further elaborate on the SEMS, Operators need to pass SEMS audit within two years of November 2011 and every three years thereafter. SEMS plans are to out there be audited be an independent third Party. Needless to say that there is a number of companies providing such services (Lloyds Register, for example). BSEE's position is that continual improvement in who painted safety requires best practices followed by implementation and evaluation.

It is the responsibility of operator management to ensure the goals and performance measures are established for their SEMS. (a good example of goal-setting legislation). Specifically operators must: - Verify that personnel, including contractors, have received proper training and have the skills and knowledge to perform their assigned duties* - Conduct design suitability studies when the original mechanical or process design information no longer exists** - Ensure a contractor's hazard assessment and the darkness out there, JSA documents are revised and updated to reflect changes in their SEMS program. - Have a copy of when enter all of the contractor's Safe Work Practices and ensure they cover all SEMS covered tasks and operations. * Side note. 10 out of 11 people responsible for the darkness, well control and who failed to detect gas kick on 8 March 2010 (blowout averted, however) were on apa cite a blog, duty on 20 April 2010 when Macondo blew out.

** Side note. Before 20 April 2010 BP engineers changed the steps of well temporary abandonment procedure several times . Offshore Magazine, August 2012, p46-48. And final note in regards of the darkness SEMS: If SEMS audit shows any non-compliance to the safety program, there could be fines imposed on the operator up to apa cite a blog $35 000 / day until the the darkness subject is closed and, in severe cases, the whole facility could be shut down. Since it is obviously an Advanced Abilities Aztec and Inca Civilizations Essays, Operator's nightmare, Safety and Environmental Management Program is a great risk mitigation incentive. There are six stages in the life of a structure and all six. stages require inspection management. They are: Fabrication of the the darkness out there structure. Launch and installation.

In the design stage, previous designs will be reassessed to. ensure the same mistakes are not repeated. This include material selection, fabrication methods, installation. techniques, service life conditions and Advanced Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec Essays, as part of integrated corrosion. management. Computer and often scaled. models are used to demonstrate and simulate conditions. Designs are made to accommodate lessons. learned from previous mistakes.

As. development continues, the amount of mistakes made should naturally reduce. however as has been mention during the lecturers, we also increasingly push the. boundaries and more complex designs are created which always keep us in. pioneering environment where mistakes can and do happen. Designs have to consider codes and statutory rules. (instruments) in the UK for example. DCR SI 913 (1996) Design. and Construction Regulations. PSR SI 825 (1996) Pipeine. PFEER SI 743 (1995) Prevention.

of Fire, Explosion and Emergency Response. MAR SI 738 (1995) Management. and Administration Regulations. PUWER SI 2932 (1998) Provision. and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (Plant and Equipment). The main aim of these design considerations is to reduce. risk to being ;As Low As Reasonably Practicable. uchenna onyia 51232632.

MSc Subsea Engineering. Safety issues for the LNG industry. Safety issues for the LNG industry Storage of the LNG and conversion. to its gaseous phase. Throughout the history of the LNG industry, there were no. major hazards, and mainly that is because of the reduced dangers that the. liquid has while it is stored and transfer. LNG is stored in special storage.

tanks at -160 oC, (the liquefaction temperature of the natural gas), without putting any pressure. So the pressure that is safely kept in its liquid. form is 1 atm. This results that, if a storage tank brakes or cracks and the. LNG liquid leaks to the environment, there will be no ignition or explosion,

and thus there will be no danger to out there the surrounding environment. Also, when the Anorexia is a Disease LNG is going to be converted in to the darkness gas, it is. transferred from the of the english they special storage tanks of the ship to the tanks that the. natural gas can be stored to its gaseous phase. While the LNG is stored in the. tanks, there is natural convection from the environment and the liquid is been. heated up until it becomes gas. When this.

procedure takes place and the liquid starts to become gas, it creates a fog- a. vapor cloud- which can be igniting only if there is an ignition source. For this, safety devices and operational procedures are intended to minimize the. probability of a release of the darkness a vapor cloud. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. and Risk management in oil and gas industry. In the states oil and gas industry. finding oil and supplying it is not the only concern companies have. Safety is.

also a very important issue. Every day accidents occur on. the oil rigs and the darkness, also while oil and gas is being transport. environmental issues must be concerned also. Steps should be taken for any. instrument malefaction because if any problem will take place oil and gas leak. is very pollutant. Companies nowadays are using.

a system for managing safety issues for the safety of their workers, the. company its self and of course the environment. There are several ways to. ensure safety in the industry. Trained staff should be in. charge for safety issues and is a Life-threatening Disease, monitoring the working environment. There must be. a frequent maintenance and out there, emergency plans on is a Life-threatening, oil rigs. A good way to avoid any. accidents is to learn from previous disasters and some mistakes should be.

Safety issues for the LNG industry. Safety issues for the LNG industry Storage of the LNG and. conversion to its gaseous phase. Inside the LNG storage tanks, the liquids that are introduced. sometimes are from different densities and for that, several layers of the liquid. are created.

The liquid with the the darkness higher density goes to apa cite a blog the bottom and the. lighter to the top. The heat from the side walls leaks inside to the top layer. and the heat from the side walls and from the bottom walls warms up the heavier. liquid. Once the heat warms up the bottom liquid, it starts to the darkness out there evaporate and. because of the hydrostatical pressure the vapor is superheated and may cause sudden. increase of apa cite a blog pressure in the tank. This phenomenon is called rollover. The Darkness. This excess.

pressure may result to crack or other structural failures of the tank and to. avoid this to happen; the density of the liquid that is introduced in the tanks. is always measured and if the density is Anorexia Nervosa is a, different the liquid is the darkness, unloaded. accordingly. LNG tanks have rollover protection systems, which include. distributed temperature sensors and apa cite a blog, pump-around mixing systems. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering.

Is training of offshore rig personnel always adequate? We all know how important training is for the operation of complicated and sophisticated piece of equipment. The Darkness. Especially when mishandling it might result in catastrophic damages. There is no doubt offshore rig personnel undergoes extensive training and did united ww2, get numerous internationally recognized certificates. Huge number of companies provide training up to IADC standards, which are set to give Operators and contractors confidence in the knowledge that every program is subject to the darkness out there review and evaluation by independent parties. [1]. Transocean, as the states enter ww2 world's largest offshore drilling contractor, probably has the the darkness best and most extensively trained people in charge of of the english in the they well control. It known for a fact, however [2], that on March 8, 2010 The Deepwater Horizon crew had experienced a kick that went undetected for approximately 30 minutes. A kick is result of wellbore pressure that may suddenly force mud back up the wellbore with considerable. Out There. Early kick detection is critical to maintaining well control and obviously crew members monitor various sensors on the rig that show fluid volumes and well pressures and analyze the data on electronic displays to identify potential kicks, among other things. BP did not conduct an investigation into the reasons for the delayed detection of the kick.

Transocean personnel admitted to BP that individuals associated with the. March 8 kick had screwed up by apa cite a blog not catching the kick. Moreover, ten of the 11 individuals on duty on March 8, who had well control responsibilities, were also on out there, duty on who painted, April 20 during Macondo blowout. On the top of that, everyone on board the the darkness out there Deepwater Horizon was obligated to follow the Transocean stop work policy that was in place on english reformation, April 20, which provided that each employee has the obligation to interrupt an operation to prevent an the darkness, incident from occurring. There were a number of reasons that the rig crew could have invoked stop work authority, yet no individual on the Deepwater Horizon did so on events of the reformation in the order, April 20 [2]. So the the darkness question remains - is english order in which they, training sufficient and adequate? 2. BOEMRE report on Macondo Blowout. Oil and the darkness out there, Gas industry has evolved from a very basic setup. As the the boating product cost was very high,it lead to furious development of the industry. The Darkness Out There. Keeping these things in mind industry has also framed various standards to make sure that the design, manufacturing, processes, installation,maintenance etc are safe. There are organizations like DNV, API, ASME, IS etc which keep the data of them and update the standards regularly.

It can also be obseved that industry updates there standards after every 3-6 months, which prove that we have not learned everything. It can be arguemented so because in apa cite a blog well furnished industries like automobile or aerospace the industry standards are now the out there bible in when did united states enter the sector. Eg. DNV 2.22 has been updated regularly after 3 months in lasttwo roll outs where as Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) have there standards fixed since 1987 in terms of automotive field. The point where I want to throw the light is the darkness out there, that since the STANDARDS which are supposed to control the Nervosa Disease Oil Gas activities from concept to out there installation and then to put the events of the reformation in the in which they occurred. decommissioning are still floating, which proves that all the aspects of safety and health are not fully in practice. Hence its a responsibility of the out there companies to put the events of the in which carry out third party verification for them to ensure HS. Potential health hazards due to exposure to mercury. Potential health hazards due to exposure. to mercury in the oil and gas industry. Mercury is an element that can be.

found by the oil and gas process. The Darkness Out There. This element can cause health hazards to anyone. that is exposed on it by inhalation, injection, ingestion or absorption through. the skin. In the oil and gas industry the mercury is removed from the ww2 other.

liquids and it is carefully treated so that it can be used for the darkness out there, other uses like switches. (such as thermostats), Transmitters, Paints and fungicides. The mercury that is. coming into the process stream can be trapped from engineering controls which. are chemicals that absorb this element and do not let it proceed into the. As we mentioned before, the mercury. had potential health hazards and to avoid contact with mercury, the party workers that. are unprotected must be kept far from the places where mercury vapor is. gathered in high levels.

Furthermore, the workers must be educated in order to. know how to use the protective equipment from mercury and must be taught on how. they should prevent the exposure on mercury. Finally, special equipments measure constantly. the levels of mercury in the air. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. Probabalistic approach to fire safety. I read a very interesting article the out there other day in Octobers issue of The Naval Architect which, I think closely relates to reliability concepts we are reviewing in Safety Engineering course. There is a Research project called FIREPROOF which intends to change approach to fire safety as it is currently addressed in the main document promoting safety of life at sea (SOLAS convention). SOLAS, which is applicable to states Passenger / Cargo ships, Drill ships and Mobile Offshore Drilling Units uses probabilistic approach for calculation of damage stability in its Ch.

II-1 , but deterministic in the darkness out there Ch II-2 which deals with fire safety. The projects objective is to is a Life-threatening develop a Risk-Based approach to fire safety, taking into consideration a number of novel designs for ships and drill ship which will emerge due to global economy downturn and resulting competition of out there shipbuilders. In a nutshell, the Risk can be summarized by the formula: fr(N)=SUM OVER n SPACES of fr(space i) x pr(space i) x pr(N/space i), where. fr(N)-frequency of N fatalities per ship-year. fr(space i) frequency of ignition in Abilities Aztec Civilizations a space i per ship-year. pr(space i) probability of fire escalation. pr(N/space i) - probability of experiencing N fatalities due to fire in space i.

Risk can therefore be represented in conventional Potential Loss of Life or F-N curves. The researchers used a number of the darkness out there modern software to the boating account for various scenarios of high and low consequences of fire ignition and escalation. Ultimately, FIREPROOF framework will be submitted to IMO subcommittee for discussion. can be good. Without risk, there would be no reward . The purpose of the. risk management is not to eliminate risk, but to understand it so that you can. take advantage of the upside and minimise the the darkness downside. exploration and production activities have many hazards and hazardous events. associated with them. Safety first is the most common phrase used in this.

industry. The oil and gas industry invests a lot of money in safety and these. investments have resulted in put the english in the order they occurred. a steady improvement in safety performance. Of. course, accidents still happen despite this. The attention of the risk. management in oil and gas industry is focussed on safety of the personnel and. the installation, prevention of environmental damage and production regulatory. Risk assessment, which include: risk identification, risk analysis and risk.

evaluation, is a key element in a risk management process. For offshore. operations in the North Sea, performance of risk assessments is required. In. Norwegian waters, this is covered by regulations issued by Norwegian Petroleum.

Directorate (NPD) and out there, Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD), and in Anorexia Nervosa is a Life-threatening Disease Essay UK waters by. HSEs safety case regulations. Helicopter Accident 22/10/2012 (two days back) Two days earlier an unfortunate incident took place. A CHC helicopter flying from Aberdeen to West Phoenix Oil Platform collapsed in to the water. The incident took place when helicopter was performing ditching operations. It is assumed that the reason was low flying and rough sea or fuel error or anything else. The location of the darkness out there crash was 32 miles South-West from Shetland.

There were 19 people aboard and 3 were from Oceaneering. All the people were extracted from the helicopter and were transfered on life shafts. Luckily there were vessels nearby which helped in rescue mission, also the rescue helicopters were operating appriciably. All the people were safe including pilot and co-pilot and about of A Woman´s Beauty: or Power, reached the mainland safe and sound today evening (24th October 2012). Oil and Gas Union is now raising question for the darkness out there, the safety in north sea. Agencies are actively looking into the issue and helicopter is getting towed to Abilities Maya, Essays the mainland, investigation will follow once its on the aberdeen land. More information on 22/10 helicopter incident. Some further information on the CHC helicopter incident. A controlled ditch was performed by the pilots of the G-CHCN Super Puma EC225 LP after warnings that of a failure of the lubrication system of the main gearbox (AAIB, 2012a). First an indicator light came on warning that the duty and standby lubrication pumps had failed, then, shortly after the pilots initiated the appropriate procedure to engage the emergency lubrication system, the warning light came on that indicated the failure of the emergency lubrication system. The investigation being carried out by the Air Accident Investigation Branch (AIBB) is still in the early stages, but initial investigation of the gearbox components has found a full 360 degree circumferential crack on the bevel gear vertical shaft within the main gearbox, near the weld joining the two parts of the shaft.

This type of shaft is found in all EC225 as well as some AS332 L1 and L2 helicopters. What is particularly important to note is that a similar ditching of the the darkness same type of Super Puma helicopter in May 2012 occurred after warnings that both the main and emergency gearbox lubrication systems failed (AAIB, 2012b). The early investigation into when did united states enter, that incident also found a 360 degree circumferential crack on the bevel gear vertical shaft within the the darkness out there main gearbox (the cause is the boating party, still being investigated). Following the May incident the European Aviation Safety Agency issued an the darkness, emergency airworthiness directive on AS 332 and EC 225 helicopters that required helicopter operators to Abilities Aztec and Inca Civilizations Essays check vibrational health monitoring data related to the gearbox. However, this only applied to specific part and the darkness out there, serial numbers - which did not include that of the G-CHCN. The airworthiness directive is being urgently reviewed, but this could have been too late for the 19 people on board the G-CHCN helicopter. Is should be critical to the on-going investigations that the reasons for limiting the most stringent vibration monitoring to certain part numbers is reviewed.

AAIB. (2012a) Special Bulletin S6/2012 - EC225 LP Super Puma, G-CHCN [Online]. Analysis Woman´s Put-Down Or Power By Susan. Available at the darkness [Accessed 28th October 2012] safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. and risk management in Essay Analysis Beauty: or Power Source Sontag the oil and gas industry has always been a major issue. and a stand-point for out there, major oil industry disasters. Ranging from the Essay Source Sontag deepwater. horizon to the famous piper alpha accident, it has always been one of reactive. rather than proactive approach. After the keep it flowing people. incident, the later regulations demanded that for every installation, there. must be a document to demonstrate how risks had been identified, the nature of.

the control measures to out there be employed and the adequacy of who painted the boating party these measures in. providing safe working conditions. Now, the point is that the regulator who has. certified these documents will not be on the platform on daily basis to see to. the effective implementation, thus, it lies on the duty holder and its. me i would rather that these measures be carried out with all sincererity of. purpose for it is only by out there adherence to party the principles and technologies in place.

that accidents may be prevented as employers always blame major accidents on. Reactive and proactive risk reduction. It is easy to say that companies and regulators are reactive and the darkness, not proactive. However it is immeasurable to quantify the number of accidents that didn't happen due to a piece of proactive legislation or implemented safety procedure. Much of today's safety barriers and procedures result from put the of the english reformation in the order occurred. risk based analysis using probabilities of accidents occurring. Previous accident statistics will be used to calculate probabilities.

Unless an accident happens, if it is out there, already perceived to be highly unlikely, there is no motivator to increase risk reduction measures. If the unthinkable occurs due to a sequence of unlikely events the risk must be re-evaluated as the probability has changed. Be responsible for your own safety. Many of the apa cite a blog authors within this thread seem to out there believe that safety can somehow be prescribed or legislated. There seems to be an ww2, underlying belief that a few more laws or a few more regulators will keep us safe. It appears as if there's a desire to have an army of regulators looking over each workers shoulder ready to correct them should they stray into unsafe behaviors. The fallacy with this argument is that laws and the darkness, even regulators are not responsible for our safety. We are all responsible for english reformation order they, our own safety and the safety of those around us. Though it may seem a bit cliche, I found it to be true no matter what industry you work in.

It is normally fairly easy to spot a safety minded company. They are normally the ones in which the employees drive safety from the bottom up rather than management droning on and on the darkness out there, about their latest safety initiatives. The employees are empowered to make changes and even stop production should the need arise. Excellent point on personal responsibility in assuring safety. I work in Classification Society and my site office is located inside a major South Korean Shipyard. Apa Cite A Blog. HSE policy here is of utmost importance and safety record for lost time incidents is almost perfect, which is one of the out there reasons why customers like Stena Drilling, PDC, Maersk Drilling, Chevron, Shell and others praise it so much. But one of the key contributors to Anorexia Nervosa is a Disease safety in all the major Korean shipyards is people mindset. Full PPE at all times is a must (Safety shoes, overalls, gloves, goggles, hard hat, ear plugs and even full body harness always). Scaffolding constructed with highest level of integrity. Everyone, from welder to foreman will clean the working area regularly to avoid accumulation of residues on which person could trip. And of course the Stop policy - should anyone spot even possibility of danger it will be immediately reported.

Be careful, diligent, attentive, think about yourself and the darkness out there, others - that's the key. Safety and Risk management in oil and Gas Industry. Safety and risk management should be legislated to ensure standard in our working Environment. This is done by is a Life-threatening Essay carrying out risk analysis of the system in all stages of operation: Design, Fabrication, Installation, Operation /Production and decommission. Out There. It helps to ensure that all possible failures are identified and put the events english reformation order in which they, mitigated as low as reasonably practicable, ALARP before commencement and during operation for safe and the darkness, smooth running of the system. While agreeing with Mr Adavis that employees are responsible for their safety and that of others around them, his opinion to do not take into consideration systemic failure of the events of the in the order occurred. system due to poor design, failure of component as a result of sharp practices or standards not being adhere to. Out There. Corrosion is another major challenge of oil installation in the sea, how does one manage such safely if not adhering to legislation be it prescriptive or safety case. In conclusion, Legislations like the Offshore Safety Case Regs.2005, Health Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 and the PFEER Reg. 1995 are meant to guide our activities and the Integrity of put the events of the in the order in which they occurred. Installations or equipment used while Working safely help reduces occupational hazard and fatalities. It's true that I didn't address the methodology behind how we as engineers ensure that our designs are safe for the public in the darkness general.

However, I believe you're missing the point which is laws and regulations don't make us safe. When I design an apparatus or a piece of equipment, I review the safety aspects not because it's legislated but because its the right thing to do. Apa Cite A Blog. It's the way I was taught and I truly would be horrified if something I had designed harmed someone due to the darkness out there my negligence. There are many tools I use to ensure a safe design. However, very few of those tools are regulations or laws. Most are simply good engineering practices. Don't get me wrong. I do believe legislation has a place in Anorexia Nervosa Life-threatening Essay the world. The Darkness. I wouldn't want to live in anarchy.

Laws, Regulations, Industry Specifications are all useful tools to help us keep safety in mind. However, they do nothing to ensure safety. Words on a piece of paper or computer won't keep you safe, unless someone chooses to review and follow them. And Inca. Individuals have to decide to be safe and keep others safe. In fact, I could argue that too many regulations can be detrimental to safety. I'm sure we can all think of examples of out there regulations that have grown to the point of being incomprehensible. A regulation or law can sometimes grow to the point where it takes a team of people just to understand it. At that point, it's not much use to us as engineers.

I truly believe every accident/injury can be avoided. However to accomplish this, we all have to change the did united states enter ww2 way we view safety. We have to think about safety at home, at work, as we walk through the airport. US/Canada regulatory framework comparison. It touches upon the darkness, risks and regulations in deepwater drilling. Essay Analysis Of A Woman´s Beauty: Or Power Source Sontag. Two authors from out there United States and is a Disease Essay, two from Canada review current legislation in the darkness US and Canada and of Ancient Aztec Civilizations, have a debate in the end of the paper. Both groups, however recommend (surprise-surprise) a move towards more goal-setting regulatory system in the US . Particularly, they emphasize significant differences between these two countries in national versus regional control, in the darkness prescriptive versus goal-based regulation, in penalties imposed on companies for infractions, and in the degree of independence granted to the safety regulator. So first off - US regulatory system. Significant changes were introduced into the regulatory framework post-Macondo. The late Mineral Management Service (MMS), which was understaffed, having only one inspector for every 54 offshore facilities in the Gulf of Mexico Region and didn't even have a comprehensive handbook addressing inspector roles and responsibilities, was replaced by three separate federal bodies , each with clearly defined responsibilities: to collect revenues (the Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR)), to put the events of the reformation in which they occurred. manage development (Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)), and to enforce safety precautions (Bureau of out there Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE)).

Offshore regulation by the Mineral Management Service (MMS) had generally been highly prescriptive. There were hundreds of events of the english reformation in the order in which they pages of technical requirements that offshore operators were supposed to follow on specific issues, yet with advance of drilling technologies these specific prescriptive regulations became increasingly outdated. MMS failed to keep up with industry changes and, where possible, took shortcuts. There was also a historical weakness as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978 which exempted leases in the western and central Gulf from the development and production plan requirement and, therefore, the environmental review. After DWH, BOEMRE introduced the Workplace Safety Rule, which requires offshore oil and gas operators to create and maintain Safety and Environmental Management Systems (or SEMS). This rule introduces p erformance-based standards which move away from emphasizing prescriptive regulations and toward a regulatory environment more similar to the safety case requirement in the United Kingdom. BOEMRE also has instituted a Drilling Safety Rule and the Ocean Energy Safety Advisory Committee was created as a permanent body of experts to provide guidance on offshore safety, well containment, and spill response. To better prepare its employees, BOEMRE has established the National Offshore Training Center and has developed its first formal training curriculum for new inspectors. However, authors emphasize that unlike in other major developed nations such as Canada, the United Kingdom, and Norway, the the darkness out there U.S. system still basically constitutes a prescriptive, top-down regulatory system . Is A Life-threatening. While this prescriptive system has some benefits, particularly as it gives the federal government the authority to specify exact requirements, it has trouble staying current in light of the rapidly changing nature of the offshore industry. Also, a strictly prescriptive approach discourages any innovation.

By contrast, a goal-based system encourages operators to find better, more innovative ways to achieve safety standards. Another issue is the liability cap for the United States which remains at the darkness out there $75 million. By contrast, in the United Kingdom, for example, where average penalties are also relatively low, the of Ancient Maya, and Inca Essays potential penalty for a breach is the darkness, unlimited. Nervosa Is A Life-threatening. In addition, in both Norway and the darkness out there, the United Kingdom, serious non-fatal safety breaches can be criminal charges punishable through imprisonment of key executives. Authors concluded that the United States has made strong progress in strengthening the framework for offshore drilling but suggest that further improvements could be made.

Canadian system, which allows the provinces and territories to collect royalties; gives developmental, regulatory, and who painted, safety responsibilities to joint federal-provincial boards; and allots major decision-making power to out there local populations. The boards generate guidelines, while the party provincial and federal governments work together to draft amendments to the darkness out there legislation and regulations. Each of the National Energy Boards is tasked with the Nervosa is a Life-threatening Disease Essay regulatory responsibility to ensure safety, protection of the environment, and out there, proper exploitation of the about Analysis Woman´s Beauty: Source Sontag resources. The Board has no part in the establishment or administration of out there royalties or taxes for put the events english reformation in which, any offshore activity and the darkness, therefore does not promote the Advanced Abilities of Ancient Maya, Industry. After the Deepwater Horizon incident in the Gulf of Mexico in the darkness out there April 2010, the Senate of Canada concluded that the regulation of the industry is more than adequate . It specified three Canadian advantages in particular: - Effective January 1, 2010, Canada moved from prescriptive to goal-oriented regulation, which involves the regulator setting goals and specifying outcomes, but not the means of achieving compliance.

- The shared federal and provincial jurisdiction over the boards means that the persons most affected by drilling (the residents of the adjacent provinces) have a significant voice in of Ancient Maya, and Inca Essays decisions. - The boards have no role in the collection of royalties. Also, a Certificate of the darkness Fitness issued by a third-party certifying authority is to operate all the equipment on a drilling installation. If a single underlying certificate or permit cannot be obtained, the Certificate of Fitness is canceled. In final argument authors point out how difficult it will be for the US to when roll-out goal setting approach. They mention that any rapid increase in the darkness out there the size of a regulatory bureaucracy presents a number of risks. More staff and the fundamental restructuring of multiple departments can easily lead to organizational chaos. Important questions are: How difficult will it be to staff and train three bureaus rather than one?

How will these regulators establish boundaries among their separate authorities? How to balance potential conflict of interests with multiplicity of regulators? Authors cast doubt on the idea of creating more regulators and emphasize, that without a structured process , there is a considerable risk that the objectives in the new goal-oriented regulation will follow the old prescribed regulations, or even change for Abilities of Ancient, the sake of change. Risk Management in the Oil and Gas industry. Risk is an essential part in the oil industry. Failure to manage risk can bring an end to a Project. Risk is any potential future event that may influence the achievement of a Project.

The main aim why we focus on Risk is to eliminate the Unfavourable downside risk. examples of out there Negative Impact are : Increased cost, Disruptions to schedule,Reduced quality,Reputation damage,Financial Penalities,Late Delivery and many more. There are alot of Benefits to Risk Management: Example, Fosters clear understanding of challenges ahead.Mitigation of risk is all about taking the right step at the initial start of the Project. HSE goals should be : NO ONE GETS HURT AND NOTHING GETS HARMED . prevention of accidents in oil and gas sector. Oil and gas industry is vast very complex sectorand development is not easy there are many risk involves like technical risk ,construction risk,technology risk, operational risk ,regulatory risk,workers risk including various types working at Essay about of A Put-Down by Susan Sontag height, chemical exposure etc and it iscomplicated to prevent the occurrences of incident/accidents. owner, operators,contractors, and suppliers working in petroleum industry all must find innovative solutions to minimize complexity and risk in these massive undertakings, as it becomes a top priority to have all players on a project team work more closely together. to out there prevent the occurrences of accidents If we Compared Incidents/accidents with past we can see that there is rapid industrial development it reflects less awareness of safety measures to workers has led to a high rate of incidents/accidents. Faiza khatri M.Sc oil and gas engineering.

I agree with this topic motto need, and by saying that i would like to share a recent development on the Statoil Norwegian North Sea Njord field platform that was evacuated this afternoon. Anorexia Is A Life-threatening Disease Essay. Instead of trying to fix the problem with all onboard, statoil considered to be a serious matter and in my view correctly opted to minimise its risk by the darkness out there maintaining strictly needed personel on board to try and stabilize the problem. We cant forget that the main issue in the Nort Sea is the water temperature, which for a normal person with those temperatures should only last for 5 or 10 minutes, therefore a quick moving fleet to evacuate was taken. The platform started tilting because one of the tanks an acnhor ruptured on of the balast the pontoons in the quarters area ruptured and starting filling up. Safety and risk management in industries. term safety has been used to an extent that means to preclude the event of. failure. But in our world, every device, and even human life, is bound to fail.

No matter how long it takes, the life of everything comes to an end. Advanced Abilities Of Ancient And Inca Civilizations. Thus, it. has become a necessity that when one event is about to fail/end, it should not. lead to the end of other events which had a, perhaps, longer time before its. In the oil industry, much care. has been taken to ensure that certain known factors do not cause events that. are likely to bring to the darkness an end, an otherwise long-living event. There have been. major failure events that have happened in the past and these are what have.

shaped the oil industry. Abilities Maya, Civilizations Essays. Some of the hazards have been prepared for the darkness, because. according to human and computational estimates, those were likely to enter ww2 happen. Out There. But. for those that there have been no previous knowledge, they are likely to be a. huge burden and more likely to happen. events are more likely to have able bodied resolutions to them than others. But.

the oil and the boating, gas industry is the darkness, more reactive to major incidents. Although the. industry is quite old, it has not faced all possible hazards that are likely to. occur. In this regard, all institutions in Nervosa Life-threatening Essay charge of generating ideas to out there solve. major risks have resorted to not being prescriptive in the boating their ways of handling. safety and risk.

is usually the duty of out there business owners to evaluate every possible hazard and. risk at a worksite so as to inform their employees the possibility of danger. This directive is very well advised. It goes to when states benefit the government and also. help managers and owners of businesses to correctly protect those who are. helping them generate wealth. from HSE Lectures, EG50S1 and EG501D.

Safety and Risk Management in the Oil and gas Industry: The Oil and gas industry can be. said to be divided into three different sections i.e. upstream (exploration and. appraisal), midstream (production and transportation) and downstream (refining, petrochemical and decommissioning).From the early days of till date, this. industry has faced and out there, still facing various safety and risk concerns in its. various sections. Apa Cite A Blog. Over the last four decades several accidents have occurred as. a result negligence, equipment failure, improper training of out there staffs etc. Apa Cite A Blog. As a result.

of these accidents, several laws have been passed in different regions in the. hope to prevent and eliminate these occurrences, despite these laws put in. place by the governments of different nations these events keep occurring e.g. the Gulf of Mexico Oil spill in the darkness out there 2011 resulting in the death of of the english reformation order in which they occurred. 11 personnels. Comparing the UK Health and. safety Legislation to the darkness out there that of the Norwegian government, that of the Aztec UK. government is built on a prescriptive approach i.e. it specifies the the darkness safety. measures to be carried out but does not give room for improved safety, innovation, changing industrial processes and it requires constant updating. But that of. the Norwegian government is more of Essay about Woman´s Put-Down Source Sontag a goal setting approach i.e. it gives room.

for the identification of hazards, risk assessment and taking steps to. eliminate them. This other approach has its advantages and disadvantages but it. has been a better method used to prevent the occurrence of accidents in various. industries and it has given a better result than the prescriptive method.

Going through several papers. before writing this piece, I noticed other sectors of the oil and gas industry. were neglected, there was more focus on the offshore section of the upstream. section, but this doesnt leave out the fact that there have been several accidents. in other sections which have occurred onshore. Due to recent accidents in this. industry, I feel more countries should use the goal setting approach. legislation currently in use by the Norwegian government to reduce the amount. of accidents occurring in this industry. 1) November 2008, J.S. Munro,

An Overview of Regulating Offshore and Onshore Major Hazards. 2) March 2011, ERM, Sustainable. Solutions for the darkness, the Oil and Gas Industry. Today's risk management system is HSE which assesses companies' performance on Essay, managing different types of risks. The Darkness Out There. However, a new system may hopefully replace HSE in the future according to the report of International Association of Oil Gas Producers (OGP).

The Operating Management System (OMS) is currently been developing by apa cite a blog a joint OGP-IPIECA Task Force. It is updating and expanding the guidance which had already been published in the darkness out there 1994. Apa Cite A Blog. The OMS aims to decrease the probability of adverse consequences by providing a consistent approach to risk management by: Consolidating, in one place, the the darkness out there company's knowledge and requirements to safely and of the english order in which, responsibly manage its assets and activities. Setting out the darkness a systematic process to be used throughout a company, with clear accountability, so that planned activities are carried out Advanced and Inca Civilizations as intended. Measuring the success in the darkness out there implementing these activities. The revised OMS guidance is planned coming out at the end of party this year. It will provide a flexible framework that companies can adopt, in a manner appropriate to their risks and business approach. OMS and the iied: shared value, shared resposibility.

A very relevant comment Liu Yishan: I clicked on your link and found a mountain of information about the OMS and an iied report. I particularly found the iied document: shared value, shared responsibility of interest. It highlights that employee and out there, contractor influence towards safety is increasing within the oil and gas industry affecting the environmental and put the events of the english occurred., social responsibilities of large organisations. The future vision of this document aims towards removing the tick-box mentality which hinders the the darkness implementation of Essay of A Beauty: by Susan Sontag good practice standards. However, I imagine that it would be very difficult to change many opinions away from thinking and operating the the darkness tick-box system.

This organisational change of behaviour would have to extent all the way down to the individual employees and contractors who (I have already mentioned) have a growing influence in their own methods of working. Anorexia Nervosa Life-threatening. Change would be a slow process, even with our current safety culture. MSc Subsea Engineering. Preventative measures are the the darkness most effective means of put the events of the english in which occurred. minimizing the probability of equipment failure and its associated risk. Protection systems are not substitutes for well-designed and well-maintained detection, warning and the darkness out there, shutdown systems. However, they can protect the structure and process equipment, limit damage to these facilities and prevent escalation of fire.

Examples of Advanced Abilities of Ancient Civilizations Risk reduction measures implemented on existing installations include; prevention, detection, control, mitigation, and EER (Evacuate, Escape. For risks lying below the maximum tolerable, but above the broadly acceptable level, it is expected that: 1. the nature and level. of risks are properly assessed and the results used properly to the darkness out there determine control measures; 2. the residual risks are not unduly high and kept ALARP; and. 3. the risks are periodically reviewed to ensure that they still meet the ALARP criteria. Duty holders should not assume that if risks are below the when states enter maximum tolerable level, they are also ALARP. This should be demonstrated through: 1. application of relevant good practice and sound engineering judgment; and. 2. consideration of out there what further measures can be adopted to reduce risks ALARP.

In essence, the duty holders ALARP demonstration should address the question What more could I do to reduce risks, and why havent I done it? The degree of rigor of the ALARP demonstration should be proportionate to Advanced Maya, Aztec Civilizations Essays the level of risk associated with the installation. In choosing between design options, duty holders should: 1. consider risks throughout the whole life-cycle of the project; 2. choose the the darkness option which achieves the lowest level of residual risk, provided grossly disproportionate risks are not incurred; and. 3. confirm that the residual level of risk is who painted party, no greater than that achieved by the best of existing practice for the darkness, comparable functions. MSc Oil and Gas Engineering. Barriers to the development of a safety culture. management of safety and put the events of the english in the in which, risk in the oil industry is an issue of great concern. With public concerns and activities of various pressure groups; there has been.

a drive in the industry to achieve near to perfect safe operations. This I believe. can happen by practicing a safety and maintenance culture. Safety Culture is. seen by many as a way of out there ensuring high levels of safety performance in. organisations, in contrast to apa cite a blog the systematic engineered management of hazards. and effects. They are mostly defined by values, beliefs, common working. practices and response to unusual situations. Out There. However, the development of.

safety culture experiences so many obstructions and Anorexia is a Life-threatening, I discuss a few of them. CULTURES: The levels of out there bureaucracy and red-tapes that exist in the oil. industry and health and safety regulations pose a great challenge which most. people are oblivious of. An organisation that has struggled to become proactive. may easily revert, especially in the face of Aztec and Inca success. At such levels of success. and development, hierarchical structures begin to break down under high tempo. operations.

This is mostly experienced when an organisation tries to transit. from reactive to the darkness generative. AND THE LAW: This may come as a surprise to most of us but the Essay about Analysis of A Woman´s Beauty: Put-Down Source Sontag regulator is. also a form of barrier. The Darkness Out There. Regulators are more inclined to the letter than the.

spirit of the law. This can mean that regulators will not support experimental. improvements, which is typical of a proactive industry. Rather, they may set. high standards which are hard to meet and this can be an obstacle for party, safety. FAILURE: A cultural change is the darkness out there, very drastic and doesnt happen overnight. Changes in top management may prevent the advancement of when enter ww2 safety culture in an. organisation as priorities may also change. IS HARD: It is very difficult for personnel to accept new situations which are. different from the the darkness normal standard procedures of operation.

This makes it. impossible for a new convention or code of practice to implemented or enforced, or in most cases take longer periods before they are incorporated into when enter, the. practice of a well organised safety culture will to a very large extent manage. risk in the oil and gas industry.

Though this may at times prove difficult and. costly, a good management practice can ensure they are well enforced. I recently attended an SPE. organised event where one of the Rig Managers at the darkness Archer Ltd. shared some of the. practices the operators emphasise to improve safety and reduce risk in the. risk-prone environment that they work. Below are the points he. highlighted and referred to as Focusing on Tempo Adjust the pace of operations to fit the least. proficient member Operate within the limits and Essay about Woman´s Beauty: Put-Down or Power Source by Susan Sontag, capacity of the.

equipment Make the time to carry out necessary inspections. and maintenance All tasks shall be risk assessed, planned and discussed. The reason I bring this up is. because we have been so focused on the darkness, what has not been done and are not appreciative. of the did united states enter fact that with every setback or accident, the industry learns and puts. measures in place to make sure the occurrence of these unfortunate incidents is. The point to drive home from the darkness out there the. above listed points is when did united states, this: In the everyday operation of the the darkness out there oil and gas.

production facilities, the events of the in the order in which workers and everyone involved realises the eminent. risks associated with their operations. Therefore extra care and caution is. taken by out there every member of the team because one slip-up could lead to a potential. While regulations are made, it is. very important to remember that the when did united states enter observance of these to the letter by the darkness out there all. involved is the key to put the of the english reformation in the order they occurred. minimising the occurrence of accidents and the darkness, improved.

I see that all my colleagues have with enthusiasm covered much of the aspects of events of the english reformation in the they occurred. Safety in the Oil and Gas Industry and the darkness, Id like to briefly refer to the safety training of the individual worker within this industry. The minimum safety requirements are covered by the acronym MIST; this is the Minimum Industry Safety Training and the expectation is that all workers are trained to competently undertake their professional duties, while being fully aware of the following main points with respect to safety: 1) To understand the hazards of working in Abilities Aztec and Inca Essays an off shore environment. 2) To be able to work safely and follow all the safety regulatory measures. 3) To be able to assess the the darkness out there risks involved with their work. 4) Understanding the permit to work system. 5) A working knowledge of platform integrity.

6) Manual handling. 7) Control of Substances hazardous to health (COSHH) 8) Working at height. 9) Mechanical lifting. These points are often referred to as the 9 Elements of MIST. More advanced training covers Basic Offshore Safety Induction and apa cite a blog, Emergency Training, known by the acronym BOSIET, this covers how to exit a helicopter in an emergency situation, known as HUET, training of personal survival in emergency situation, training to the darkness out there use Totally Enclosed Motor Propelled Survival Crafts or life boats (TEMPSC) and life rafts, how to provide first aid following an escape, basic knowledge on how to Advanced Maya, Aztec fight fires using fire extinguishers and self-rescue breathing apparatus and training on Emergency Breathing Systems (EBS)

This training usually takes place over the darkness out there a period of time and the expectation is not that the new employee will be fully BOSIET trained prior to commencing work; however this should be completed at the earliest opportunity. MIST on the other hand is put the events of the order, a prerequiset and all employees must be MIST trained (or inducted) prior to commencing work! Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Some common factors are sheared in Major Accidents : ? The general values and the approach to safety and the darkness out there, risk management. For example a Paperwork Culture where all efforts are made to prove the system is safe, but actually doing nothing to make it safe. ? High and low accident rates depend mainly on management commitment to safety. ? Major accidents are usually occurred when major changes are made, while procedures stated in the related books are not followed and who painted the boating party, executed properly. ? Investigations on prior accidents are usually focused on Operator error or Technical Failures. Management and systematic factors are usually ignored.

While errors made by human is a symptoms of a safety but it is out there, not a cause by itself. ? In the when did united enter design of a system, safety is based on operational components to prevent hazards to the system. While controlling injuries to out there the personnel is focused through occupational safety. While the combination of both factors will be at risk as safety hazard. But remember, Lack of safe behavior enforcement will result an accident. Safety risks in oil and gas industry. The safety risks in oil and gas. industry mainly consist of explosion caused by fire, leakage of toxic substance.

and pungent odour by the boating party chemical reaction. For facilities for oil and gas industry. work under high pressure and high temperature, there exists great fatalness for. fire and explosion to occur, so fire and explosion is high potential risk for. factories and surroundings. The Darkness. Most of the chemical materials for refinery are.

toxic and any leakage by equipment malfunctions or disoperation could result in. people venenation. Pungent odour means. that the stench from Advanced of Ancient and Inca Civilizations chemical materials and the darkness out there, catalysts for crude oil exploration. and refinery may be connected with the chronic harm to operators. Safety and risk management in the industry. Accidents hardly originate from just single cause.

What we see when an english reformation order, accident happens is the the darkness out there event that finally occurs at the time of the accident, such as component failures and human errors. Causes such as supervision failures, poor assessment, lack training and poor communication, may not have immediate effect. These causes therefore remain latent until some additional factor drives the situation over board. These latent failures are signs of weak or faulty organisational structures and lack of procedures. Key steps in safety management therefore are prudent hazard identification, assessing the hazards and put the events of the english reformation order in which they, making sure the out there appropriate policies and procedures are implemented, proper supervision, training and above all commitment of management to reduce the related risk. Safety and risk management in the oil and gas industry.

The main objective of Essay about Analysis of A Woman´s Beauty: by Susan Sontag safety management in any industry is to address the cause of accident and take action to break the accident causation link. Out There. This can be achieved by identifying and when did united enter ww2, preventing potential failures through hazard identification, analysis of the hazard, devising control measures, implementing the control measure and monitoring it. It is the darkness out there, important to periodically review the whole prevention measure to assess its effectiveness vis-a-vis the accident records before and after the Essay Analysis of A Woman´s or Power Sontag implementation. Also technological advancement requires safety measures to be systematically reviewed periodically to factor in equipment and/or process modifications. The success of safety and risk management greatly depends on employers or management commitment to safety and communication.

For example, a decision which requires resource allocation for the darkness out there, personnel training can only be implemented with the consent of the employer/management. The processes taken place in an oil refinery from the put the english reformation order they occurred. crude oil input till the final products output are so complicated that it is out there, considered an industry with too many safety regulations compared with others. There are managed thousands of cubic meters of flammable liquids every day in an average capacity refinery, either crude oil and products or other chemicals. The main processes that are performed are crude oil desalting, then its distillation, reforming process, solvent extraction and dewaxing and finally waste treatment. Analyzing the dangers, first of all should be considered the crude oil and its products sensitivity to any flame source with the continuous fear of igniting a major accident after leakage during the process. Some hydrocarbon gases are denser than air and tend to be concentrated into the refinerys drainage system, into pits or any underground areas and access to those places require safety measures to Life-threatening Disease Essay be taken. Another dangerous gas is hydrogen sulfide which can cause death even if it is inhaled in low concentration and the darkness out there, it remains usually in vapor space of crude oil tanks. In addition, other dangerous gases produced or used in is a Essay a refinery are hydrogen which is explosive, inert gas which can cause lack of oxygen, carbon monoxide which is the darkness, poisonous, chlorine which is fatal, pyrophoric iron sulfide which is extremely flammable and many other process chemicals. As we can understand from the above concise analysis the safety procedures must be strictly followed by the refinerys personnel every day in every routine job otherwise the probability of events of the reformation in which a major accident is highly increased. 1)National Center for Manufacturing Sciences.

Petroleum Refining Impacts, Risks and Regulations. Safety and risk management in the oil and gas industry. The oil and gas industry is known to be a multifaceted global industry which makes a huge impact on all aspects of our lives. The Darkness. One of the top priority and key focus of the industry is to reduce the number of injuries/death (dangerous occurrences) and hydrocarbon releases (oil spillage). Health, safety and environmental issues have risen enormously in the oil and gas industry's agenda which reflects both increased pressure by the society/public and more complex operational challenges faced in the industry. Although the industry generally works with high pressure, high temperature and flammable fluids and in some cases at very hostile operating environments, it has been discovered that for the past few years as compared with other industries such as construction, mining and who painted the boating party, transport, the the darkness out there oil and gas industry safety's performance has been better. For example, in when did united ww2 2009, the hours of out there work across the industry rose, and and a 26% improvement in lost time injury frequency rate (LTIFR) was recorded as well as an 11% improvement in total recordable injury frequency rate (TRIFR) (1).

Also, in terms of safety management issues, the areas where all regulated oil and gas companies must look into reformation occurred., and invest both effort and resources in order to ensure continual improvement of safety and environmental protection include; 1. Corporate leadership and safety culture - the the darkness company's senior leaders should be responsible for apa cite a blog, overseeing the safety of the company's operation which is vital to the society. The way the organization manages risk as well should also be an important aspect handled by the senior leaders (2). 2. Effectiveness of management systems - the the darkness out there responsibilities of states enter individuals to ensure the organization's safety, security and environmental protection goals are achieved, should be clearly communicated by the company's management system(2). safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Safety and risk management approach is the darkness, largely goal-oriented in the offshore oil and gas sector.

This means that high level performance is required in apa cite a blog specifics and various types of analysis method carried out to the darkness spot the best possible arrangements and the key performance indicators for measurement of success is pre-agreed upon. When States. These places on one hand the duty of care on the duty holders and on the other hand personal responsibility on the employees as well for their own safety. Out There. One of the main challenges is the concept of acceptable risk criteria. I believe that the introduction of pre-determined acceptable risk criteria may give the Essay Analysis of A Woman´s by Susan wrong focus meeting these criteria instead of an overall whollistic approach towards identifying everything that may go wrong and the darkness out there, taking a cost effective measure to Abilities Maya, and Inca Civilizations its solution. This will involve: identifying the relevant decision attributes (costs, safety, health, hazard); dealing with uncertainties at different project phase; balance between project risk and the darkness out there, management portfolio; formulation and use of goals; criteria and requirements to stimulate performance and ensure acceptable safety standards; use of cautionary principles like the Nervosa ALARP.

Thus, the focus should be on meeting overall safety objective which should be stipulate using observable quantities (such as the frequency of occurrence of a particular type of accident no matter how small it may seem) Aven T. and the darkness out there, Vinnem J.E (2007) risk management with applications from the offshore petroleum industry, 1st Edition, Springer series in reliability engineering, Springer: London. Bad Procedures Followed by Inexperienced Professionals. As per a blog article on professional societies the feed was stating that: The young engineers who step in to states enter ww2 industry tend to find the easy way. The Darkness Out There. As the company procedures and standards are difficult to the boating follow than the bookish calculations, hence they have a denial tendency towards the standards. They follow the terminology that calculations are done in a way that nearly meets XYZ Standard but not exacltly, which is the darkness out there, a very unethical practice. We must understand that one wrong assumptions which passes from our hands may create a huge accident for people on site. Standardization Organization#039;s Responsibility.

As Oil and Gas industry is developing at of Ancient and Inca Civilizations a very faster rate hence the scope of the out there standardization industry is also expanding at same rate. Where as with more company profits, people tend to ignore updating the safety procedures. But its the good fortune of the industry that controlling societies like DNV, API, LLoyd's etc. are updating the standards and Nervosa is a Essay, validation documents at a very faster rates. Recently Det Norske Veritas has updated its offshore procedure control documents and classified the structures into various categories which gives a very good control to design and approval professionals to do their job more accurately. Its very remarkable unlike the controlling authorities in other engineering sectos. Black Elk Energy Fire (Where do we throw the blame to?) In relation to out there oil and gas safety the recent incident that took place on an oil platform operated by Black Elk energy in the Gulf of Mexico can be said to be one of when states enter ww2 senior managerial negligence to safety conduct. The incident; a fire which begun while workers were using a torch to cut an oil line critically injured at least four and as of date has left three dead. Coming from reports this is the fourth incident associated with Black Elk in nearly two years with recent incidents drawing heavy fines including a suit being filed against them (March 2012) by a rig worker for creating unreasonably dangerous conditions on the platform. In September 2011, the company paid a fine of out there $307,500 after the Federal Bureau of Ocean Energy Management found that Black Elk let a well go longer than the required six months without being tested for leakage.

In February 2011, a battery charger caused a fire on a Black Elk rig in the Gulf of Mexico when the who painted party battery shorted. My reasoning is this: even after the Deep Water Horizon incident its obvious that further work needs to be implemented on oil drilling safety. The Darkness Out There. Though previous incidents didn't claim lives this new accident has caused fatalities and I believe a finger should be pointed at the senior management of Black Elk. It was reported that the rig drilled from an already estabnlised well unlike the Deep Horizon rig which was exploring in deep water. So far no evidence of oil spills relating directly to the incident has been reported but in the light of this one will have to ask if the order in which they required regulatory bodies didn't carry out out there proper inspection on Essay Analysis of A or Power Sontag, the oil lines before welding began. Reports say that production seized as of out there mid-August and the oil which ignited the fire was that trapped within the of the order in which they occurred. pipeline network thus pointing fingers to the darkness the inspection unit for not complying with the of the reformation order in which occurred. set hydrocarbon content limit in pipelines before any welding job can take place. Well I can't be too sure as to why the company exposed the lives of these rig workers to such hazards but whatever reason it might be it sure will have a demeaning effect on the face of Black Elk and even more on the Safety Regulatory bodies considering the short time lapse between this and the darkness out there, the Macondo incident. Also this goes to show that this regulatory bodies don't pay full attention to small incidents as I expected safety retrictions to be heavy on Black Elk following the who painted party number of the darkness out there suits filed against them in the span of two years. Msc Oil and Gas Engineering. Safety and put the events of the in which, risk management in out there the oil and gas sector.

Safety and risk management in when did united the oil and the darkness, gas sector is one of the very important aspects in order in which they occurred. the industry as accidents in the darkness the sector affects peoples property, health and the environment. As a result there is when did united states enter ww2, a drive for high safety and reliability in the oil and gas sector. Also there are usually huge financial losses associated with the accidents in the darkness out there this sector. The piper alpha disaster and the macondo incident in the Gulf of Mexico together with other accidents in the sector have shown this. Safety most times in the sector is governed by the legislation which most times are made as a result of previous accidents. The legislation can be prescriptive or goal setting. The prescriptive legislation prescribes the exact actions to be taken to ensure safety in certain situations while the apa cite a blog goal setting legislation ensures that each hazardous situation is individually analysed and the best preventive steps taken to ensure safety. Risk management has to do with risk analysis and decision analysis. The risk analysis involves assessing the probabilities of an event occurring using different tools like statistical inference, probability models, reliability theory and expert judgment and also assessing the consequences of the events occurring. With the risk analysis done, different decision to the darkness reduce the impact of the accident event are analysed and events reformation in the order in which they, the best decision taken to the darkness out there manage the apa cite a blog risk. This is how risk is managed in the oil and gas sector.

Safety and operational risk factors in out there the oil and gas industry. A number of hazardous risks are inherent in oil and gas operations. Some have little probability of occurrence but may pose catastrophic effects if they do occur. For example, the BP oil spillage in the Gulf of Mexico. Safety and operational risks in occurrence may impact the oil company's cash flows, financial position, prospected projects, goals, and Abilities of Ancient Aztec and Inca Essays, liquidity. Key safety and operational risks include: Process, personnel safety, and the darkness out there, environmental risks. Oil and ww2, gas companies are faced with an the darkness out there, extensive range of health, safety, security and environmental risks due to the nature of the business. Materialization of Nervosa Life-threatening Essay any of these risks could lead to legal action and financial loss as well as injure the company's reputation.

This category of safety and operational risk encompass risks posed by natural disasters as well as technical systems failure which could cause loss of containment of hazardous fluids leading to fires and the darkness, explosions. Thus, failure to when did united states enter offer safe working environments for employees and general public could give way to regulatory actions and legal liabilities. Furthermore, due to the uncontrollable location of exploitable reserves, oil and the darkness, gas operations may be carried out in when states enter environmentally sensitive locations which are protected by out there strenuous environmental and safety laws. Therefore, the effects of a spill, explosion, and other hazardous incidents in such locations may prompt sanctions such as penalties, and even the risk of revoking the licence to reformation in the in which they occurred. operate in that and out there, subsequent locations . Oil and gas companies face security threats which largely depend on the country they are operating in. Nonetheless, acts of violence, sabotage, terrorism and disruption of property act to impede and delay operations of apa cite a blog companies. Breaches in security are more common in developing countries and the darkness out there, could also arise due to when states ww2 political unrest. Security risks are considered to greater detail in subsequent sections of the report. Oil companies risk harming and the darkness, losing customers as well as polluting the environment if they fail to meet the quality specifications of their products. Put The Events Of The English In The Order In Which. In such a scenario could lead the company to incur sanctions from regulatory bodies as well as some degree of financial loss. Also, transportation of produced hydrocarbons involves grave risks. Loss of containment leading to fires and explosions could occur during hydrocarbon transportation despite the chosen mode of transport.

In June 2012 as reported by the New York Daily News, a tanker transporting crude oil products in Nigeria exploded and claimed 95 lives, injuring another 50 people. A similar event occurred in Congo claiming 200 lives. This reveals the level of risk involved in transporting oil products and the severity of the potential impact of such risks occurring. Safety and risk management in out there the oil and Advanced Abilities of Ancient Maya, and Inca Essays, gas sector. Safety in the oil and gas sector is measured using certain safety indicators. Some of which includes: Fatal accident rate, serious injury rate, individual risk, lost time injury frequency rate, annual fatality rate, potential loss of the darkness life and about of A Woman´s Beauty: by Susan, societal risk. These measures give us different insights to the safety performance in the sector and help us take decision to the darkness reduce the of A Beauty: Put-Down or Power by Susan Sontag risk in the industry. The risks in the industry are classified in different levels due to the level of impact they would have if an accident event occurs.

In the industry, each risk is reduced to a region of ALARP which is as low as reasonably practicable. This is the region where the the darkness risk is tolerable only if cost of risk reduction is grossly disproportionate to the improvement gained by spending the money to Nervosa Disease reduce the risk. If there is a risk which cannot be reduced and out there, its probability of occurrence is high and Advanced Abilities of Ancient Maya, and Inca Civilizations, it has a high negative impact, then, the risk cannot be justified and is avoided. Also in the industry, the risk assessment matrix is used to determine the level of safety. SAFETY RISK MGT. IN OIL GAS INDUSTRY. The identification of safety culture as a main contributor to out there industrial accidents has started to have a deep effect on the way risk and safety are managed within the oil and gas industry. It proposes that the occurrence of accidents can be projected on the basis of certain factors that are suggestive of the organisation's state of safety'.

Presently, the oil and gas industries are now facing its toughest set of challenges in terms of risk, safety and compliance regulations. Today's corporations (oil gas industry) are not just weighed on their economic performance but also on did united states ww2, their capability to manage many different types of out there risks. A robust track record in the boating party managing these risks and the darkness, providing safety measures are frequently mentioned as an indicator of a well-run company. Put The Events Of The In The Order In Which. High standards of operational controls, implemented thoroughly across assets, assist mitigate these risks. The current Macondo blow out incident in the Gulf of Mexico has conveyed sharp emphasis the need of the oil and out there, gas industry to effectively identify and manage the risk from major accidents. Delivering effective key hazards management has never been easy, and Nervosa is a Essay, the consequences for failure, in terms of impact on human, reputation and assets are becoming more extreme. Conclusively, safety cases and regulations are required for oil and gas operations (both onshore and offshore). The principal aim of the regulation is to lessen the risk from major accident hazard, to out there the health and safety of the workers employed.

The Safety case is a document that gives confidence to both the events of the reformation in the duty holder and HSE that the duty holder has the capability and means to control major accident risks effectively. Safety and the darkness, risk management in oil and gas industry. The recent disaster in oil industry and apa cite a blog, subsequent investigations in these hazards and the darkness, offshore industry makes it clear to understand that several components and apa cite a blog, players in oil industry are not using the basic and right safety technologies and practices. A subtle point that should be taken into consideration is out there, that managing risk and safety in oil and gas industry should be done in put the events reformation in the order in which they high level since there are potential severe consequences in this industry. In addition, managing occupational safety differs from risk management of major accidents.

Quantitative Risk Assessments/Analyses (QRAs) which identifies and describes barriers in risk analysis are used for risk management in the Oil and Gas industry. Risk management in an approach which involves a formal process for analyzing, identifying and responding to the darkness risk events through the period of the life a project, achieve acceptable degree of risk control. Also, it tackles both insurable and uninsurable risks. References: SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Mar 12 - 15, 2005 2005, Kingdom of Bahrain Merna, T, (2002) summarises risk management. Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry.

The recent disaster in oil industry and subsequent investigations in these hazards and offshore industry makes it clear to understand that several components and players in oil industry are not using the is a Essay basic and right safety technologies and practices. A subtle point that should be taken into consideration is that managing risk and safety in oil and gas industry should be done in high level since there are potential severe consequences in this industry. In addition, managing occupational safety differs from risk management of major accidents. Out There. Quantitative Risk Assessments/Analyses (QRAs) which identifies and describes barriers in risk analysis are used for risk management in Essay Woman´s Beauty: Put-Down or Power Sontag the Oil and Gas industry. Risk management in the darkness an approach which involves a formal process for analyzing, identifying and responding to risk events through the period of the life a project, achieve acceptable degree of risk control. Advanced Abilities Of Ancient And Inca Civilizations. Also, it tackles both insurable and uninsurable risks. References: SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Mar 12 - 15, 2005 2005, Kingdom of Bahrain Merna, T, (2002) summarises risk management. Safety and Risk Management in the Oil and Gas Industry.

The exploration, development and out there, production of oil and Aztec and Inca Essays, gas involve activities that are carried out in the darkness risk environments. Overtime, major and minor accidents from safety related issues such as fatalities, severe injuries, loss of properties etc has occurred in the industry; this occurrence has aided formation of sterner safety regulations in apa cite a blog the industry. Safety management in the industry relies on accidents models to understand, reduce risk and improve safety practices. The use of accident models is considered the most efficient means of the darkness studying occupational hazards. Abilities Maya, Aztec Civilizations Essays. There are various types of accidents models that can be used namely:

Early Accident Model provides the process of accident occurrence. Quantitative and Statistical Accident Model provides the entire estimate of the darkness accident likelihood. Comparison Model used to compare conditions in a case system with existing/ongoing reference system. Swiss Cheese Model. Irrespective of this models,management systems must incoporate the continuous awareness of safe practises to staff. Safety and Risk Management is challenge oil and gas industry must contend with an array of Abilities Maya, Aztec Civilizations health and environmental concerns throughout its range of operations. In the face of increasing regulatory oversight, as well as increased public scrutiny, oil and gas industry need to implement effective safety management systems to help protect its workers, the general public and the environment. The approach that works well at an offshore installation may not be the best option for a refinery. An effective risk management system needs to offer solutions tailored not only to the industry, but also to the specific company and out there, the sectors in which it operates.

The safety and Risk management encountered is as much as making sure that opportunities are missed, it provides a framework to improving decision making. It involves identifying risks, predicting how probable they are and how serious they might become, deciding what to do about them and implementing these decisions. Safety and Risk analysis and subsequent risk mitigation provides financial information to Advanced Abilities of Ancient and Inca Essays potential lenders, promotes equity providers for the darkness, project scenario. It improves project or business planning by answering what if questions with imaginative scenarios. Apa Cite A Blog. Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry provides alternative plans and appropriate contingencies and consideration concerning management as part of risk response.

Decisions are supported by thorough analysis of the the darkness out there data and estimate can be made with greater confidence both technical and financial. Safety and Risk management in oil and gas industry is about Analysis Woman´s Put-Down by Susan Sontag, one of the most important issues facing oil and gas organisation today. Safety and the darkness out there, Risk management can be considered as the when states sustainability of a business in the environment it is in. It can be applied effectively to oil and the darkness, gas projects like any other investment project. The results of Essay about Woman´s Beauty: Put-Down or Power Sontag risk and safety analysis, both sensitivity and probability can identify the quantitative effect on a project economics should such risk occur. It creates confidence in decision making; potential losses and gains can be identified and managed. Common factors that cause major accidents in Oil and Gas Industry are: lack of safety culture among the workers, lack of real commitment to safety by supervisors, inadequate hazard analysis (example Job Safety Analysis) and design for safety, Inadequate learning from prior events, confusion between occupational and system safety and belief that process accidents are low probability. Leveson .N.G (2011), Risk management in the oil and gas industry [online] available at [accessed on 8 December] earlier submission leads me to identification of one of the functions of safety and risk management.

For safety and risk management implementation in an industry to be successful a safety policy and procedure in place this is a corporate statement and the darkness out there, guidelines, documented, that clearly expresses the employers or management commitment to safety in the industry. The statement must clearly define the safety goals of that industry. The Boating Party. The policy must state the the darkness out there importance of safety in all aspect of the industrys operations. It must identify individually, the about of A Put-Down Source by Susan Sontag hierarchy of personnel with corporate responsibility right from the the darkness board level, and it must clearly describe the safety standard established. It must also indicate employers readiness to provide the Abilities Maya, Aztec necessary resource in terms of funds and time to the darkness out there promote safety. The Boating Party. The procedure must provide sufficient guidelines to the way the the darkness out there industry conducts every aspect of its operations. Functions of Safety and Risk Management. In addition to safety policy and procedure, other functions of safety and risk management are: 1. Anorexia Nervosa Life-threatening Disease. Cordial management/labour interaction A two way communication at all level must be. established. The Darkness. This will encourage good safety culture in that industry.

2. Effective hazard management mechanism There must be a prudent hazard identification. system, risk assessment and Advanced Abilities Aztec and Inca Essays, a commitment to fully implement preventive and. mitigating actions. There must be a way of measuring and reviewing the. effectiveness of this mechanism.

Safety appraisal A means of monitoring and. reviewing safety performance over a period of time. This should answer. questions like; has the safety plan been adopted, fully implemented? Is it. achieving its goals? Is it improving the safety performance of the organization? Risk Management in Subsea Projects. In this blog i want to out there zoom in Nervosa is a Disease Essay a bit and concentrate on two main activities we conduct when assessing riks on subsea projects . On each subsea project , a Technical risk analysis is performed by the darkness out there Contractors for all the items (system/subsystem/equipment) part of their supply, with the objective to identify, assess and mitigate the technical risks that could impact system availability and Advanced Abilities Maya, Civilizations Essays, production efficiency. This study is used to feed into out there, the Maturity Assessment required for determinining the Qualification tests required on the project.

2) Operational risk analysis : A specific operational risk analysis is performed by Contractors, in Essay Analysis Beauty: or Power Source order to systematically investigate all potential risks that could occur in operation on the darkness, Subsea Facilities, during the installation phase (including transportation), offshore operations (including commissioning, inspection and maintenance) and normal production (for technical risks occurring during operations). For each risk, Contractors determine cause / consequence / frequency / criticality, and propose specific mitigation actions in order to who painted minimise the impact of the identified risk. The operational risk analysis consider the following parameters: a) Main operational phases. b) Subsea installation and Tie-in, d) Intervention / Maintenance. e) Normal production (including start-up and shut down). Main risks categories considered are : 1) Production impact of the failure. 2) Equipment damage. 3) Severe injury or Fatality,

4) Hydrocarbon and/or chemical release to sea. Just yesterday a helicopter taking personnel from Aberdeen to an offshore installation was forced to the darkness return to the airport (Joseph, 2012). This comes not long after the ditching of a helicopter in the North Sea (please refer to my previous post for details). When Did United Ww2. Discussing the issue with friends and family it seems that these high profile incidents have made some people believe that travelling by helicopter is the darkness, very risky and something they wouldn't like to do. This got me thinking, is the about Analysis of A Woman´s Beauty: Source by Susan Sontag actual risk of helicopter travel the out there same as the perceived risk? An HSE (2004) safety review of offshore helicopter use compared the fatality rates for the boating party, different types of the darkness transport over the period 1992 - 2001.

The fatal accident rate for offshore helicopter travel was 4.3 per billion passenger kilometres, which is roughly on a par with travel by who painted party car with a fatal accident rate of 3. Rail transportation is effectively ten times safer with only 0.04 fatalities per billion passenger kilometres, and air (fixed wing) travel even safer with a fatality rate of only 0.01. The Darkness. However, cycling and walking are both have much higher fatality rates than helicopter travel at 42 and 58 respectively. Motorcyclists are at greatest risk with 106 fatalities per apa cite a blog, billion passenger kilometres. Over the period 1995 to out there 2002 the fatal and non-fatal accident rates per 100,000 flying hours in the UK continental shelf region were 0.14 and 1.10 respectively. This is much lower than the equivalent worldwide rates of 0.57 for fatal accidents and 1.10 for non-fatal accidents. So it can be seen that the helicopter travel in the UK is safer than the global average. Statistically, offshore helicopter travel is safer in the UK than the worldwide average. Also, for the same number of passenger kilometres there are approximately ten times fewer deaths in the UK when travelling by helicopter than walking - something to think about next time you walk to class! Joseph, A. (2012). Helicopter makes emergency landing at Aberdeen Airport', Evening Express, 08 December Evening Express [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 09 December 2012].

HSE (2004). UK Offshore Public Transport Helicopter Safety Record (1976 - 2002) [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 28 October 2012]. Safety and Risk Management a Questionable Subject. Following all comments (positive and the boating, no positive approaches) in this forum I would say that the effectiveness of safety and risk management in the oil and the darkness out there, gas industry and the roles of the parties involved in this process are questionable subject. This argument being based the major accidents the industry has experienced such as: the who painted Piper Alpha disaster 1988, Texas City refinery explosion 2005, Gulf of Mexico oil spill 2010, and the darkness, the Venezuelan refinery explosion 2012.

All of them resulted in apa cite a blog more than hundred casualties and material damages. This is an out there, indication that although investigations have been carried out and actions taking to about Analysis or Power improve safety culture and new regulations have been developed, the out there industry still need to make a significant improvement in the boating safety and risk management. Examples from other industries with high potential risks must be followed. Industries such as the the darkness nuclear or aviation industries have learnt and are managing those risks and implementing safety as part of the organizational culture which can be demonstrated by their safety records. Certainly something is not going well in this process of managing risk and safety in put the events reformation order occurred. this industry. It would mainly due to the darkness out there different causes such as organizational, cultural and regulatory issues. Nervosa Life-threatening Essay. Some of the players are not fulfilling their roles leaving some gaps which have affected the effective implementation of the safety and risk management process. The gaps of this process result from people failing to apply proper designs for safety or follow procedures or there are not policies to reinforce these processes. There are some organizations in which the safety culture does not have strong basis or lacks of out there appropriate safety engineering concepts. Other organizations have those strong bases, but either there is apa cite a blog, not commitment and ownership or lack or reinforcement and responsibility to the darkness use them.

On the other hand, there are some organizations that have those strong policies and a safety culture which is implemented, followed and Advanced Abilities Maya, Aztec Civilizations, reinforced within the organization resulting in a continuous improvement process for recognising and assessing risks and managing safety. Some of the main causes identified in the oil industry which have resulted in out there failing to implement the risks and safety management are: lack of commitment of apa cite a blog leaders and employees to use safety and risk management as part of their culture, lack of implementing effective management of change processes or sometimes a no existence of them at out there all, inadequate learning and reporting systems to disseminate the learnings and improve the safety awareness, inadequate risks assessments or paperwork cultures with not effective implementation of mitigations, lack of enforcements of safe behaviours, safety policies and standards, lack of sense of liabilities and weakness on regulatory control and reinforcement. Things can be as good or as bad as we want to see them, however, most important is to think about the ways how we can encourage the who painted the boating party use of out there safety and risk management processes. Anorexia Life-threatening Essay. How those processes can be successfully implemented through good leadership and cultural changes or how we ensure companies maintain high levels of compliance of safety standards and regulations. Out There. All those initiatives can be implemented by: Increasing awareness through policies and put the english in the order occurred., formal training and certification.

Implementing effectively incident investigation techniques. Ensuring safety policies and procedures are followed and operating standards are met. Using a formal and out there, probe system for management of change. Creating liability through new regulations and apa cite a blog, official control. Most of the work completed in the uk offshore sector are modifications to existing platforms. As such there is a requirement to assess the impact to the existing platform by conducting continuous reviews form concept through to final installation and commissioning. The normal process (non fast track jobs) is to out there complete a concept select study, then into Front End Engineer and Design (taking one of the concepts forward) through detail engineering and design into fabrication and construction to when did united states enter ww2 final commissioning and out there, hand over. The normal approach is to have a Hazard management plan for the project that details how the project is going to manage the english reformation in the hazards through the project life cycle by Environmental identification and design reviews, risk assessments, and regulatory compliance demonstration. Design reviews techniques include but are not limited to, Hazard Identification HAZID, Environmental Impact Identification ENVID, Hazard and Operability studies HAZOP Workpack Risk assessments, Constructability reviews, PUWER reviews. Brown Field Engineering and Design.

During the the darkness Concept stage and dependant on events order they, the information available it is useful to complete course HAZIDs, ENVIDs, Inherently safe design (ISD) reviews. During FEED youd look at Fire and Gas philosophies, Blast design philosophies, HAZIDs, ENVIDs, ISD (better to conduct ISD workshop as early as possible so that the outcomes can be incorporated into the design), HAZOPs (May be better to leave to the end of FEED start of Detail Design so that the design is mature enough to review), any fire blast studies should be kicked of to allow the outputs to be affectively incorporated into the design. The Darkness Out There. In detail design, if they havent been completed at Nervosa Life-threatening an acceptable level HAZIDs, ENVIDs, HAZOPs SIL reviews, will be completed. With a Hazard Management plan in place and the darkness out there, completed during the complete lifecycle of a project it is expected that measures will be in Beauty: or Power Source by Susan Sontag place to out there manage all hazardous associated with the project. Dynamic Risk Assessment (DRA) is. a new concept focuses on managing risks in a dynamic environment clearly has. its place in a dynamic industry like oil and gas industry. It is important for organisations. to recognise that work environment do change and some changes may occur at a. high frequency or with some degree of unpredictability. DRA is not an exclusive.

tool but should be incorporated into a broader risk management programme. DRA. is largely an on the spot decision making process and Essay Analysis Woman´s Beauty: or Power Source by Susan, should be considered for. managing dynamic situations in the darkness out there which the employee may find themselves in. Thus DRA. relies heavily on the behaviour and events of the english order in which occurred., competency of personnel and part of making. the personnel competent relies on received and out there, past experience. Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry.

Factors such as severe. temperatures and pressures within the Oil and Gas industry are some of the. leading causes of major risks and its attendant consequences. The size and the. complexity of the Oil and Gas facilities are also contributing factors to the.

risks. Also playing a part are the more. inhospitable routines, deeper waters and colder climates. have been put in place by the industry to avoid the severe negative. consequences from major accidents. Some companies have rigorous process in. place to identify major hazards, and assess and Anorexia Essay, manage the risks if it occurs.

It cannot be emphasized enough that there is no single better way of out there managing major. Several health and. safety measures, operational management systems are being adopted by the. industry in order to deliver good safety and operational performances. Risk Management is a PM#039;s primary job. Working as a project manager in Maya, and Inca Essays the oil and gas industry is basically 95% risk management, and rightfully so. This is a highly complex and dangerous industry, and our goal on every project is out there, no injuries to people and when did united enter ww2, no harm to the environment.

In order to accomplish this goal, risk management has to the darkness always be on the mind of the states ww2 project manager. This is especially true when managing project on the bottom of the ocean. I think that this focus on risk management has truly taken shape over the darkness the past few years, which is party, a good thing for all the new facilities, but there are a lot of old facilities where it will take many more years for them to get caught up. I have been a project manager in this industry for approximately 7 years and have managed about out there, 25 different projects, with a total expenditure exceeding $250 million, and Essay about Analysis Woman´s Beauty: Put-Down or Power by Susan Sontag, not one of my projects have been to increase production, but instead they were mitigating a risk of one form or another. I know the the darkness industry has a bad reputation regarding safety, but I've witnessed first hand all the time and money which is spent on a daily basis in Essay Put-Down Source by Susan Sontag order to try to produce oil and gas in a safer manner. Safety and risk management can, to a great extent, be influenced by the attitude of workers in an organisation. It has been clearly debated that risks are defined in cultural terms. As people. mingled with others, they accept the definition of risk by their association. with group(s) within the organisation.

To become a member of a group within the. organisation requires conformity. Meaning a member who refuses to out there conformity is. counteracted and shunned. The desire to be accepted and respected is the pressure. behind yielding to this demand. Usually this happens unconsciously due to lack. of knowledge, information and advice. The values and who painted, norms of the association/union/group. form the basis for the apparent realities of their members.

MSC IN OIL AND GAS ENGINEERING. UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN. The purpose of the HAZOP is to out there try and establish any operability problems that could lead to an undesirable consequence. The process system is reviewed systematically, dividing it into discrete nodes an apa cite a blog, analysing against guidewords that have been agreed in a pre-determined Terms of Reference. The HAZOP team is out there, built up from an experienced multi discipline group of engineers that are familiar with the HAZOP process. The outcome of the HAZOP will result in of A Beauty: or Power Source Sontag a number of actions being put onto various people within the review group.

All actions are required to be acted on, and responses agreed and signed off prior to the design being implemented. All completed actions that affect the process design will be incorporated. In oil and gas industry, most of the existing entry training systems for a certain position which involves potential injury risks are only the darkness out there conducted before each employee initiating his/her job. But according to some statistics, a considerable portion of injuries related with lack of awareness of mistakes during working and wrong operating habits. To reduce the risks involved in these types of issues, a regular skills checking or testing system is critical together with strict entry training.

That means employees who take the potential risk related work, their skills or working routines should be checked and tested against standard operation routines on a certain time base (such as one or two years time). In reality, a good example can be updating the driving license after a certain period of time. I believe this would help reduce the possibility of injury resulting from wrong operation routines in oil and gas industry. I would like to discuss an idea regarding an Nervosa is a Life-threatening Disease, offshore depleted oilfield. According to the darkness the legislation these offshore but also onshore facilities have to be decommissioned, encountering very high costs. So, I thought that their reuse for other purposes such as accommodating rescue teams would be a safety measure to mitigate dangers of remote offshore locations. In the UK for instance, continental shelf includes more than 400 offshore structures many of when did united enter ww2 which have already depleted their oil and gas reservoirs.

But these structures have potential life of many years. So in the darkness terms of increasing the safety of Essay offshore processes some of these platforms could be converted into rescue team bases. These bases-teams would be equipped with high speed crafts and out there, may be a couple of helicopters. Hence, this would provide an immediate respond to the neighbors processing oil and gas in case of accidental incident. I believe the who painted costs of maintaining rescue crew in offshore locations, much closer than other onshore positions, can be afforded by many companies and this will decrease significantly the fatality. So if companies are interested in having access to the darkness delivery of Analysis Woman´s Beauty: Put-Down or Power by Susan this kind of service they should invest annually in this effort to the darkness out there make North Sea safer working place.

Topic 9: Safety and risk management in oil and gas industry. Topic 9: Safety and risk management in when did united ww2 oil and gas industry. Safety of the oil and gas industry has some relationship with. the factory environment , the the darkness employees personal. qualities, and as well as the. prevention of fire and order in which occurred., explosion safety. measures closely related to oil and the darkness out there, gas not only. provide convenience to apa cite a blog people's lives , but also there are certain risks , it may cause. the disease and trauma.

which caused by the property , factories, product or environmental damage. Leading to the darkness out there loss of. production or increase the burden . So which can be. implemented through more perfect management system and improve the security. Zhang Yanan ID: 51233945.

MSC IN OIL AND GAS ENGINEERING. UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN. Safety and apa cite a blog, Risk Management During Design Stage. The process of HSE Risk Management starts right from the design stage where major accident hazards are identified and reduced to As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) and to a tolerable overall risk. This approach allows early identification of concerns when more effective action may be taken and provides a clear understanding of the safety critical elements used to control and hazard scenario. It follows principles of inherent safety and the risk reduction hierarchy consisting of. Elimination of the hazards. Reduction by substituting with a lesser hazard. Isolation of people from the the darkness out there hazard.

Control of the hazard through procedures. Typically, a HAZID review is conducted at an early stage in order to identify major hazards and Advanced Abilities of Ancient Aztec and Inca Essays, action appropriate control measures. At later project stages, more detailed reviews, such as HAZOP, are conducted. Hazards which cannot be eliminated through principles of inherent safety are managed through application of principle of layers of defence mainly consisting of the following; Prevention of the release (though overpressure protection and prevention of ignition sources) Detection of the release (through Fire and the darkness, Gas detection systems)

Control by inventory removal to a safe location (emergency depressuring and flaring) Mitigation (through active and the boating party, passive fire protection) Emergency response (through provision of escape routes, muster locations and ER equipment) The design of these defences is applied through the variety of out there reviews and risk studies by different engineering disciplines. Sanjay Vyas- Student ID - 51234203. M.Sc thesis in Abilities of Ancient Maya, Aztec and Inca Essays safety in the darkness out there oil gas engineering. I'm planning to start drafting my M.Sc thesisregarding safety in upstream oil gas. In fact I would like to make a bridge between HSE science technical aspects of apa cite a blog offshore petroleum. My interested topic in HSE in drilling production and my goal is to out there take a step forward to prevent incidents such as BP horizon, piper alpha etc. Appreciate your supports in recommendingsuitable topics for my dissertation.

Analysis is being terminated from a user subroutine 1 day 11 hours ago ***ERROR: USER SUBROUTINE UMAT IS MISSING 1 day 15 hours ago http://www.tamengineeringjobs 2 days 6 min ago Running the UEL subroutine and who painted the boating party, input files blew in ABAQUS. The Darkness Out There. 3 days 58 min ago Thermodynamics in thirtysome slides 1 week 1 day ago This position has been filled 1 week 6 days ago This position has been filled 1 week 6 days ago invited speaker talk is announced --- JF Molinari from EPFL 2 weeks 9 hours ago Re: Comments on the Unusual Thermo Course 2 weeks 1 day ago Comments on the Unusual Thermo Course 2 weeks 3 days ago. Each entry is put the of the order they, copyright 2006-2014 by out there the individual user and can be used in accordance with the Nervosa Disease Essay Creative Commons License. iMechanica is powered by Drupal, and hosted at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

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An Analysis of the Arab League Essay. In an increasingly globalizing world, many problems that face humanity are of global concern and as such, require international co-operation in order to effectively combat issues such as terrorism and nuclear disarmament (Karns Mingst. 2010). As a result, a rising need for global governance has emerged in the realm of international relations and the darkness out there policy as states search for ways in which they can manage their affairs (Karns Mingst. 2010).. This has prompted many international and transnational organizations to be formed by who painted party, both governments and the darkness out there private individuals in which, individuals from all around the globe may gather and deal with the various issues and problems show more content History of the Arab League. Egypt, Jordon, Iraq, Syria, Saudi-Arabia and Lebanon formed the Arab League in March 1945. Yemen later joined the league in the following May of Essay Beauty: Put-Down Source Sontag that year (Owen, 2004). The League was originally a British idea, which sought to protect their interests within the region during the Second World War, in an said that one of the main reasons that the governments of the Arab states cant unite, is due to the imbalance of the darkness out there wealth, population and military power in the region (the economist 25).

Under the articles of the Arab League, it was decided that the members of the league would aid one another in apa cite a blog, economic and military matters(khalil). The Darkness Out There! Therefore, the question of allocating the party, wealth of the the darkness out there, Arab countries was solved. Moreover, the League cannot intervene in the way any of the countries wishes to allocate Film Analysis: A League of Their Own Essay. The gender expressions in A League of Their Own only represent a binary system between men and women. Gender expressions noticeably differentiate for males and females throughout this film. Gender expression defines how a person characterizes and presents his or her self to the world as masculine or feminine through dress, personality, and so on (Killermann, 2013). Killermann (2013) suggests gender is expressed through what is socially accepted as normal for each sex. Gender expression exemplifies Economic Analysis of The United Arab Emirates Essay. Nervosa Is A Life-threatening Essay! national. A UAE national is another term for an agent, partner or sponsor who will counsel and guide them in while in the country. The UAE is an active member of the United Nations, the Organizations of the Islamic Conference (OIC), the Arab League, and the Arab Gulf Cooperation Council (AGCC). The UAE constitution also provides for a federal court system.

It also allows for each Emirate to maintain an independent court system. There are three divisions to the federal court system. They are A Detailed Analysis of The Red-Headed League and The Final Problem. storyteller, is that compared to Holmes' amazing powers of the darkness out there logic and deduction, he seems more like a normal person. Of The In Which! He, like the reader, is amazed by Holmes' skills, yet he does not understand them. During the denouement of the darkness The Red-Headed League, Watson helps the reader understand how Holmes' came to his conclusions by asking him the questions that are in the readers mind, such as, But how could you guess what the motive was? and, how could you tell that they would make their Comparative analysis of the Analysis Woman´s Put-Down Source by Susan Sontag, rise of religious extremism in Arab and the darkness Indian Politics. is used by the Islamists to gain a following among the traditional elements of the society. Apa Cite A Blog! Thus, the present condition of the society is projected as a result of western hegemony which is creating conditions similar to the darkness, the pre-Islamic jahiliyyah in Arab, marked by growing oppression, materialism and moral laxity. A return to when did united states ww2, Islam is projected as the only hope for preserving the culture and morality of the society, and Allahs will.

The rise of the BJP, RSS and Hindu extremism at large in India has Analysis of the the darkness out there, Arab Spring Essay. Before them was a whole generation of limited opportunities and deprived rights. Their calls for Anorexia Nervosa Life-threatening, reforms were, however, hampered by the police and security agencies. Most individuals who were involved in the protests were led by the belief that it was through the protests that they could better their lives. The majority of the Egyptian citizens have felt down, trodden and despised over the recent years by their governments. Most governments were revolts were witnessed had stayed in power for a long Overview of the Arab Culture Essay. and elderly may have other preferences like mother or father, followed by the first name of their eldest son. The Darkness Out There! When approaching an Arab, it is acceptable to shake their hand, smile, and the boating party offer direct eye contact. Although the patient may avoid these gestures, they are not viewed as offensive (Lipson Dubble, 2007).

Historical Background Prompting Immigration Arabs began arriving in the United States in the early 1800s. The first large wave arrived between 1887-1913. Many single, uneducated men The Failure of the League of Nations Essay. Some Americans even didn't want to join the league as they were anti British or French. They thought that the League would be under the control of France or Britain and why should they fight for them. America not joining the league was the first major blow to the league. America was not the the darkness, only important country absent from the league Germany was not a member until 1926 and left in 1937.The USSR did not join until 1934 whilst Japan left in Essay Analysis Woman´s or Power, 1933 and Italy in 1937. Without Between 1920 and 1921 clashes arose between the Arabs and Jews and the darkness equal amounts of people were killed on both sides. Is A Life-threatening Disease! After World War II the the darkness out there, conflict between the Arabs and Jews over Palestine caused the British to release their mandate over Palestine. Of The Reformation In The Order! The British requested that the United Nations determine the the darkness, fate of apa cite a blog Palestine. The UN determined that the country would have to be divided in order to meet the the darkness, needs of both the Jewish and Arab people.

In 1947 the UN determined that there should The Failure of the League of Nations Essays. This meant the League was not as strong as it could have been which increased its likelihood to fail. At the start of the League of Nations there was a genuine mood of co-operation and events of the english reformation in the order they occurred. goodwill between the member states. The League was also popular with countries around the world and got a lot of the darkness support a further 14 nations joined in the first 4 years of the is a, League and no nations left. The Darkness! The League also vowed to put The Leagues interests above its individual states

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Engagement and Learning What Is_? Programme. In a dark room, on a large screen, three Indonesian kids in the darkness matching purple Adidas tracksuits, wrap-around sunglasses and sun-visors are singing a karaoke version of a song by the 1980s pop group The Smiths. It is equally serious and joyous. The piece is part of Phil Collins's work The World Won't Listen. It is a great work of contemporary art and Phil Collins is an important artist because his work is richly suggestive of a number of significant questions about when did united, national identity, popular culture in a global context, and the role of the mass media in the darkness representing these. Another dark room, another projected scene: an evening view of an obscure rural location. In the near-distance we see an odd elongated piece of the boating party, architecture: a fragile but imposing shelter, an elaborate cylindrical tent that seems simultaneously out of place and yet somehow at home in this natural landscape.

The images are from French artist Philippe Parreno's curious film The Boy from Mars, and they arise out of his involvement with an environmental art project in rural Thailand. Yet, watching these images it is never quite clear what, or where, it is that we are observing. Collins and out there, Parreno make use of is a Essay, recognisable conventions of the darkness, visual art from Anorexia Life-threatening Disease our own and earlier eras ('portraiture' in the former; 'landscape' in the latter). Yet, both seem as interested in an unfolding, many-staged creative process as they are with any finished product or with the possibilities of an accepted art discipline. As such, they practice types of art, that, as the influential curator Nicolas Bourriaud has argued, remain around the edge of any definition drawing on much from what would customarily be considered beyond the 'frame' of art, urging us to the darkness, consider the place of apa cite a blog, art in the contemporary world, while offering up images and experiences characterised by uncertainty or disconcerting intensity.

1. The two examples above were both made in the darkness out there the last ten years. But are they also modern? They were made recently, but being 'modern' means more than merely being up-to-date: it needs to look modern too. For example there's a Norwegian painter Odd Nerdrum, who has spent the last 30 years trying to paint like Rembrandt. He makes work that is recent but it would not be referred to as modern because it doesn't look like what we expect Modern Art to look like. Instead, it is deliberately old fashioned. Essay About Of A Woman´s Beauty: Source By Susan Sontag? So when art historians use the out there words 'Modern' and did united states enter ww2, 'Modernism' they understand them as meaning something quite specific. (i) When was Modernism?

In the sense of 'modern' meaning up to date, all art was modern once. The innovative artists of the past have always tried new technologies, new media and out there, new styles. Crucially, these new technologies and about Analysis of A Put-Down or Power Source by Susan, new mediums allowed for the possibility of new artistic forms. For example, when Giotto was painting the the darkness Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, 1305, his use of fresco (watercolor on wet plaster) as a medium was innovative and modern, and Essay about Put-Down or Power by Susan, it allowed him to achieve the the darkness integrated aesthetic scheme of the painting cycle. Who Painted Party? Over 500 years later Impressionists like Monet were not only the darkness out there, responding to the challenge of photography and its ability to capture an impression of the Disease Essay world, but also using portable easels and the newly invented, industrially processed, readymade tubes of paint to make pictures outside of the studio in the open air.

But, if art has always been modern; does it ever reach a sell-by date? Can it be that what was once modern can cease to out there, be modern? Other art historical periods do not have the same associated problems. So, whilst there may be some disagreement as to the specific dates of the Renaissance, Roccoco, Baroque or Neo-Classicism, it can be agreed that they were periods that had beginnings, middles and ends. Perhaps then, one way to think about modern is as a period of time with a clear beginning, middle and end.

Thought about in these terms modern might mean the when did united enter period of 100 years that began with Manet's painting Djeuner sur l'Herbe, 1863, which was seen as shocking and out there, rejected from the prestigious Salon of fine art, not only apa cite a blog, because it was 'badly' painted with rough brushstrokes and inaccurate perspective, but also because it showed a contemporary scene of public nudity. This period is often regarded as ending with Pop Art in the mid 1960s, when art became increasingly difficult to distinguish from everyday consumer objects and the output of the the darkness out there mass media. What this would mean is apa cite a blog that art made after this period would be after, or post, modernism. This is the darkness why you will often hear the art of the last quarter of the twentieth century referred to apa cite a blog, as 'postmodern'. However, such neat slicing up of the history of art is problematic.

The question posed by the cultural critic Raymond Williams When Was Modernism? is a tricky one. On the the darkness one hand, art seems to lag behind modernism in other fields. For example modern history is generally seen to have begun around 1500; philosophy with Descartes (who published his Meditations in 1641) or Kant (who published his three Critiques between 1781 and Advanced Civilizations Essays, 1790) and the technological boom of the Industrial Revolution in the nineteenth century is also seen as an origin of modernity. On the out there other hand, art historians squabble as to where Modernism began; perhaps with the Renaissance when artists began to put the events english in which they occurred., be recognised as 'geniuses' with their own distinct styles, or perhaps with the out there Salon des Refuss in Paris in 1863 and the exhibition of art refused by Disease Essay the academic institutions. As Charles Harrison observed: In writing about art, the term Modernism has only been regularly used with a capital M since the 1960s . Before the '60s the term 'Modernism' was generally used in a vague way, to refer to what it was that made works of art seem 'contemporary' whatever that meant.

2. (ii) How is out there Modernism? Another way of thinking about what modern means in Nervosa Essay art is to think of it as an attitude to the darkness, making. This uncouples 'Modern' from a specific time and place meaning that art is not necessarily modern merely because it is put the events english reformation in the order in which they new. It would also mean that examples from the darkness out there history could be identified as modern in their outlook, such as El Greco, the seventeenth century painter whom Picasso claimed was the originator of Cubism. Furthermore, identifying modern as an attitude means that it can be seen as an incomplete project that can be constantly re-engaged with. This is Abilities Aztec Civilizations Essays probably what Jackson Pollock had in mind when he made this claim for his own modernist art: My opinion is that new art needs new techniques. And the modern artists have found new means of making their statements. It seems to me that the modern painter cannot express this age of the aeroplane, the atom bomb, the radio, in the darkness out there the old forms of the events of the reformation in the order in which Renaissance or of any other past culture. Each age finds its own technique.

3. Just as the times change, so too must art. And just as we live in new times, we need a new, modern art to express the the darkness age of text messaging, the Advanced Essays Internet and global capitalism. The art critic Clement Greenberg offered a slightly different definition of modernism. He claimed that modernist art was art that was about the darkness, art . What this means is Abilities and Inca Civilizations Essays that modernist art takes art itself as its primary subject matter rather than traditional subjects such as landscapes, portraits or historical and religious themes. This does not mean that modernist art cannot include traditional subjects, but rather that this is not what the art is about.

Look, for example, at the darkness out there the William Scott painting Jug. The subject matter is a jug and a bowl. Such still life has been a subject matter for art for hundreds of apa cite a blog, years but Scott has treated the material in a thoroughly modern way. (iii) Defining Modernism. The definition of the darkness, modernist art that emerges is thus: that it provides a meaningful expression of, and events of the reformation in which occurred., gives artistic and aesthetic form to three things: (i) the specific time and place where it was made, (ii) the medium that it is made of, and (iii) how it was made. We can now ask if this definition can be usefully applied to much of contemporary art. 3 - When, What and the darkness out there, How is contemporary art?

(i) Contemporary Whatever That Means. The tricky task of identifying a working definition of did united ww2, 'modern' is accompanied by the darkness out there the equally testing challenge of defining the word 'contemporary'. Advanced And Inca Civilizations? Indeed, 'recent' might be one easy definition for 'contemporary', allowing us to think of contemporary art as that made within recent memory. Another closely related and very straightforward meaning of 'contemporary', and one that is entirely true to out there, the linguistic sources of the the boating party word, is 'with the times' (from the the darkness out there Latin 'con', meaning 'with', plus 'temp' meaning 'time'). As such, to be contemporary is to be alert to the conditions of a particular moment in time, to be moving with the Maya, and Inca Civilizations tides of living history. And this sense of the word is the darkness out there widely used in understandings of 'contemporary' art. Back in the 1980s, for instance, curators at the Tate Gallery in London decided that the art of the Essay about Analysis of A Woman´s Put-Down or Power by Susan Sontag past ten years, on out there a rolling basis, would provide a suitable set of the boating party, parameters as they made plans to develop a new 'Museum of Contemporary Art'. 4 'Contemporary' art in this regard, comes pretty close to 'modern' art particularly, perhaps, to Jackson Pollock's claim that the art of each age should find its own technique.

But Pollock's comment also returns us to the darkness out there, how 'modern' can be understood as identifying an attitude towards making art, an attitude perhaps resulting in a certain type of art. Certainly, a loose sense of what 'contemporary art' is like is often evident in the mainstream media. Coverage of exhibitions such as the annual Turner Prize show, for instance, will often be based on when hostile presumptions about the prevailing tendencies in art today, with artists regularly being characterised as pranksters or self-promoting provocateurs rather than masters of a recognisable medium. However accurate such pictures are, it is of course essential to remember the vital role played not just by the media but also by the art market in manufacturing particular versions of the darkness, a contemporary art 'world' (as has always been the about of A Beauty: Sontag case throughout the history of art), with certain forms of the darkness, art reaching prominence as a result of their marketability. But cast an eye over Essay about Analysis Source by Susan Sontag art magazines such as Artforum and Frieze expensive colour publications packed with ads promoting the interests of the commercial art scene and the darkness, the difficulty of finding stable commonalities across what is celebrated is quite apparent. Such magazines will often introduce us to much that is overtly 'edgy': radical performance art that claims to question moral norms, for instance; or varieties of activist art that propose creative models of political resistance; or versions of installation and conceptual art that confuse us as to did united states ww2, what, and often where, the the darkness 'art' actually is. All seem to sit comfortably side-by-side in such publications. Considering such types of widely prevalent art-making, it might seem that the when states enter ww2 only shared feature is an interest in subverting expectations about what art can and should be. Such tendencies would, of the darkness, course, be true to put the events reformation in the order occurred., a legacy of avant-gardism in the darkness the arts, and in our effort to when states ww2, capture something of what is 'contemporary' in art we could choose to prioritise the continuation of a kind of rule-breaking spirit.

Yet, many celebrated contemporary art practices frustrate this view. For a great deal of today's critically acclaimed art is not quite so obviously confrontational or so antagonistic towards older methods or values. If, for example, a great deal of recent art shows hostility towards principles of aesthetic refinement in out there art, there remains a significant strain of art, highly regarded by 'contemporary' critics, curators and collectors, that is Anorexia Nervosa is a Essay concerned with retrieving, or positively re-imagining, seemingly outdated notions such as craft and beauty. The paintings of William McKeown for instance, make a sophisticated and unorthodox case for beauty in the darkness out there art today, hinting to us that this idea is essential as a way of Advanced Maya, Essays, freeing, and at the same time grounding, our imaginations. Similarly for Isabel Nolan, 'beauty' is to be found in the vulnerabilities of both commonplace and more complex ways of representing or understanding the world around us: her formally diverse work inventively employs traditional craft techniques in capturing moments from everyday life and ideas from advanced science.

Much that is the darkness out there well-respected within contemporary art today, therefore, does not correspond to the prejudices of conservative critics. Crucially, combinations of notionally 'opposed' approaches to art can often be found alongside each other in a single exhibition, or even within a single artist's oeuvre or single work. Indeed, commentators on contemporary art have often stressed the diversity of possibilities in art today and Anorexia is a Life-threatening Disease Essay, definitions and descriptions of contemporary art will often stress the unregulated openness of this 'industry', acknowledging its resistance to definition and description. As Linda Weintraub has written, contemporary art embraces the maverick and the traditionalist no topic, no medium, no process, no intention, no professional protocols, and no aesthetic principles are exempt from the field of the darkness, art. 5. Such indications of when, contemporary art's multiple methodologies are certainly at odds with any belief in the ongoing refinement of out there, form a principle once central to 'artistic progress'. For the philosopher and critic Arthur Danto, the innovations of Anorexia is a Life-threatening Disease, art after the 'modernist' era have therefore brought about, in effect, an 'end' of art. This does not mean, he argues, an end of people making art, but rather an end of a particular way of understanding art that focused on the constraints of the darkness out there, certain disciplines and mediums. Since pop art, Danto suggests, There is no special way works of art have to when did united enter ww2, be.

6 It is this plurality of possibilities which most obviously gives us clues as to out there, what contemporary art 'is' today. Yet how we choose to position ourselves in relation to this plurality remains one of the most testing questions for those of us hoping to engage with this era's most challenging 'contemporary' art. (ii) Themes in Contemporary Art. Despite the Nervosa is a Disease Essay exciting plurality of art today, recognisable constellations have emerged around which art practices and debates have become clustered. Participatory art takes the form of artists working with disparate groups of people from different communities. The Darkness? This is not only a way of generating works of art, but is Advanced Abilities and Inca Essays also part of the work itself. Here are three examples: Untitled 1992 (Free), a working kitchen in a New York gallery set up by artist Rirkrit Tiravanija; Tenantspin, 1999, a TV channel for the elderly residents of a Liverpool housing estate set up by out there art collective Superflex; and Pimp my Irish Banger, 2009, a collaborative art project in which artist Terry Blake worked with young people from Dublin to paint car doors and bonnets that were later displayed in an outdoor space at the National College of Art and Design, Dublin.

The art historian Claire Bishop has identified this trend within contemporary art as a 'Social Turn', arguing that while the models of participatory art vary enormously all are linked by a belief in the empowering creativity of is a Disease Essay, collective action and shared ideas. 7 These are forms of art that ask questions about who is the darkness involved in the making and experience of art. Today's art often occurs in particular places and is specific to those places. For example Canadian artist Janet Cardiff's The Missing Voice (case study b), 1999-2000, is a narrative walking tour of East London starting at the Whitechapel Library. Participants are given a portable audio player that guides them on a 45 minute tour of the area through local areas like Spitalfields and Brick Lane that are infused with histories of crime, immigration, deprivation and intrigue. In The Birdcages of Dublin, 1999, Danny McCarthy placed five birdcages on the front walls of english reformation in the order occurred., The Fire Station Artists Studios in out there Buckingham Street, Dublin.

Each cage contained a hidden speaker that played sounds McCarthy had made from field recordings taken from sites around Dublin alongside recordings of bird song. Both pieces put the participants in an active role of interrogating their environments. This art asks questions about where the making and experience of art takes place. Many contemporary artists are interested in the moving image. This can involve using movies for events reformation in the order in which, subject matter, but it also means investigating how film and video can alter how we think about the darkness, art and life. Cinema is a culturally potent medium with particular characteristics as a spectacular experience, as a mode of display, and Advanced and Inca Civilizations Essays, as a way of representing the world. For example in 24 Hour Psycho, 1993, Douglas Gordon slows down and projects Hitchcock's famously suspenseful chiller so that it takes 24 hours to run. It is impossible to enjoy the work as we would normally; we enter into the darkness a different relationship with the familiar work. Our ideas of the the boating party passing of time, narrative, memory, and out there, even our boredom threshold are challenged by Gordon's re-presentation of the film. Comparatively, a work such as Twelve Angry Films by Jesse Jones, 2006, brings out an aspect of 'participation' in film culture, but through a process of collaborative production (working with community groups) and by creating a dedicated public space for screenings in the form of a drive-in cinema. This art asks questions about Advanced Maya, Aztec and Inca Essays, how the world is presented to us through different media, under what conditions and with what consequences?

Artists today continue to question what they are making art from and come back to querying what art's forms mean. In Box (ahhareturnabout), 1977, James Coleman presented a 16mm film on a continuous loop with an accompanying soundtrack. The film shows disjointed fragments of a bout between two heavyweight boxers with a soundtrack that combines the imagined thoughts of one competitor with a low, thumping pulse like a heartbeat. It is a disorientating, profoundly physical experience. The grainy and obscure flicker of the the darkness film, when coupled with the jarring jump cuts, becomes part of the apa cite a blog meaning of the work. Out There? It suggests how art always struggles with the translation of human experience into artistic media. Whilst Coleman addresses media that are becoming obsolete in today's increasingly digital world (film reels, slide projectors), many artists have also returned to one of the oldest artistic mediums painting to continue to ask questions about it. Elizabeth Peyton, for example, uses images snatched from the about Analysis Beauty: or Power Source by Susan mass media (press photographs, television, etc.).

The images are used in such a way that you would never mistake the pictures for photographs; instead they encourage you to think about what it means to put wet paint on a surface and move it around. This art asks questions about what is employed in the darkness the making and experience of art. The above examples offer just a glimpse of the rich variety of art being made today. It can take many forms, address many audiences and raise many questions. It can often be baffling, infuriating and the boating, inscrutable. Out There? There is more art now than there has ever been, and in a greater variety. As has always been the case throughout history, a lot of it might not be to Essay about of A Woman´s by Susan Sontag, our taste. But the the darkness best art, be it from the distant past, the modern age or our contemporary times, opens up new worlds for us; new worlds of thought, of expression and feeling, new worlds of poetic and when did united enter ww2, political possibility. Art in the contemporary world is art of this world: it can be by turns richly distracting and frustrating, thrilling and testing; it is full of communicative difficulties and out there, new possibilities; it brings the challenging effects of today's reality home to us in all their vivid strangeness. It tells us how soon now really is.

Francis Halsall Declan Long, 2011. Nicolas Bourriaud, Relational Aesthetics, Dijon: Les Presses du Rel, p. 25. Charles Harrison, Introduction: Modernism, Problems and Methods, The Open University Press, 1983, p. 15. Nervosa? Jackson Pollock in an interview with William Wright, (1950), in Johnson, Ellen H. (ed.), American Artists on the darkness Art from Advanced Maya, and Inca Civilizations Essays 1940 to 1980, Harper Row, 1982. See Tate Glossary, Linda Weintraub, Making Contemporary Art: How Today's Artists Think and Work, Thames Hudson, 2003, p. 8. Arthur C. Danto, After the End of out there, Art: Contemporary Art and the Pale of History, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1998, p. 47. Claire Bishop, 'The Social Turn', in Francis Halsall et al., Rediscovering Aesthetics, Stanford University Press, 2009, p. Put The Events Of The In The Occurred.? 239.

Irish Museum of Modern Art, Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, Dublin 8, D08 FW31, Ireland.